PMSA Artists' Biographies


from the Liverpool University Press series, Public Sculpture of Great Britain
Vols 1-9 (NB. not for general use; copyright held with the authors)

NB. Please check if your artist is listed below. If so, you can copy this listing, and send to the Norfolk and Suffolk biographies we are compiling. If not, then either (a) find a biography or write your own, or (b) let the researcher know so that he can do it over those long winter months.
The list below has several double entries. In this situation, either combine or choose the one you think is best.

The search for biographical information on the following sculptors has so far proved unavailing: Philip Bentham, W. Hamilton Buchan, Alan Collins, Kevin Gordon, H.T.H. van Golberdinghe, Sharon M. Keenan, T. Metcalfe and Denys Mitchell. [CL2003]

 

A & A Sculpture Casting Ltd
London-based bronze foundry. [LR 2000]

Accrite Aluminium
Foundry based in Ellistown, Leicestershire. [LR 2000]

Jane Ackroyd (b. 1957)
Sculptor. Born in London. Studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1974--9, and Royal College of Art, 1980--3. In 1983 she won the Melchett Award in Steel and the Fulham Pottery Award. Public works include Well (Museum of Harlow Gardens) and Cat (Old Library, Harlow). She has work in the collections of the Arts Council of Great Britain, Goodwood Sculpture Park and Leicestershire Education Authority.
Source: Cavanagh, 2000. [Man2004]

Jane Ackroyd (b. 1957)
Born in London, she studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1974--79, and the Royal College of Art, 1980--83. In 1983 she won the Melchett Award in Steel and the Fulham Pottery Award. She has work in the collections of the Arts Council of Great Britain and Leicestershire Education Authority.
(source: Festival Sculpture, 1984) [L 1997]

George Adam & Son (1873--1909)
Firm of Glasgow blacksmiths, specialising in gates, railings and architectural ornamentation. The earliest reference to the firm in the Glasgow Post Office Directories occurs in 1873, when George Adam is listed as a smith, with a workshop in Orchard Street, Partick. In 1896, after several changes of premises, the company was renamed George Adam & Son and began trading as ‘Art Metal Workers’. The company appears to have been wound up in 1909, after the completion of its work on the main building of Glasgow School of Art (q.v., Renfrew Street, main catalogue).
Source: POD, 1873--1909. [G2002]

George Gamon Adams (1821--98) [?1820--]
Sculptor. Adams enrolled at the RA Schools in 1840 as sculptor and medallist, winning a silver medal in the same year. In 1846--7 he studied under John Gibson in Rome. In the year of his return to England he won the RA Gold Medal for his group, The Murder of the Innocents. In 1852 Adams was chosen to take a death mask of the Duke of Wellington, the marble bust he executed from it being regarded by the Duke’s heirs as highly successful. His 1856 statue of General Napier for Trafalgar Square was dismissed by the Art Journal of 1862 as perhaps the worst piece of sculpture in England. Exhibited at the RA from 1841 to 1885, and elected Fellow of the Society of Arts in 1869.
Sources: Gunnis, 1968; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

George Gamon Adams (1820--1898) [?1821--]
He enrolled at the RA Schools in 1840 as sculptor and medallist, winning a silver medal in the same year. In 1846--47 he studied under John Gibson in Rome. In the year of his return to England he won the RA Gold Medal for his group, The Murder of the Innocents, which he also showed at the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1852 Adams was chosen to take a death mask of the Duke of Wellington, the marble bust he executed from it being regarded by the Duke’s heirs as highly successful. His 1856 Statue of General Napier for Trafalgar Square, however, was scathingly criticised by the Art Journal of 1862 as ‘perhaps the worst piece of sculpture in England’. From 1841 to 1885 he exhibited 119 sculptures at the RA and 4 at the British Institution. He was elected Fellow of the Society of Arts in 1869.
(sources: Gunnis, 1951; MEB) [L1997]

Robert Adams (1917--84)
Sculptor, designer and lithographer born 5 October 1917 at Northampton. He attended evening classes at Northampton School of Art, perhaps as early as 1933, but seems to have left the same year and resumed them again only in 1938--44. In the daytime during these years he was earning his living in a variety of fields including engineering. His earliest sculpture, mostly carved and figurative, was influenced by Henry Moore. From the early 1960s, however, under the influence of Brancusi and Gonzalez, he began making abstract sculpture, notably in steel. From 1949--60 he taught at the Central School of Art and Design. Following his first solo exhibition, in 1947 at Gimpel Fils, London, he exhibited widely throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s, and his work was included in several of the International Biennales: for example São Paulo in 1951 and 1957 and Venice in 1952 and 1962. His work featured in ‘This is Tomorrow’, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1956, ‘British Sculpture in the Sixties’, Tate Gallery, 1965, and ‘British Sculptors ’72’, Royal Academy, 1972, and he had a retrospective at the Northampton Art Gallery in 1971. His chief public commissions include Apocalyptic Figure for the Festival of Britain, 1951; a concrete wall relief for the Municipal Theatre, Gelsenkirchen, Germany, 1957--9; reliefs for the liners Canberra and Transvaal Castle, 1961; a roundel in bronzed steel for the BP building, London, 1966; Vertex No. 1 for Kingswell, Hampstead, 1972; and Folding Movement, a bronzed steel wall relief for Williams & Glyn’s Bank, London, 1976. He died 5 April 1984 at Great Maplestead, Essex. Examples of his work are in the collections of the Arts Council, British Council, Tate Gallery, and Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Grieve, A., 1992; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who Was Who 1981--1990. [LR 2000]

John Adams-Acton (1830--1910)
Sculptor. Born in Acton Hill, Middlesex, he added Acton to his surname in 1868 to avoid confusion with another artist called John Adams. He trained under Timothy Butler then Matthew Noble before attending the RA Schools, 1853--8, where his talents were recognised by the award of a number of medals. In 1858 he gained the RA’s travelling studentship and went to Rome. After 1865 he was resident in London. Exhibited regularly at the RA until 1892. Principal works include the Wesley Memorial (Westminster Abbey, 1875), Sir Titus Salt (Bradford, 1874), W.E. Gladstone (Liverpool, 1870 and Blackburn, 1889), and Cardinal Manning Memorial (Westminster Cathedral, 1908).
Sources: DNB, Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

John Adams-Acton (1830--1910)
Born at Acton Hill, Middlesex, he added Acton to his surname to avoid confusion with other artists called John Adams. He trained under Timothy Butler then Matthew Noble before attending the RA Schools, 1853--58, where he won first medals in the antique and life-classes and, in 1855, a gold medal for an original sculpture group, Eve Supplicating Forgiveness at the Feet of Adam. In 1858 he gained the RA’s travelling studentship and went to Rome, staying until 1865. His ability as a portraitist was admired by John Gibson, who sent many visitors (including Gladstone) to his studio. From 1865, he was resident in London. Important works include the Monument to Bishop Waldegrave (c.1869, Carlisle Cathedral), the Cruikshank Memorial (c.1871, St Paul’s Cathedral), the Wesley Memorial (1875, Westminster Abbey), and the Memorial of Cardinal Manning (1908, Westminster Cathedral). He also executed a colossal Statue of Sir Titus Salt for Bradford (1874); statues of Queen Victoria for Kingston, Jamaica, and the Bahamas; a W. E. Gladstone for Blackburn (as well as Liverpool) and also produced ideal works. He exhibited regularly at the RA until 1892.
(source: DNB) [L 1997]

Lynda Addison
Sculptor. Studied three dimensional design at Manchester Metropolitan University. Specialises in glass and ceramic figurative sculpture working from studio at her home. The Rolls-Royce tablet is her major public work in terracotta.
Source: artist. [Man2004]

James and Robert Agar (active c.1891 -- c.1932)
Firm based in Syston, Leicestershire, operating as monumental masons, c.1891 -- c.1908, from which latter date until c.1932 they are listed as stonemasons.
Sources
: Kelly’s Directory of . . . Leicester and Rutland (edns from 1891--1932). [LR 2000]

Graciela Ainsworth (b.1960)
Printmaker, wood-carver and story-teller, based in Edinburgh. Studied at the University of Northumbria 1979--82, then specialised in Sculpture Conservation and Restoration at the City and Guilds of London Art School until 1985. She has exhibited widely, been artist-in-residence at several locations in the North East and in Salisbury, and her works are to be found in public and private collections.
[
1] Gateshead, Four Seasons, p.25. [2] AXIS Artists Register, 1999. [NE 2000]

