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DEV Key Contact: Adrian Martin

Project Dates: 2008 - 2012

Project Status: Complete

Funders: European Union FP7 Starting Grant (

ReDirect was a 3-year empirical study of the impact of a payments for ecosystems services (PES) intervention in communities living adjacent to the Nyungwe National Park (NNP), Rwanda. It measured selected ecological and social indicators before and after implementation of the payment scheme in areas with and without the intervention. We monitored eight cells (an administrative unit of 2-6 villages or 300-2000 households) for three main outcomes including human activity within the NNP, impacts of the PES on peoples' livelihoods, and attitudes towards the park and management authority, Rwandan Development Board. Four cells were ‘participating' in the scheme, receiving annual payments based on contractually- defined conditions, and four were ‘control' cells, receiving no such payment.

An overview of the project and its outcomes may also be viewed here:

Gross-Camp, N., Martin, A., Munyarukaza, J., McGuire, S. and B. Kebede. 2012. ReDirect – Reconciling biodiversity and development through direct payments for conservation: Rwanda's pilot payment for ecosystem services project (summary report). University of East Anglia, School of International Development.


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Project Outputs:

Kebede, B., Gross-Camp, N., Martin, A., McGuire, S. and J. Munyarukaza. In progress. Public good, inequality, personality and social interactions: An experimental study from Rwanda. Journal of Public Economics

Martin, A., Gross-Camp, N., Kebede, B. McGuire and J. Munyarukaza. In review October 2013. Measuring effectiveness, efficiency and equity in an experimental Payments for Ecosystem Services trial. Global Environmental Change

Gross-Camp, N. and A. Martin. In review October 2013. The privatisation of Rwanda's Nyungwe National Park buffer zone and implications for the effect on household livelihoods. Society & Natural Resources.

Martin, A., Gross-Camp, N., Kebede, B., McGuire, S. and J. Munyarukaza. 2013. Whose environmental justice? Exploring local and global perspectives in a Payments for Ecosystem Services scheme in Rwanda.Geoforum (doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.006)

Gross-Camp, N., Martin, A., Munyarukaza, J., Kebede, B. and S. McGuire. 2012. What is the role of PES in achieving Rwanda's conservation and development goals? (policy brief). University of East Anglia, School of International Development.

Gross-Camp, N., Martin, A., McGuire, S., Kebede, B & J. Munyarukaza. 2012. PES in an African protected area: exploring issues of legitimacy, fairness, equity & effectiveness. Oryx 46(1): 24-33. *Part of a special section on Payments for Ecosystem Services organized by Gross-Camp (with an introduction by Sven Wunder).