We aim to keep the patient motionless, however, the visualisation devices such as the endoscope or microscope plus any additional surgical tools are moved. Hence once a static overlay is obtained, tracking is necessary for dynamic updates. We currently use the Northern Digital (NDI) Vicra optical tracking device. The static accuracy of the device is around 0.5mm RMS. This implies that the overlay error in the long run will get worse as tracking errors cumulate. The images below show an overlay whilst using a rigid endoscope. The accumulated overlay error is within 2-3mm after a number of motions within the working volume.
Radially undistorted sinus endoscope images through cross-fading in ARView: left= real image; middle= augmented image; right=virtual image from CT data of a human skull model.
| Real image
| Augmented image
| Virtual image
Dr. Rudy Lapeer and Dr. Min Si Chen.