Carlo Albacini (1735--1813)
Trained by Bartolomeo Cavaceppi in Rome as a copier and restorer of classical antiquities, Albacini was responsible for the restoration of the Farnese collection in Naples between 1786 and 1800. His work can be distinguished from that of Cavaceppi through his creation of a smoother, more ideal finish to the surfaces of the works he restored. He also produced original works including, most notably, the tomb of the painter Raphael Mengs in St Peter’s, Rome (1780).
Source: Vaughan, G., ‘Albacini and his English patrons’, Journal of the History of Collections, vol.3, no.2, 1991, pp.183--97. [SBC2005]

Carl Albetill
Sculptor. Listed as a sculptor and modeller, residing at 21 Mawdsley Street, Bolton in the Post Office Bolton Directory for 1894--5.
Source: Bolton Journal, 3 February 1894. [Man2004]

Alexander (b. 1927)
Artist born in London who prefers to be known only by his surname. He studied at St Martin’s School of Art, graduated in 1950 and in the same year had his first solo exhibition, solely of paintings, at the Artists’ House, London. He continued to devote himself to painting for about the next 20 years. Then, from the early 1970s, he concentrated on sculpture and holograms, returning to painting only in 1989. Throughout these years he divided his time between Britain and Australia, exhibiting widely. A notable exhibition of his sculptures was staged at the Festival of Perth, Western Australia, in 1982, when five monumental sculptures were sited around the Festival theatres and 42 smaller ones were shown in the city’s Lister Gallery. One of the five larger sculptures, Pallisandro, marble, was subsequently purchased by the University of Western Australia. Alexander’s principal sculptural commissions are: Jubilee Oracle, 1979--80, a monumental bronze for the South Bank, London; Duet in Marble, 1980--1, for University Hospital, Nottingham; and Music Sculpture, 1986--7, stainless steel, made in collaboration with composer Moya Henderson, for Lane Cove Park, Sydney. A touring retrospective exhibition of Alexander’s work was shown at the Museum of Contemporary Art, São Paulo, Brazil, and the National Museum of the Fine Arts, Santiago, Chile (both 1989), and at the Modern Museum of Art, Santa Ana, California (1990).
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Lucie-Smith, E., 1992a; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

George Alexander
He lived in London, with studios, at different times, in Battersea and Chelsea. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1905 to 1940. In 1912 he showed an elegant statuette of Atalanta, in the act of bending to pick up the golden apple. After the First World War he collaborated with the architect Victor Wilkins on memorials for Herne Hill in South London (1921) and for the Portsea Island Gas Company (1922). [CL2003]

Keith Alexander (b.1956)
Sculptor, trained and based in the North East. His carved figurative work, in wood and stone, usually serves a functional purpose. He has worked on a number of outdoor commissions often in collaboration with local communities.
[
1] Northern Arts Index, 1998. [NE 2000]

Charles John Allen (1862--1956)
Sculptor. Born in Greenford, Middlesex. From 1879--89 he worked for Farmer & Brindley of Lambeth, before going on to study at the South London Technical Art School and, subsequently, at the Royal Academy Schools, where he won four silver medals. From 1890 to 1894 he was chief modelling assistant to Hamo Thornycroft. Exhibited both at the RA (1890--1922) and abroad, and was, from 1894, a member of the Art Workers’ Guild. Allen went to live in Liverpool where from 1894 he was instructor in sculpture at the School of Architecture and Applied Art and, from 1905, the Vice-Principal at the School of Art, Mount Street. Public commissions include two relief panels on St George’s Hall (Liverpool, 1895--8) and memorials to Queen Victoria (Liverpool, 1906) and Florence Nightingale (Liverpool, 1913).
Sources: Beattie, 1983; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

Charles John Allen (1862--1956)
Born at Greenford, Middlesex, he first worked as a carver in stone and wood for the Lambeth firm of Farmer & Brindley. He studied at the South London Technical Art School under W.S. Frith (1882--7), and subsequently at the Royal Academy Schools. From 1890--4 he was chief modelling assistant to W.H. Thornycroft. He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy. From 1894 he was a member of the Art Workers’ Guild. At the 1900 Paris International Exhibition, Allen won a gold medal for his exhibits, a bronze group of Love and the Mermaid (now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool), and a plaster group, entitled Rescued. Queen Alexandra later ordered a bronze cast of Rescued. Allen spent many years in Liverpool. In 1894 he was appointed Instructor in Sculpture at the newly-opened School of Architecture and Applied Art, and from 1905 was the Vice-Principal at the School of Art in Mount Street. He was also associated with the Della Robbia Pottery in Birkenhead. He retired from his appointments in 1927. Liverpool is the site of Allen’s most substantial public sculpture, the Victoria Memorial in Derby Square (1902--6).
Sources: S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool 1997. [CL2003]

Charles John Allen (1862--1956)
Sculptor born at Greenford, Middlesex. From 1879--89 he was with Farmer & Brindley of Lambeth, firstly as an apprentice and then as a carver in stone and wood. He studied at the South London Technical Art School under William Silver Frith, 1882--7, and subsequently at the Royal Academy Schools, where he won four silver medals. From 1890--4 he was chief modelling assistant to Hamo Thornycroft. He exhibited both at the RA (1890--1922) and abroad. In 1900, at the Paris International Exhibition, he received a gold medal for his bronze group Love and the Mermaid (Walker Art Gallery) and his plaster group Rescued, the latter of which was subsequently commissioned in bronze by Queen Alexandra. Allen lived for many years in Liverpool: from 1894 he was instructor in sculpture at the School of Architecture and Applied Art and, from 1905, was Vice-Principal at the School of Art, Mount Street. He retired from his appointments in 1927. His public commissions, most of which are in Liverpool, include two relief panels on St George’s Hall (1895--8) and memorials to Queen Victoria (unveiled 1906) and Florence Nightingale (unveiled 1913). He was, from 1894, a member of the Art Workers’ Guild.
Sources
: Beattie, S., 1983; Buckman, D., 1998; Cavanagh, T., 1997; Gray, A.S., 1985; Johnson, J. and Greutzner, A., 1976; Walker Art Gallery, 1981; Waters, G.M., 1975. [LR 2000]

Charles John Allen (1862--1956)
Born at Greenford, Middlesex, from 1879--89 he was at first apprenticed, and then employed, as a carver in stone and wood to Farmer & Brindley of Lambeth. He studied at the South London Technical Art School under W.S. Frith, 1882--87, and subsequently at the RA Schools, where he won four silver medals. From 1890--94 he was chief modelling assistant to Hamo Thornycroft -- the influence of whose Mower can be seen in Allen’s Agriculture group from the Victoria Monument in Derby Square. He exhibited both at the RA and abroad. From 1894 he was a member of the Art Workers Guild. In 1900, at the Paris International Exhibition, he received a gold medal for his bronze group Love and the Mermaid (WAG) and his plaster group Rescued, the latter of which was subsequently commissioned in bronze by Queen Alexandra. Allen lived for many years in Liverpool. From 1894 he was instructor in sculpture at the School of Architecture and Applied Art and, from 1905, was Vice-Principal at the School of Art, Mount Street. He was also associated with the Della Robbia Pottery at Birkenhead. He retired from his appointments in 1927.
(sources: Beattie, 1983; Johnson & Greutzner, 1976; Magazine of Art, 1901; WAG archives; Waters, 1975). [L1997]

Edward Allington (b. 1951)
Sculptor. Born in Troutbeck Bridge, Cumbria. Trained at Lancaster College of Art 1968--71, Central School of Art and Design 1971--4, and Royal College of Art 1983--4. Gregory Fellow in Sculpture, Leeds University 1991--3, Research Fellow in Sculpture, MMU 1993. Exhibitions include Objects and Sculpture (ICA, 1981) and The Sculpture Show (Hayward Gallery, 1983). Represented Britain in international exhibitions as part of ‘The New British Sculpture’. His sculpture is influenced by Greek and Roman culture. Works include Three Steps towards the Sea (1985), Fallen Pediment (Piano) (1994) and Cochlea (2000). Publications include A Method for Sorting Cows (Manchester Metropolitan University, 1997). Teaches at Slade School of Art, University of London.
Source: artist. [Man2004]

