Biography

David Livermore gained his BSc in 1978 and his PhD in 1983. He worked at the London Hospital Medical College from 1980 until 1997, when he joined the Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England), becoming Director of its Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory in 1998. In October 2011, he became Professor of Medical Microbiology at UEA, but with 30% of this time supplied back to Public Health England as its Lead on Antibiotic Resistance.

Prof Livermore has broad interests on the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and its relationship to antibiotic prescribing. Beta-Lactamases are a particular interest, with recent work on the proliferation of ‘CTX-M’ extended-spectrum enzymes and carbapenemases, particularly NDM-1, which received extensive media coverage in 2010.

He sits on the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy working parties on resistance surveillance, multi-resistant pathogens and susceptibility testing and its Antibiotic Action advisory board, also on the Society for General Microbiology working group on sexually transmitted infections. He is also a member of the UK Government’s Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections Advisory Committee and has contributed extensively to the Chief Medical Offer for England’s  Annual Report for 2011. He publishes and speaks widely on resistance and has edited for several journals including Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Journal of Medical Microbiology and, currently, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents.

Outside of work, he is a keen walker, has walked the perimeter of Norfolk and almost half the English Coastline.

 

Career History

9/78 to 6/80         QC Microbiology Devt., Wellcome Foundation, Dartford, Kent

 

6/80 to 8/97         Department of Medical Microbiology, London Hospital Medical College

                            6/80-11/83    Research Assistant

                            11/83-2/87    Postdoctoral Fellow (Wellcome Trust)

                            11/85-5/86    Secondment, Lecturer, University of Hong Kong

                            2/87-12/94    Lecturer in Medical Microbiology

                            12/94-8/97    Senior Lecturer in Medical Microbiology

                              9/97-9/00    Hon Senior Lecturer

 

   9/98-10/11        Public Health England (formerly HPA), Microbiology Services

                              9/97-9/98   Head, Antibiotic Reference Unit, Colindale

                              9/98-date   Director, Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring & Reference  

                                                 Laboratory, Colindale

 

    10/11-date       Professor of Medical Microbiology, University of East Anglia (primary employer, `70% time, with 30% of this subcontracted to Public Health England )

                              Lead on Antibiotic Resistance, Public Health England Microbiology Services, Colindale

                              Visiting Professor, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

                              Honorary Professor of Medical Microbiology, Queen Mary University, London

                              Consultant on Antibiotic Resistance – advisory work for numerous diagnostic and pharmaceutical companies and potential investors

 

Academic Background

1978   BSc, (1st. Class Hons) Microbiology, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.

1983   PhD, Medical Microbiology, University of London. Thesis: Resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ?-lactam antibiotics.

2003   State-Registered Clinical Scientist, Health Professions Council (CS1358).

All Publications

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Grundmann, H., Glasner, C., Albiger, B., Aanensen, D. M., Tomlinson, C. T., Andrasević, A. T., Cantón, R., Carmeli, Y., Friedrich, A. W., Giske, C. G., Glupczynski, Y., Gniadkowski, M., Livermore, D. M., Nordmann, P., Poirel, L., Rossolini, G. M., Seifert, H., Vatopoulos, A., Walsh, T., Woodford, N., Monnet, D. L.

(2017)

Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in the European survey of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE): a prospective, multinational study,

in The Lancet Infectious Diseases

17

(2)

pp. 153–163

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Cantón, R., Livermore, D. M., Morosini, M. I., Díaz-Regañón, J., Rossolini, G. M.

(2017)

Etest® versus broth microdilution for ceftaroline MIC determination with Staphylococcus aureus: results from PREMIUM, a European multicentre study,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

72

(2)

pp. 431-436

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Schmidt, K., Mwaigwisya, S., Crossman, L. C., Doumith, M., Munroe, D., Pires, C., Khan, A. M., Woodford, N., Saunders, N. J., Wain, J., O'Grady, J., Livermore, D. M.

(2017)

Identification of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance directly from clinical urines by nanopore-based metagenomic sequencing,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

72

(1)

pp. 104-114

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Livermore, D. M., Mushtaq, S., Warner, M., Vickers, A., Woodford, N.

(2017)

In vitro activity of cefepime/zidebactam (WCK 5222) against Gram-negative bacteria,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

72

(5)

pp. 1373-1385

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Findlay, J., Hopkins, K. L., Loy, R., Doumith, M., Meunier, D., Hill, R., Pike, R., Mustafa, N., Livermore, D. M., Woodford, N.

(2017)

OXA-48-like carbapenemases in the UK: an analysis of isolates and cases from 2007 to 2014,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

72

(5)

pp. 1340-1349

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Mushtaq, S., Vickers, A., Woodford, N., Livermore, D. M.

(2017)

WCK 4234, a novel diazabicyclooctane potentiating carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter with class A, C and D β-lactamases,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

72

(6)

pp. 1688-1695

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Carter, D., Charlett, A., Conti, S., Robotham, J. V., Johnson, A. P., Livermore, D. M., Fowler, T., Sharland, M., Hopkins, S., Woodford, N., Burgess, P., Dobra, S.

