Important notice: data is put on this web site to facilitate the evaluation of global biogeochemical models only. Please refer to the original publications when using these data. Please report any problems to c.lequere(at) We do not take responsability for potential errors found in these datasets. Most files are in netcdf format.

OpenDAP server


Atmospheric data


Biogeochemical cycles


Temperature,salinity and oxygen for 1970: , and 1992. Helm, K. P., N. L. Bindoff, and J. A. Church (2011), Observed decreases in oxygen content of the global ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23602, doi:10.1029/2011GL049513.

Total carbon and alkalinity, Key et al. (2004), Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 18, GB4031. See also the CDIAC GLODAP website

Anthropogenic carbon , Sabine et al. (2004), Science 305, 367-371.

pCO2, Bakker et al. (2013) SOCAT v2.

pCO2 and CO2 flux, Takahashi et al. (2009), Deep Sea Res. 56, 554-577.

CH4 (gridded (embargoed), raw data at MEMENTO), Buitenhuis, Suntharalingam and Le Quéré (in preparation).

CFC11CFC12, and CCl4 climatologies, time varying CCl4, Suntharalingam et al. 2019,doi:10.1029/2018GL080612.

CFC11 and CFC12, Willey et al. (2004) doi:10.1029/2003GL018816.

N-cycle data: N2O (gridded, raw data at MEMENTO), deltapN2O (gridded, raw data at MEMENTO), nitrification rate (rawgridded), NH4 (gridded), Buitenhuis, Suntharalingam and Le Quéré (2018).

The World Ocean Atlas 2009 is available and netCDF files containing annual ,seasonal or monthly means of oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, temperature and salinity can be directly downloaded.

Dissolved Fe, database of (Tagliabue et al 2012, Biogeosciences). The original database will soon be published on the GEOTRACES web-site

Dissolved Organic Carbon, data from D. Hansell and E. Peltzer compiled by J. Dunne. For units and full data sources see here.

Chlorophyll a, merged SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS from ESA OCCCI, binned to 1 degree, dailymonthly, and monthly climatologyDocumentation.

SeaWiFS only Chlmonthly and monthly climatology.

Carbon export (interpolated), Schlitzer (2004), J. of Oceanography, 60, 53-62.

primary production Excel filegridded NetCDF, Buitenhuis, Hashioka and Le Quéré (2013) Global Biogeochem. Cycles 27, 847-858, doi:10.1002/gbc.20074.

Biomass and abundances


MAREDAT special issue in Earth System Science Data (data also available from PANGAEA):

Press release illustrated (2.2 Mb)Text only.


Bacteria: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Coccolithophores:  raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Diatoms: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Diazotrophs: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Euthecosomata (calcifying pteropods): raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)BGC paper

Foraminifers: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Macrozooplankton: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Mesozooplankton: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Microzooplankton: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD special issue introduction and summary

Phaeocystis:  raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Picophytoplankton: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Pteropods: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper

Phytoplankton accessory pigments: raw data (Excel)gridded (NetCDF, WOA grid)ESSD paper


Technical corner with programs and scripts

Mesozooplankton Data from: Buitenhuis et al. (2006) Biogeochemical fluxes through mesozooplankton. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB2003. Based on (O'Brien et al. 2002, Finenko et al. 2003, Piontkovski and Landry 2003, Beaugrand et al. 2003). Includes CPR data not included in MAREDAT

Phytoplankton seasonal distribution See Alvain S., C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel. Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: a satellite view (2008) Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, GB3001.

Growth rates and other data







  • Data from:Buitenhuis, E.T., P. Kihiko (subm.) Laboratory experiments on temperature-light interactions in phytoplankton physiology and its effects on phytoplankton distribution in a global biogeochemistry model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2020GB006591
  • growth rates of Chlorella stigmatophora



Links to external data sources




U.Washington Sea ice thickness, sea ice concentration, snow thickness

de Boyer Montégut et al. Mixed layer depth

See also model physical forcing, dust forcing and initialisation of biology