W. Allsop and Sons (active c.1921 -- c.1941)
Firm of monumental masons at St Mary’s Road, Market Harborough. William Allsop had operated independently from c.1895 and before that, in partnership, as Allsop and Monk. Allsop and Sons also executed a marble war memorial tablet for Foxton Parish Church.
Sources
: Kelly’s Directory of . . . Leicester and Rutland (edns from 1888--1941); Foxton Parish Record Files (LRO). [LR 2000]

Anthony George Michael Ankers (b. 1962)
Sculptor based at Leicester. He gained a First Class Honours Degree in Fine Art (Sculpture) at Leicester Polytechnic in 1985 and a Diploma in the Conservation of Architectural Stonework at Weymouth Technical College, Dorset, in 1989. In June 1994 he was resident sculptor at the Sir Henry Doulton School of Sculpture, Stoke-on-Trent. In 1998 his work was included in a three-person exhibition at Vaughan College, Leicester.
Source
: information from the sculptor. [LR 2000]

David Annand (b. 1948)
Sculptor based in Kilmany, Fife. He studied at the Duncan Jordonstone College of Art and taught art at a school in Dundee before becoming a full-time sculptor in 1988. His public sculptures outside Leicestershire include: Deer Leap, 1986, Dundee Technology Park (awarded Sir Otto Beit Medal in 1987); ‘Nae Day Sae Dark’, 1989, Perth, Scotland; Royal Stag, 1993, for Baxters of Speyside (unveiled by HRH Prince Charles); Helter Skelter, 1995, Blackpool; ‘Y Bwa’, 1995, Wrexham, North Wales; Three Cranes in Flight, 1997, British High Commission, Hong Kong; Kelty Miners’ Memorial, 1997 (unveiled by Mick McGahey and Gordon Brown).
Source
: information from the sculptor. [LR 2000]

David Annesley (b. 1936)
Sculptor, painter and teacher born in London. From 1947--56 he lived with his family in England, Australia and Southern Rhodesia and in 1956--8 did his National Service in the RAF. In 1958--61 Annesley was at St Martin’s School of Art, starting as a painter and then transferring to sculpture (he resumed painting in 1969), working for a time as Anthony Caro’s assistant. He spent six months of 1962 working in Majorca. From 1963 he taught at Central School of Art and Design and Croydon College of Art, and from 1964 at St Martin’s. In 1966--8 Annesley lived in the USA where he worked with, and was influenced by, the American painter Kenneth Noland. Annesley was a contributor to the influential ‘New Generation’ exhibition, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1965; had his first solo exhibition in 1966 at the Waddington Gallery, London; was one of seven sculptors included in the Alistair McAlpine Gift to the Tate Gallery in 1971; and had his work included in the ‘British Sculpture in the Twentieth Century’ exhibition, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1981--2. He showed from 1989 with the London Group and from 1991 at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition. In 1993 his work was included in the first Royal West of England Academy ‘Open Sculpture Exhibition’ and also in the Royal Society of British Sculptors exhibition ‘Chelsea Harbour Sculpture 93’. In 1990 Annesley was a prize-winner in the BP Sculpture Competition. Examples of his work are in the collections of the Arts Council, British Council, Tate Gallery, and Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1965. [LR 2000]

Ron Arad (b. 1951)
Designer born in Israel. After moving to England, he studied architecture in London and then, in 1981, opened the ‘One Off’ design company and gallery which quickly established itself as London’s leading centre for alternative design. Arad’s reputation was made with the Rover Chair, 1985, a design produced in considerable numbers from recycled Rover car seats. His other work includes the Well-Tempered Chair (polished steel) and Horns Chair (aluminium) of 1986/7, and Deep Screen (steel, glass, silicon and aluminium mesh) of 1987.
Source
: Fleming, J. and Honour H. [LR 2000]

Michael Dan Archer (b.1955)
Born in Glasgow, he studied sculpture at Coventry School of Art, 1975--9, after which he lived and worked in Japan and Spain. He has exhibited widely in the UK, including a solo show at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park, and has made sculptures at international symposia in Italy, Japan, South Korea and Germany. In 1999 he made a 15--ton granite work as a stipendiat at KKV-B in Sweden. He now has a studio in Lincolnshire and works as a part-time lecturer at Loughborough University School of Art and Design.
Source: information provided by the artist. [G2002]

Michael Dan Archer
Sculptor based in Leicestershire. He spent five years, 1979--84, in Japan and Spain teaching English as a foreign language. Currently (1999) he is an associate lecturer in sculpture at Loughborough University School of Art and Design and a visiting lecturer at Cardiff, Coventry and Derby art colleges. His work has been included in numerous mixed and group exhibitions, including ‘New Art’, Hiroshima City Gallery, Japan, 1984; the Scottish Sculpture Open exhibition, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, 1987; the International Granite Sculpture Symposium, Sardinia, 1989; the Gateshead Garden Festival, 1990; ‘Finding Form’, Russell-Cotes Gallery, Bournemouth, 1991; ‘Sculpture in the Close’, Jesus College, Cambridge, 1992 and 1996; the Royal Society of British Sculptors exhibition at Chelsea Harbour, 1996; and in exhibitions at the Ferrers Centre, Staunton Harold, Leicestershire, 1998 and 1999. In 1990--2 he staged a solo travelling exhibition appearing at Nottingham Castle Museum and Art Gallery, the Glynn Vivian Gallery, Swansea, and the Queen Mary Centre, Basingstoke. In 1993 he had a residency at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park. Other solo exhibitions have been at the Hannah Peschar Gallery, 1994, Dean Clough Art Gallery, Halifax, 1997, and Churchill College, Cambridge, 1998. He has been a member of the RBS since 1994 (council member from 1995).
Source
: information from the sculptor. [LR 2000]

Phyllis Muriel Cowan Archibald (1880--1947)
Born in Tunbridge Wells, the daughter of a designer, she studied at GSA, winning her diploma in 1908. She resided at 20 Kew Gardens and 13 Highburgh Terrace, married Charles Clay, c.1906, and later moved to London and then Grasmere, Westmoreland. Among her many exhibits at the RSA were a bronze relief portrait of Lady Archibald (1908), The Pillar of Salt (1920), Demeter (1925) and David Dancing Before the Ark (1933). Other recorded commissions include the memorial tablet to A.H. Charteris at Kirk O’ Field, incorporating a low relief portrait bust, and the figures for the choirstall in the Congregational Church, Whitchurch (1910).
Sources: McEwan; Laperriere. [G2002]

Kenneth Armitage (b.1916)
Armitage trained at Leeds College of Art from 1934--7, then at the Slade School of Fine Art, London from 1937--9. He served in the army during the Second World War. Between 1946--56 he was Head of Sculpture at the Bath Academy of Art, Corsham. His first solo exhibition in the United Kingdom was in 1952. In Germany in 1956 he won first prize in the International War Memorial Competition, and in 1958 he won the David E. Bright Foundation Award at the Venice Biennale exhibition. He has since been the subject of several major international exhibitions. During the 1960s and 1970s Armitage worked for several universities including the University of Caracas, Venezuela; Boston University, Massachusetts; and the Royal College of Art, London. His work is predominantly in bronze, and depicts the human figure in abstract or simplified forms. Armitage is represented in public and private collections worldwide, and has enjoyed a reputation as one of the leading British sculptors of his generation.
Sources: Sculpture at Goodwood: British Contemporary Sculpture, www.sculpture.org.uk/; Woolcombe, T. (ed.), Kenneth Armitage: life and work, London, 1997; Fils, G., Recent Sculpture by Kenneth Armitage: October -- November 1957, London, 1957. [WCS2003]