(2017)

A Risk Assessment of Antibiotic Pan-Drug-Resistance in the UK: Bayesian Analysis of an Expert Elicitation Study,

in Journal of Antibiotics

6

(1)

article no. 9

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Livermore, D. M., Mushtaq, S., Meunier, D., Hopkins, K. L., Hill, R., Adkin, R., Chaudhry, A., Pike, R., Staves, P., Woodford, N.

(2017)

Activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against surveillance and ‘problem’ Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-fermenters from the British Isles,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

article no. dkx136

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Doumith, M., Findlay, J., Hirani, H., Hopkins, K., Livermore, D., Dodgson, A., Woodford, N.

(2017)

Major role of pKpQIL-like plasmids in the early dissemination of KPC-type carbapenemases in the UK,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

article no. dkx141

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Wilson, A., Livermore, D., Otter, J., Warren, R., Jenks, P., Enoch, D., Newsholme, W., Oppenheim, B., Leanord, A., McNulty, C., Tanner, G., Bennett, S., Cann, M., Bostock, J., Collins, E., Peckitt, S., Ritchie, L., Fry, C., Hawkey, P.

(2016)

Prevention and control of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: recommendations from a Joint Working Party,

in Journal of Hospital Infection

92

(Supplement 1)

pp. S1–S44

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Livermore, D. M., Warner, M., Mushtaq, S., Woodford, N.

(2016)

Interactions of OP0595, a novel triple-action diazabicyclooctane, with β-lactams against OP0595-resistant Enterobacteriaceae mutants,

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

60

(1)

pp. 554-560

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Findlay, J., Hopkins, K. L., Doumith, M., Meunier, D., Wiuff, C., Hill, R., Pike, R., Loy, R., Mustafa, N., Livermore, D. M., Woodford, N.

(2016)

KPC enzymes in the UK: an analysis of the first 160 cases outside the North-West region,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

71

(5)

pp. 1199-1206

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Livermore, D. M., Mushtaq, S., Warner, M., Woodford, N.

(2016)

In-vitro activity of eravacycline against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii,

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

60

(6)

pp. 3840-3844

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Day, M., Doumith, M., Abernethy, J., Hope, R., Reynolds, R., Wain, J., Livermore, D., Woodford, N.

(2016)

The population structure of Escherichia coli causing bacteraemia in the UK and Ireland between 2001 and 2010,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

71

(8)

pp. 2139-2142

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Doumith, M., Mushtaq, S., Livermore, D., Woodford, N.

(2016)

New insights into the regulatory pathways associated with the activation of the stringent response in bacterial resistance to the PBP2-targeted antibiotics, mecillinam and OP0595/RG6080,

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

71

(10)

pp. 2810-2814

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Benedetti, P., Sefton, A. M., Menegozzo, M., Guerriero, C., Bordignon, G., Da Rin, G., Romualdi, C., Pellizzer, G., Livermore, D. M.

(2016)

Antimicrobial use and microbiological testing in district general hospital ICUs of the Veneto region of north-east Italy,

in European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

35

(10)

pp. 1627–1638

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Sheppard, C., Fry, N. K., Mushtaq, S., Woodford, N., Reynolds, R., Janes, R., Pike, R., Hill, R., Kimuli, M., Staves, P., Doumith, M., Harrison, T., Livermore, D. M.

(2016)

Rise of multidrug-resistant non-vaccine serotype 15A Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United Kingdom, 2001 to 2014,

in Eurosurveillance

21

(50)

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Doumith, M., Day, M., Ciesielczuk, H., Hope, R., Underwood, A., Reynolds, R., Wain, J., Livermore, D. M., Woodford, N.

(2015)

Rapid identification of major Escherichia coli sequence types causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections,

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology

53

(1)

pp. 160-166

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Morinaka, A., Tsutsumi, Y., Yamada, M., Suzuki, K., Watanabe, T., Ida, T., Furuuchi, T., Inamura, S., Sakamaki, Y., Mitsuhashi, N., Mitsuhashi, N., Ida, T., Livermore, D.

(2015)

OP0595, a new diazabicyclooctane: Mode of action as a serine beta-lactamase inhibitor, antibiotic and beta-lactam 'enhancer',

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

70

(10)

pp. 2779-2786

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


Livermore, D., Warner, M., Jamrozy, D., Mushtaq, S., Nichols, W. W., Mustafa, N., Woodford, N.

(2015)

In-vitro selection of ceftazidime-avibactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae with KPC-3 carbapenemase,

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

59

(9)

pp. 5324-5330

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)

(Published)


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Key Research Interests

My early research centred on ?-lactamases, and I showed how an apparently weak activity could protect a bacterium if the enzyme had high affinity and the ?-lactam permeated only slowly. This led to showing that models describing the interplay of ?-lactamase and permeability were adequate for Escherichia coli but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and I contributed to work revealing that this inadequacy was because P. aeruginosa also effluxes ?-lactams. Other early work explored the induction of AmpC ?-lactamases and the selection of AmpC-derepressed mutants from AmpC-inducible populations of Enterobacter and P. aeruginosa, showing selection to be the more important factor. I have been responsible for describing and investigating the properties of many new ?-lactamases, including those conferring resistance to carbapenems – the last reserve ?-lactams against many otherwise multiresistant bacteria.