Henry Hugh Armstead (1828--1905)
English sculptor, silversmith and illustrator. He attended the Royal Academy Schools, and at first he gave his attention equally to silverwork and to sculpture, becoming the chief designer for Hunt & Roskell’s gold and silverwork factory. However, the reception of his best known piece of silverwork, the Outram Shield (Royal Academy, 1862) disappointed him, and he left Hunt & Roskell to turn his attention to monumental sculpture on a full-time basis. Among his fruitful collaborations with architects, the most notable was that with George Gilbert Scott, which included being given a high degree of responsibility for the sculpture on The Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London. Here Armstead’s main contribution was the execution of half of the podium frieze (1863--72), with its portraits of artists, writers and musicians from earliest times to the present. His church monuments, whether effigies such as Dean Howard (1868, Lichfield) and Bishop Ollivant (1887, Llandaff) or Renaissance-derived wall tablets such as Mrs Craik in Tewkesbury Abbey (1889), were admired for their naturalism. This quality, dominated by a taut sense of design, as well as his abilities as a craftsman in a variety of media, led to his being hailed as a forerunner of the New Sculpture movement.
Sources: Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.354; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.100, 262, 349; Tupper, J.L., ‘Henry Hugh Armstead’ in English Artists of the Present Day: Essays by J. Beavington Atkinson, Sidney Colvin, F.G. Stephens, Tom Taylor, and John L. Tupper, London, 1872, pp.61--6; Ward-Jackson, P., ‘Henry Hugh Armstead’, The Grove Dictionary of Art Online, ed. L. Macy, accessed 30 June 2003, http://www.groveart.com [SBC2005]

Henry Hugh Armstead (1828--1905)
A student at the Royal Academy schools under Bailey, Leigh and Caray, he exhibited at the Royal Academy and in the principal London galleries from 1851, being elected ARA in 1875 and RA in 1879. Armstead’s seated statue of the Law Courts’ architect, G.E. Street (1886) is located inside the Law Courts. He worked on Sir George Gilbert Scott’s Albert Memorial (1872), where he sculpted the podium frieze and the bronze statues for the canopy (both in collaboration with J.B. Philip). The podium reliefs, in ‘campanella’ Carrera marble, were actually carved in situ. His bronze of Thomas Fletcher Waghorn (pioneer and founder of the overland route to India in 1829) is located in Railway Street, Chatham. Waghorn is depicted with a chart spread across his knee and with a bronze-etched globe on a pedestal.
Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Dictionary of National Biography, Second Supplement, vol.1, 1912; Turner, J. (ed.), Dictionary of Art, London, 1996; Waters, G.M., Dictionary of British Artists working 1900--1950, Eastbourne, 1975; Who was Who 1897--1915. [WCS2003]

Henry Hugh Armstead (1828--1905)
Sculptor, silversmith and teacher born 18 June 1828 in London. At the age of eleven he entered the workshop of his father, an heraldic chaser. At thirteen he was sent to the Government School of Design at Somerset House. He next worked at Hunt & Roskell’s gold and silverwork factory, while receiving occasional tuition from the sculptor E.H. Baily and attending the Royal Academy Schools in the evenings. He eventually became Hunt & Roskell’s chief designer. Armstead’s best known piece of silverwork is the Outram Shield (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London) shown at the RA in 1862. It did not, however, win him the acclaim for which he had hoped and he left Hunt & Roskell to devote himself full time to sculpture. He had already achieved some success in this field, having won Art Union prizes for Satan Dismayed and The Temptation of Eve. Following a trip to Italy in 1863--4 he was introduced to the architect (Sir) George Gilbert Scott and was commissioned by him to work on the Albert Memorial, carving reliefs of painters and musicians of the main European schools for the podium and also modelling bronze figures of Chemistry, Astronomy, Medicine and Rhetoric, 1863--72. Amongst numerous other works he carved for Scott are reredos figures for Westminster Abbey, 1867; the effigy for the Tomb of Bishop Wilberforce (died 1873) in Winchester Cathedral; and some of the spandrel reliefs on the Colonial and Home Offices, Whitehall (completed 1875). Armstead also executed commissions to his own designs, including a fountain, 1874--9, for the forecourt of King’s College, Cambridge, the Memorial to G.E. Street, 1886, in the Law Courts, London, and the Tomb of Bishop Ollivant (died 1882) in Llandaff Cathedral. Armstead’s marble statue, Remorse, was purchased by the Chantrey Bequest and is now in the Tate Gallery. He exhibited at the RA from 1851, taught in the RA Schools from 1875, was elected ARA in the same year and RA in 1879. In 1900 he arranged the British sculpture in the Paris Exhibition. He died at his house in St John’s Wood, London, 4 December 1905.
Sources
: Beattie, S., 1983; DNB. Second Supplement, vol. 1, 1912; Turner, J. (ed.), 1996; Waters, G.M., 1975; Who Was Who 1897--1915. [LR 2000]

Raymond Arnatt (b.1934)
Sculptor, studied at Oxford School of Art and RCA, 1957--61. Arnatt has produced commissioned work for Lincoln College, Oxford; Weymouth Theatre; Minster Lovell Church; and the Church of the Holy Family, Pontefract. Won the Sainsbury Sculpture Award 1960.
[
1] Spalding, p.56. [2] Buckman, p.80. [NE 2000]

The Art Department
Firm established by Liam Curtin, Wendy Jones and Michael Trainor in 1999 for the planning, installation and maintenance of public art. It is based in Manchester’s Northern Quarter where the directors had been involved in the district’s public art and sculpture programme. The Art Department have managed public art programmes in Oldham and Blackpool.
Source: Liam Curtin. [Man2004]

Artcycle
Company set up by Andrew Edwards, Julian Jeffrey and Carl Payne in 2000 that created the Stanley Matthews Memorial for the Britannia Stadium, Stoke-on-Trent (2001). The three of them have since undertaken a lot of sculptural work in schools, including the creation of an ancient Egyptian theme park for one school and of a Roman amphitheatre for another. Their current commissions include a sculpture based on the nursery rhyme about a fine lady on a white horse for Banbury Cross and a monument to the fans of Sunderland Football Club that will include four figures -- two adults wearing costumes dating from around 1900 holding a sundial aloft and two children in contemporary clothing holding a football. Both works are designed to encourage a sense of community identity, and the artists view social engagement with local people as central to their work.
Source: Information provided by Andrew Edwards, 30 April 2002. [SBC2005]

Joan Gardy Artigas (b. 1938)
He was the son of the celebrated Catalan ceramicist, Llorens Artigas, and was born at Boulogne Billancourt in France. He studied at the École du Louvre (1958). In the following year he set up his own ceramic studio in Paris, where he worked with G. Braque and M. Chagall. In 1960 he met Alberto Giacometti and made his first sculpture. He continued to work as a ceramicist, and on returning to Barcelona collaborated with Joan Mirò on such works as the colossal Woman and Bird (1981--2) for the Parque Joan Mirò. Artigas has made his own ceramic murals and monumental sculptures for many locations throughout the world, and he has collaborated on a number of architectural projects with the firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. In 1989, he set up the Artigas Foundation at Gallifa, to the north-west of Barcelona, in memory of his father. It was designed as a place to which artists might come from all over the world to work for six-week periods. The British sculptor Barry Flanagan has enjoyed a profitable collaboration with the Artigas Foundation, which has provided ‘technical support’ in the production of his ceramic sculptures.
Source: Macmillan’s Dictionary of Art. [CL2003]

John Atkin (b.1959)
Trained as a painter at Teesside College of Art, Leicester Polytechnic and RA Schools 1977--85. Whilst at Leicester he exhibited his first sculpture The Room -- a full-sized reconstruction in newspaper and plaster of his childhood home complete with figures of his parents. Much influenced by literary sources, especially the work of Albert Camus, his figurative sculptures incorporate recycled industrial detritus and clay. Exhibited in ‘Recent British Sculpture’ in 1985 and the National Garden Festival at Gateshead, 1990. Examples of his work can be found at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park and at Grizedale, Cumbria.
[
1] Wheeler, P., John Atkin: Embers, n.d. [NE 2000]

Graham Ashton (b. 1948)
Mixed media artist, born at Birkenhead. He studied at Manchester College of Art, 1966--67; Coventry College of Art, 1967--70; University of Calgary, 1970--71, and held his first solo exhibition in 1977. He was artist-in-residence at the Walker Art Gallery and Bridewell Studios, Liverpool, 1983--84.
(sources: Festival Sculpture, 1984; Spalding, 1990) [L1997]

Walter Ashworth (1883--1952)
Ashworth was Principal of the Coventry Art College and Chairman of the Coventry and Warwickshire Society of Artists. He was best known as a watercolour artist who exhibited several works at the Royal Academy and acted as a war artist in Coventry during the Second World War.
Source: Herbert Art Gallery and Museum/City of Coventry Libraries, Arts and Museums Department, A Survey of Public Art in Coventry, Coventry, 1980. [WCS2003]

Kevin Atherton (b.1950)
Atherton, who was educated at the Isle of Man College of Art (1968--9) and Leeds Polytechnic (1969--72), came to prominence with pieces integrated with ‘lived in spaces’, notably his Platform Piece for British Rail, consisting of three life-size figures on Brixton station (1986). He works in a variety of different media, including film animation, performance art and video, and is perhaps best known for his work on issues relating to virtual reality during the 1990s, including the organisation of an international conference, Virtual Reality and the Gallery at the Tate in 1995 and the presentation of his Gallery Guide to museums in Chicago (1997), Stockholm (1998) and Dublin (2000).
Sources: Atherton, K., Kevin Atherton: a Body of Work 1982--1988, London, 1988; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.322; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.354; Festival Sculpture, International Garden Festival, Liverpool, 2 May--14 October 1984; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.183; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984, p.254. [SBC2005]

Kevin Atherton (b. 1950)
Sculptor born 25 November 1950 in the Isle of Man. He studied at Douglas School of Art, 1968--9, and Leeds Polytechnic (Fine Art), 1969--72. During the 1970s he taught part time at Middlesex Polytechnic, and at Chelsea, Maidstone, and Winchester schools of art. His commissions include A Body of Work, 1983, for Langdon Park School, Poplar; Three Bronze Deckchairs, 1984, for the Liverpool International Garden Festival; Upon Reflection, 1985, Elthorne Park, London; Platform Piece, 1986, Brixton Railway Station, London; Iron Horses (12 sculptured horses sited at intervals beside the railway track between Birmingham and Wolverhampton), 1987; Swing, 1988, St Chad’s Circus, Birmingham; A Different Ball Game, 1994, Kings Hill, West Malling, Kent; and A Private View, 1995, Taff Viaduct, Cardiff Bay.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Festival Sculpture, 1984; Noszlopy, G.T. and Beach, J., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

Kevin Atherton (b.1950)
Born 25th November 1950 in the Isle of Man and educated at the Isle of Man College of Art 1968--9, he studied fine art at Leeds Polytechnic 1969--72. Came to prominence with commissions integrating work with ‘lived in’ spaces, for example his Platform Piece for British Rail, consisting of three life-size figures on Brixton station, London 1986. Works also include: A Body of Work, Langdon Park School, Poplar, London 1983; Upon Reflection, bronze, Elthorne Park, London 1985; A different ball game, Kings Hill, West Malling, Kent 1994; A private view, Taff Viaduct, Cardiff Bay 1995. Currently working at the Chelsea College of Art and Design on issues around Virtual Reality.
1
. Strachan, 1984, p.254; 2. Kevin Atherton, a body of work, Serpentine Gallery, London, 1989; 3. Letter from the artist, 26 February 1996. [B1998]

Kevin Atherton (b. 1950)
Born in the Isle of Man, he studied at Douglas School of Art, 1968--69, and Leeds Polytechnic (Fine Art), 1969--72. During the 1970s he taught part-time at Middlesex Polytechnic, and Chelsea, Maidstone, and Winchester Schools of Art. His commissions include A Body of Work (1983, Langdon Park School, Tower Hamlets).
(sources: Festival Sculpture, 1984; Spalding, 1990; Strachan, 1984) [L1997]

Ted Atkinson (b.1929)
Atkinson studied at Liverpool College of Art under Karel Vogel 1944--6, 1948--9 and then at the Slade School, University of London under Coldstream, Butler and Moore 1949--52, winning the Slade Prize for Sculpture in 1952. Between 1953 and 1958 he was head of sculpture at Exeter College of Art and became head of sculpture at Lanchester Polytechnic in 1964. Apart from sculpture he also makes etchings and has gained several awards in this field. He has several examples of public art in the United Kingdom as well as public works in Düsseldorf and Hamburg. He was invited to represent Britain at the World Expo 88 in Brisbane along with six other sculptors including Elizabeth Frink and Henry Moore. He has exhibited since 1953 and is also represented in the permanent collections of the Arts Council, Tate Gallery, Manchester City Art Gallery, Kunst Akademie, Dresden and the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Sources: Mann, G., Ted Atkinson engraving; West Midlands Arts, Artists, craftsmen, photographers in the West Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, 1977; Who’s Who, 20th edition, 1982. [WCS2003]

William Aumonier (1841--1914)
Architectural sculptor and carver in wood and brick, born in London, of Huguenot stock. He operated from premises at New Inn Yard, Tottenham Court Road, London, from 1880, with his sons William and Percy as assistants. Important commissions by them include the New Victoria Law Courts, Birmingham (1886) and Bath Municipal Buildings (1891). They also executed wood carving for the steamships Austral and Ophir.
Sources: BJ, 10 February, 1897; RIBAJ, 14 February 1914 (obit.). [G2002]

Pete Auty (1954--99)
Sculptor in bronze, wood and found objects. Trained at Hull (1978), gaining an MA from Newcastle University in 1981. Auty lectured at Wolverhampton, De Montfort and Northumbria universities 1990--5. Having worked mainly in the studio, Auty started to work outdoors for Gateshead’s ‘Marking the Ways’ scheme in 1995.
[
1] AXIS, Artists Register, 1999. [NE 2000]

Alain Ayers (b.1952)
Midlands-based sculptor and stone-carver. Since completing a Fellowship in Sculpture at the South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education at Cardiff in 1983, Ayers has shown work at a number of group exhibitions in England, Wales and Portugal. His installation pieces are usually conceptual and non-figurative, whilst his permanent outdoor sculptures make figurative references to the site. He currently lectures at Nottingham Trent University.
[
1] AXIS, Artists Register, 1999. [NE 2000]

Alain Ayers (b. 1952)
Born at Dartford, Kent, he studied at Hereford College of Art, 1975--76, Exeter College of Art, 1976--79, and Birmingham Polytechnic, 1981--82. He was awarded the South West Arts Bursary in 1980, the Greater London Arts Bursary in 1981, the Junior Sculpture Fellowship at South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education, Cardiff, in 1982--83, and the Welsh Arts Council Young Artist’s Grant in 1983. He has shown in group exhibitions since 1980.
(source: Festival Sculpture, 1984) [L1997]

Michael Ayrton (1921--75)
He was born Michael Ayrton Gould, son of the poet and critic, Gerald Gould, and the Labour politician, Barbara Ayrton. His education was interrupted by illness, but he was inspired by works seen on his European travels to take up drawing and painting. He studied briefly at Heatherley’s College and the St John’s Wood School of Art, before going off to Paris, where he shared a studio with the painter John Minton. Together they visited Eugène Berman and Giorgio de Chirico. Ayrton was one of the more articulate members of the English neo-Romantic group of artists. Amongst his early influences were Henry Moore, Graham Sutherland and the Russian painter Pavel Tchelitchev. His first one-man show was at the Redfern Gallery in 1943. Ayrton was a polymath. He wrote copious art-criticism, especially for the Spectator between 1944 and 1946. He also wrote historical novels and essays, and was a familiar voice on the BBC, and a member of the Brains Trust. In 1951 he began to sculpt. Visits to Cumae in Southern Italy in 1956, and to Crete the following year, inspired him to explore the myths of Daedalus and Icarus and the labyrinth of King Minos. Ayrton even designed a labyrinth for a wealthy American, Armand Erpf, at Arkville in the Catskill Mountains (1968--9). Ayrton alienated several of his artistic colleagues by his continued critical attacks on Picasso. He died of a heart attack at the age of 55.
Sources: P. Cannon Brookes, Michael Ayrton, An Illustrated Catalogue, Birmingham, 1978; M. Yorke, The Spirit of Place, Nine Neo-Romantic Artists and Their Times, London, 1988; J. Hopkins, Michael Ayrton, London, 1994. [CL2003]

Nechemia Azaz (b.1923)
Azaz was born in Berlin and spent his childhood in Palestine. He trained as a stonemason in Bologna initially before studying sculpture in Holland and Paris. He is now based in Berkshire.
Source: University of Warwick, Sculpture Trail Brochure, Coventry, 1997. [WCS2003]