My work increasingly spread from the mechanisms of resistance to its epidemiology. At the UK Health Protection Agency (Public Health England) I led groups that demonstrated the dramatic rises in MRSA in the late 1990s, ciprofloxacin-resistant gonococci around 2002-3, carbapenemase-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from around 2003 and the recent rise in carbapenemases, partly linked to the repeated import of strains with NDM-1 enzyme via patients previously hospitalised in the Indian subcontinent.

My current major areas of research interest at UEA centre on the development of methods to rapidly detect antibiotic resistant bacteria in patient specimens. Such tests would allow the swifter optimisation of a patient’s therapy, benefitting both the individual and antibiotic stewardship – thus meeting key objectives highlighted in the Chief Medical Officer’s Annual Report for 2013.   Other areas of interest are gut carriage of resistant bacteria and the relationship between in-vitro resistance and treatment outcome, Through on-going links with Public Health England I remain deeply involved in the surveillance of antibiotic resistance, the investigation of emerging resistance types and the in-vitro evaluation of new antibiotics against these organisms.

Research Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, ?-Lactamase, Carbapenem, Antibiotic development

Research Topics for PGR Supervision: Epidemiology of antibiotic resistance, Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, Detection of antibiotic resistance

Teaching Interests

In a research career of 30 years I have lecture widely and supervised or co-supervised 15 PhD student to successful completion. I currently supervise one PhD student, working on rapid microbiological investigation of urinary tract infections and co-supervise two others, one working on the strain structure of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the UK and the other on gen expression in P, aeruginosa biofilms.

External Activities and Indicators of Esteem

  • Hon. Professor, Queen Mary, University of London, 2011-date
  • Visiting Professor, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 2011-13
  • Assistant Editor, Journal Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1987-90
  • Editorial Board, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1987-91
  • Editor, Journal of Medical Microbiology, 1991-2003
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1992-95
  • Editorial Board, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1996-date
  • Editor, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2002-date
  • Editorial Board, Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 2011-date
  • British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Working Party on Surveillance, 1997 - date
  • BSAC, Working Party on Susceptibility Testing, 1997 - date
  • Advisory Board of Asia-Pacific Research Foundation on Infectious Diseases, 1999 -date
  • Organising committee of International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance (ISAAR), 1999-date
  • UK Inter-Departmental Steering Group on ‘Resistance to Antibiotics and Other Antimicrobial Agents’, 1999-2002
  • UK Government Specialist Advisory Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (SACAR), 2000-7
  • Scientific Committee of 4th European Congress of Chemotherapy (Paris, May 2002), 2001-2
  • Scientific Committee of 7th European Congress of Chemotherapy (Florence, October 2005), 2004-5
  • European Commission Working Group on Antibiotic Resistance Genes in genetically modified organisms, 2003-4
  • National Steering on Healthcare Associated Infection, 2004-7
  • Joint British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy/Hospital Infection Society working group on extended-spectrum #03b2-lactamases, 2005-6
  • Advisor to Govt’s Antibiotic Resistance & Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) committee on new resistance development / horizon scanning, 2007-13
  • Member: UK Govt’s Antimicrobial Resistance & Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Advisory Committee, 2013-date
  • European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing expert rules sub-group, 2008-10
  • British Society for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing working party on the Urgent Need for New Antibiotics, 2009-10
  • DEFRA Antibiotic Resistance Co-ordinating group (DARC), 2010-date
  • Joint BSAC / British Infection Association / Infection Prevention Society Working Party on multiresistant pathogens, 2011-date
  • Advisory Board for British Society for Chemotherapy Antibiotic Action Initiative, 2012-date
  • Society for General Microbiology Expert Panel on Sexually Transmitted Infections2012-date
  • CMO’s working group on genomics (Science Group), 2013

Professional Activities

  • Achaogen, Consultant2008-date
  • Adenium, Scientific Advisory Board, 2013-date
  • Allecra, Scientific Advisory Board, 2013-date
  • Astellas - ad hoc advisory boards2007-date
  • AstraZeneca - ad hoc advisory boards, 2009-date
  • Bioversys, Scientific Advisory Board, 2013-date
  • Curetis - ad hoc advisory boards2012-date
  • Discuva, Scientific Advisory Board2011-date
  • GlaxoSmithKline, Consultant, 2011-date
  • Meiji, Consultant, 2011-date
  • McKinsey - ad hoc advisory boards, 2010-date
  • Roche - ad hoc advisory boards, 2012-date
  • Tetraphase, Scientific Advisory Board, 2009-date
  • Wockhardt, Global Clinical Council, 2013-date