Charles Bacon
Executed the equestrian statue of Prince Albert at Holborn Circus (1874) and exhibited at the RA 1842--84, mostly portrait busts.
[
1] Graves, Royal Academy Exhibitors, vol.I, p.87. [NE 2000]

John Bacon the Elder (1740--99)
Born in Southwark, son of a clothworker. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a porcelain manufacturer, with whom he learned to model figurines. He began early to model figures in a more elevated style, and from 1759 was regularly in receipt of awards for his compositions from the Society of Arts. From about 1767 he was employed as modeller at Mrs Coade’s artificial stone factory in Lambeth. In 1768 he entered the newly-opened Royal Academy Schools. In defiance of the fashion of the age, Bacon never travelled to Rome, a fact which won him additional credit from some of his admirers. One of these was George III, who sat for his bust to Bacon in 1770, after the sculptor had been recommended by the Archbishop of York. The king was so pleased with the result, that four versions were produced of it in marble. Bacon became a full RA in 1777. The seal of official approval for his art was conferred with the two commissions which he received for monuments to the Earl of Chatham, one for the London Guildhall (1778--82), the other for Westminster Abbey (1779--83). From this time he took a lead in the celebration of men whose virtue or learning were esteemed to have been a credit to the nation: the Memorial to Thomas Guy, Guy’s Hospital, London (1779) and statues of John Howard, Samuel Johnson and Sir William Jones in St Paul’s Cathedral (1795--9). He was exceptional amongst the British sculptors of his time in being able to cast in bronze, an ability demonstrated in his statue of George III with the River Thames in the courtyard of Somerset House (1789). He was a prolific and financially successful sculptor of church monuments. His architectural and decorative sculpture ranges from keystones and chimneypieces to the very large and ambitious pediment of East India House (1797--9, destroyed), which was completed by his son John Bacon the Younger. His great abilities as a sculptor were disagreeably offset by what some saw as a smug and smarmily pious manner.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; Obituary in Gentleman’s Magazine, September 1799, pp.808--10; A. Cunningham, Lives of the British Painters, Sculptors and Architects, London, 1830. [CL2003]

John Bacon the Elder (1740--99)
Sculptor, born at Southwark on 24 November 1740. From 1755--64 he was apprenticed to Nicholas Crisp, a jeweller and porcelain manufacturer, under whom he gained experience modelling figures. In 1759 Bacon was awarded a premium (the first of eleven he was to receive) by the Society of Arts, for a small figure of Peace. He entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1769, the year after the RA’s foundation, winning, in that same year, the very first gold medal for sculpture, for a bas-relief of Aeneas and Anchises. He exhibited at the RA 1769--99. Between 1765 and 1770 he designed models for Wedgwood and Crown Derby and from 1769 until his death he worked for the Coade Artificial Stone Manufactory at Lambeth (from 1771 he was chief designer). In 1770 his plaster statue of Mars secured his election as ARA (he was to be elected RA in 1778). Despite a favourable critical reception on its exhibition at the RA in the following year, the statue failed to attract a purchaser and in 1777 Bacon presented it with a companion statue of Venus to the Society of Arts, in recognition of which he was awarded the Society’s Gold Medal. Notwithstanding its commercial failure, Mars attracted the attention of the Archbishop of York who commissioned Bacon to execute a marble bust of King George III for the Hall of Christ Church, Oxford (RA 1774). The King was sufficiently impressed with the bust to order copies for the University of Göttingen, the Prince of Wales, and the Society of Antiquaries. It was through the King’s influence that Bacon received the commission that made his reputation, the Monument to William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (c.1778--83) for Westminster Abbey. Bacon was largely self-taught and never made the all-important trip to Italy, factors which gave his detractors the opportunity to accuse him of having no real understanding of the antique, an accusation he is said to have confounded by carving a colossal head, Jupiter Tonans (RA 1777), which he convinced both fellow artists and connoisseurs was a genuine antique. It has been suggested that his detractors were partly motivated by the success of his immensely prolific workshop at Newman Street, London. Bacon’s high output was greatly assisted by his invention of an improved pointing machine which allowed his workshop assistants to copy accurately from his models and thus carry out all -- barring the finer details of the most important commissions -- the actual marble and stone carving. The premises also contained a foundry for bronze commissions. Bacon’s most important public commissions include the Monument to Thomas Guy (1779) at Guy’s Hospital, those to John Howard (1795) and Dr Johnson (1796) in St Paul’s Cathedral and, for Somerset House, the bronze group of King George III and the River Thames in the courtyard and the Fame and Genius of England on the Strand frontage (1778--9). Bacon was married twice, firstly in 1767 and secondly, following the death of his first wife, in 1782. After his death on 7 August 1799, Bacon’s practice was carried on by the second son of his first marriage, John Bacon the Younger.
Sources
: Clifford, T., 1985; Cox-Johnson, A., 1961; DNB; Gentleman’s Magazine, September 1799; Graves, A., 1905; Gunnis, R. [1964]; Popp, G. and Valentine, H. (comps), 1996; Whinney, M., 1988. [LR 2000]

John Bacon the Younger (1777--1859)
Son of the sculptor John Bacon RA, who trained under his father and at the Royal Academy. His first exhibit there was Moses Striking the Rock, shown in 1792. On his father’s death in 1799, he took over his business and completed unfinished commissions, such as the pediment for East India House in the City of London and the three-figure memorial to Marquess Cornwallis for Calcutta. He went on to create three statues of his own for India: two of the Marquess Wellesley for Calcutta and Bombay (1809) and one of Cornwallis for Bombay (1810). Perhaps his most outstanding work is the monument to Sir John Moore in St Paul’s Cathedral, which shows the general being lowered into his tomb by a nude warrior and a female Victory.
Sources: Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.448. [SBC2005]

John Bacon the Younger (1777--1859)
Born in London, second son of the sculptor John Bacon RA. He trained under his father and at the Royal Academy, which he entered in 1789. His first exhibit at the Royal Academy was a relief of Moses Striking the Rock, shown in 1792. On his father’s death in 1799, he took over his business and completed unfinished commissions, such as the pediment for East India House in the City of London, and the three-figure memorial to Marquess Cornwallis for Calcutta. Another commission in which the younger Bacon worked to his father’s design was the bronze equestrian figure of William III (1808), for St James’s Square, London. He went on to create three statues of his own for India: two of the Marquess Wellesley for Calcutta and Bombay (1809), and one of Cornwallis for Bombay (1810). He continued and even expanded his father’s trade in funerary monuments. Many of his monuments, particularly after the establishment of a partnership with his pupil, Samuel Manning, are routine performances. However, he did, on occasion, produce church monuments of great poignancy. Perhaps his most outstanding work is the monument to Sir John Moore in St Paul’s Cathedral (1810--15), which shows the general being lowered into his tomb by a nude warrior and a female Victory. Bacon’s commercial success was resented by fellow artists, and he was not even elected to Associateship of the Royal Academy. One of his last works, the monument to his daughter, Mrs Medley (1842), in St Thomas’s Church, Exeter, is already in an entirely Victorian taste, a recumbent effigy with hands clasped in prayer under a Gothic canopy.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660--1851, London, 1968; N. Penny, Church Monuments in Romantic England, New Haven and London, 1977; M. Whinney, Sculpture in Britain 1530--1830, revised by J. Physick, London, 1988. [CL2003]

Charles Bacon (1821--85?)
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy as a gem-cutter in 1842. In 1846 he entered the Royal Academy Schools on the recommendation of the author, Alarick Watts. In 1847 he showed a bust of Watts at the Royal Academy. In 1857 he showed a figure of Helen Veiled Before Paris at the British Institution. In 1861 he was commissioned to produce a statue of the explorer Sir John Franklin for Spilsby, Lincs. Bacon’s most ambitious work was the equestrian statue of Prince Albert, unveiled at Holborn Circus in 1874. In 1875 he produced another portrait statue, that of John Candlish for Sunderland, but portrait busts seem to have made up the bulk of his œuvre. Two of these, portraits of W.S. Hale and Dr G.F.W. Mortimer (1866), were presented to the City of London School, and form part of the Corporation of London’s art collection.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; V. Knight, The Works of Art of the Corporation of London, London, 1986. [CL2003]

Edward Hodges Baily (1788--1867)
Sculptor. Born in Bristol. Baily began taking lessons in wax modelling at 14 and later spent seven years in London as one of Flaxman’s pupils. He entered the Academy Schools in 1808, winning the gold medal in 1811 for his Hercules Restoring Alcestis to Admetus. In 1817 he began a 25-year association with the London firm of gold- and silversmiths, Rundell & Bridge. His Eve at the Fountain (1818--21) confirmed his talent and was purchased for the Literary Institute, Bristol (now Bristol City Art Gallery). Major examples of his public sculpture include the frieze for the portico of the Masonic Hall, Bristol (1825) and extensive work both for Marble Arch (1826) and for Buckingham Palace (mostly 1828), London. Baily had a large practice as a monumental sculptor: examples of his work include Earl St. Vincent (St Paul’s Cathedral, 1823), Bishop Grey (Bristol Cathedral, 1824) and Viscount Brome (Linton, Kent, 1837). Statues include John Flaxman (University College, London, 1849), George Stephenson (Euston Station, 1854) and Charles James Fox (Palace of Westminster, 1857). In 1839 his design for a statue of Nelson was selected for Nelson’s Column, Trafalgar Square. He exhibited at the Academy from 1810 to 1862 and became an Academician in 1825; in 1863 he was made ‘Honorary Retired Academician’ and awarded an annual pension.
Sources: Gunnis; Read, 1982; Underwood, 2000. [Man2004]

Edward Hodges Baily (1788--1867)
Born in Bristol, son of a ship’s carver. After school, he worked for two years in a merchant’s counting house, before taking lessons in wax-modelling. Baily was converted to the ‘higher aspirations’ of monumental sculpture by John Bacon’s monument to Mrs Draper in Bristol Cathedral. He sent work to London, for inspection by John Flaxman, who then took him on as a pupil. He entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1808. In 1817, he was appointed chief modeller to the gold and silver smiths, Rundell and Bridge, and designed for the firm for the next 25 years. Baily’s statue of Eve at the Fountain was rapturously received when shown at the Royal Academy. Executed in marble in 1821, it was purchased for the Bristol Literary Institute (now in Bristol Art Gallery), and Baily was elected a Royal Academician in the same year. This was the paradigm of much Victorian ‘ideal’ sculpture. During the 1820s, Baily executed relief sculpture for the Marble Arch and for Buckingham Palace. He had a very large practice in funerary monuments, which ranged from the routine to the theatrical and grandiose. Examples of the latter are the monuments to Sir W. Ponsonby in St Paul’s Cathedral (1820) and to Lord Holland in Westminster Abbey (1840). Baily’s public portrait statues were however admired for their restraint and for the uncompromising modernity of their costume. He sculpted the colossal marble figure of Nelson for Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square (1839--43), the monument to Sir Robert Peel for Bury, Lancs. (1852), and the deliberately prosaic portrait of George Stephenson (1854), for the Great Hall of Euston Station (now in the National Railway Museum, York). Despite his having been one of the most esteemed Victorian statuaries, Baily experienced financial difficulties in the last years of his life.
Source: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968. [CL2003]

Edward Hodges Baily (1788--1867)
Prolific and successful London sculptor. Baily began taking lessons in wax modelling at fourteen and later spent seven years in London as one of Flaxman’s pupils. He entered the Academy Schools in 1808, winning the silver medal in 1811, the gold a year later, and in 1817 he began a twenty-five-year association with Rundell & Bridge (silver and goldsmiths). Examples of his work include the Doncaster Cup 1843 and the Ascot Gold Cup 1844. Baily’s most celebrated work, Eve at the Fountain (1818--21), brought him European fame and was purchased for the Literary Institute, Bristol (now Bristol City Art Gallery).
Major examples of his public sculpture include the frieze for the portico of the Masonic Hall, Bristol (1825) and extensive work both for Marble Arch (1826) and for Buckingham Palace (mostly 1828), London. In 1839 his design for a statue of Nelson was selected for Nelson’s Column, Trafalgar Square. He exhibited at the Academy from 1810 to 1862 and became a Academician in 1825; in 1863 he was made ‘Honorary Retired Academician’ and given an annual pension.
Baily had a large practice as a monumental sculptor; examples of his work include a recumbent figure of Lord Brome (1837), Linton, Kent, and monuments to Earl St. Vincent (1823), St Paul’s Cathedral, and Bishop Grey (1824), Bristol Cathedral. His statues include John Flaxman, (1849), University College, London, and Robert Peel (1852), Bury and busts of the Rev. William Turner (1829) and Thomas Bewick (1825), Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society.
[
1] Gunnis, pp.32--6. [2] Penny, N., Church Monuments in Romantic England, London, 1977, passim; 3] Read, passim. [4] Art Journal, vol.VI, 1 July 1867, pp.170--1. [5] Usherwood, P., Art for Newcastle: Thomas Miles Richardson and the Newcastle Exhibitions 1822--1843, Newcastle, 1984, p.85. [6] Turner (ed.), vol.3, pp.78--9. [NE 2000]

Lucy Baird (b.1959)
Born in Malawi, she attended ECA, 1980--5, gaining a BA Hons in Sculpture and a postgraduate diploma. She was the winner of the Andrew Grant Scholarship Award in 1984 and an RSA Travelling Scholarship to Florence in the following year. Commissioned as a student to produce Mining (1984) for Irvine Development Corporation, she was appointed Artist in Residence for Irvine New Town, 1990, in which capacity she executed Birds (1992). She has exhibited in Glasgow, Birmingham and Munich.
Source: information provided by the artist. [G2002]

William Baker (1705--71)
Baker succeeded James Gibbs (d.1754) as Sir John Astley’s architect at Patshull Hall. Entries in his diary show that, as well as the parlour, library, stables and chapel, he also designed the entrance gateway. His other work is mainly in Cheshire and Staffordshire.
Source: Colvin, H., Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600--1840, London, 1978, pp.93--5. [SBC2005]

Arthur Ballard (1915--94)
Liverpool artist and teacher. He entered Liverpool College of Art as a junior in 1930 and returned after the war as a member of staff, 1947--80, rising to the post of Head of Foundation Studies. During the 1950s, he painted mainly landscapes, exhibiting regularly at the Roland, Browse and Delbanco Gallery in London. A six-month stay in Paris in the winter of 1957/58 encouraged him to turn to abstract painting, under the influence of the post-war School of Paris painters, particularly Nicolas de Stael. His new manner did not find favour with his former dealers and he ceased to exhibit in London. In the 1960s he moved from abstraction to a type of figuration influenced by Pop Art, his most notable work from this period being the painting, Punch and His Judy (1973), based on Manet’s Olympia. He is perhaps best known as the teacher who encouraged Stu Sutcliffe and prevented John Lennon’s expulsion from art college. He was also President of the Liverpool Academy.
(sources: Guardian [obit.], 29 November 1994; Independent [obit.], 2 December 1994) [L 1997]

Thomas Banks (1735--1805)
One of the most distinguished of English neo-classical sculptors, yet none of the work which he executed before his departure for Rome in 1772 is known to have survived. Banks studied under Peter Scheemakers, and seems to have worked for William Hayward. On the strength of pieces produced around 1770, the Royal Academy awarded him a travelling scholarship. This was supplemented by his wife’s income from property, which enabled him to stay in Rome until 1779. In these years, Banks produced three narrative reliefs, remarkable for their clarity of design and emotive power. One of these, Thetis and her Nymphs Consoling Achilles for the Loss of Patroclus, is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. After his return, Banks spent time in Russia (1781--2), where he sold a statue of Cupid to Catherine the Great for Tsarsko-Seloe. In 1786, on becoming a full member of the Royal Academy, he presented as his diploma work the Falling Titan, a virtuoso display of sublimity on a small scale. Banks was able to appeal to the sensibilities of his clientele in such funerary monuments as that to Penelope Boothby in Ashbourne Church, Derbyshire. His last works, the monuments in St Paul’s Cathedral to Captains Burges and Westcott, set the tone for the cathedral’s series of monuments to Napoleonic War heroes, in their combination of classical figure idiom and modern pathos.
Sources: C.F. Bell, Annals of Thomas Banks, Cambridge, 1938; R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; M.Whinney, Sculpture in Britain 1530--1830, revised by J. Physick, London, 1988. [CL2003]

Thomas Banks (1735--1805)
Banks is usually known as a small scale neo-classical sculptor predominantly producing reliefs of classical subjects. From 1772 he worked in Italy, where he was influenced by the artist Henry Fuseli (1741--1825), and by the theories of Johann Winckelmann (1717--68). He was patronised by Catherine the Great of Russia for a year, during which time he lived in St Petersburg. His best-known works include the Falling Titan (1784), RA, and Monument to Sir Eyre Coole (1784--89), Westminster Abbey.
Source: Gowing, L., A Biographical Dictionary of Artists, London, 1983; Bell, C.F., (ed.), Annals of Thomas Banks, sculptor, Royal Academician, with some letters from Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.B.A. to Banks’ daughter, Cambridge, 1938. [WCS2003]

Donato Barcaglia (1849--1930)
Donato Barcaglia was trained in Milan and Rome.
He worked in a neo-classical style in marble and was renowned for the quality and detail of his carving. He won the gran medaglia d’oro for his Amore Acciece [Love is Blind] at the 1875 Exhibition in Florence. His major works include La Vergognosa (Palazzo Brunner, 1873) and Ossario Monument in Melegnano (1904).
Sources: Benezit, E., Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs, vol.1, Paris, 1976, p.238; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.246; Panzetta, A., Dizionario Degli Scultori Italiani Dell’ottocento e Del Primo Novocento, Turin, 1994, vol.1, p.33 and vol.2, p.33. [SBC2005]

Donato Barcaglia (1849--1930)
Donato or Donatello Barcaglia trained in Milan under Abbondio Sangiorgio, and finished his training in Rome. He worked in marble and was renowned for the quality and detail of his carving. Although working in a neo-classical style, he developed his own stylistic flourishes. He exhibited widely in Europe and America. He won the gran medaglia d’oro [Gold Medal] for his Amore Acciece [Cupid Teasing Venus or Love is Blind] at the 1875 Epsizione fiorentina.
Sources; Panzetta, A., Dizionario Degli Scultori Italiani Dell’ottocento e Del Primo Novocento, vol.1; ibid., vol.2; Benezit Dictionnaire (of painters, sculptors, engravers), 1976. [WCS2003]

Henry Bloomfield Bare (d. 1911)
A Liverpool decorative artist, associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement. He exhibited at the WAG between 1884 and 1911, with one appearance at the RA in 1888 (cat. 1723: Decoration of a Drawing Room) in which same year he was elected a fellow of the RIBA. He was also the Liverpool correspondent and writer of occasional articles for The Studio.
(sources: Studio, 1911 [obit.]; Johnson & Greutzner, 1976). [L 1997]

George Grey Barnard (1863--1938)
Sculptor. Born in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania. Educated at the Art Institute of Chicago where he won a prize for a bust of a young woman, the money enabling him to travel to Paris in 1883 where he studied at the École Nationale des Beaux Arts and worked in the studio of Cavelier. Works from his Paris period include Fraternal Love (1887) and a colossal marble group The Two Natures which was exhibited at the Exposition des Beaux-Arts (1904). He returned to New York in 1896. Awarded gold medals for his sculpture at expositions in Buffalo (1900) and St Louis (1904). In 1904 began work on series of 33 monumental statues for the Capitol building in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, including the figures of Hope Upholding Failure and Brotherhood in Despair. His controversial bronze statues of Abraham Lincoln are in Cincinnati, Ohio, Louisville, Kentucky and Manchester. Barnard’s collection of medieval sculpture, displayed in his house, ‘The Cloisters’ in New York, was sold in 1925 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Elected to American Academy of Arts in 1930.
Sources: Who’s Who in American Art, 1937--8; Dictionary of American Biography; Moffat, 1998. [Man2004]

Samuel Barfield (1830--87)
Barfield was a stonemason living in Leicester who produced statuary, monumental masonry and all types of ecclesiastical furniture and fittings. He enjoyed a long working relationship with architect Joseph Goddard, for whom he executed the carving on the Paxton Memorial in Coventry (1868), the figures on the lower stages of the clock tower in Leicester (1868) and the sculpture on the mausoleum to Archibald Turner in Leicester cemetery (c.1870). He also worked for Birmingham architect J.H. Chamberlain, for whom he carved the architectural ornament on the Memorial Fountain to Mayor Joseph Chamberlain (1880) and the lillies-and-lattice decoration of the rose window on the School of Art (c.1885).
Sources: Cavanagh, Terry and Yarrington, Alison, Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham, Liverpool, 1998. [WCS2003]

Samuel Barfield (1830--87)
Architectural sculptor of Leicester and, from 1870, a member of the Leicester School of Art Committee. Barfield enjoyed a long working relationship with Leicester architect Joseph Goddard for whom he executed the carving on his Memorial to Sir Joseph Paxton, 1868, at Coventry (for Leicester commissions see relevant catalogue entries). Barfield also worked for Birmingham architect J.H. Chamberlain, for whom he executed in that city the architectural carving on the Memorial Fountain to Mayor Joseph Chamberlain, 1880, and the carved lilies-and-lattice decoration of the rose window on the new School of Art, c.1885. In Leicester, in addition to work treated in the present catalogue, Barfield signed a Celtic cross-style Monument to Benjamin Sutton (d. 1858) in Welford Road Cemetery, Leicester.
Sources
: Beaumont, L. de, 1987; Bennett, J.D., 1975; Brandwood, G. and Cherry, M., 1990; L. Mercury, 11 July 1994, p.4; Men of the Period ..., 1897; Noszlopy, G.T. and Beach, J. 1998; Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E., 1992; personal knowledge. [LR 2000]

Keith Barrett
Tyneside-based wood sculptor and printmaker who trained at Falmouth School of Art and the University of Northumbria in the early 1980s. His carved, usually abstract, outdoor sculptures, seats and stiles are sited in various countryside locations around the North East. [NE 2000]

Oliver O’Connor Barrett (b.1908)
Born in 1908 in Eltham, London. In 1927 he attended Fircroft College in Birmingham and three years later, without formal art training, began direct carving in wood. He exhibited for the first and only time at the Royal Academy in 1933 and in the following year had his first one-person show, at the Cooling Galleries, London. This was subsequently transferred to the Ruskin Galleries in Birmingham where it was described as ‘the most important of its kind in the city since the appearance of Epstein’s Genesis’. He lived in Edgbaston from about 1936 until 1940 when he moved to America, where he taught art at several colleges. He had four exhibitions of his sculpture, paintings and drawings in New York in 1944, 1946, 1953 and 1962, and in the latter year became head of sculpture at the Norton School of Art, Palm Beach, Florida. There is another work by Barrett, Darkness (wood carving), in store at the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, acquired 1934.
1
. ‘Notes of the month’, Apollo, vol.XIX, no.113, May 1934, p.281; 2. Sunday Mercury, 14th May 1944, p.5; 3. RAE, vol.I, Wakefield, 1973, p.89. [B1998]

Julia Barton (b.1959)
Landscape sculptor. Barton turned to art after completing a geography degree at Portsmouth Polytechnic 1977--80. Living in Northumberland, her work includes Seawall at Barrow-in-Furness and others pieces in Yorkshire, Cumbria and the North East.
[
1] Information supplied by the artist, 1999. [NE 2000]

Stuart Bastik (b.1965)
Stuart Bastik studied at Hull College of Art (1986--7) and Birmingham Institute of Art and Design (1987--90), finishing with a first class degree in Fine Art (Sculpture). His first solo exhibition The Last Supper between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea was at the Dock Museum, Barrow-in-Furness (1992). His sculpture commissions include Unknown New Cargo (1991, Hull Marina), The Arrival (1993, Grizedale Forest), Give us this day our daily bread (1994, Coalville), and Bath-time Two x Two (1995, the Washlands, Burton upon Trent). Since 1996, he has worked in collaboration with Maddi Nicholson on a series of paintings on the sides of lorries for Visual Arts UK and in other diverse contexts. Their work uses humour, word play and references to fashionable ‘icons’ of the day.
Sources: Borough of East Staffordshire: Leisure Services, Public Art in Burton, 1990, no.10; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.355; Information provided by the artist, 2001. [SBC2005]

Stuart Bastick (b. 1965)
Sculptor and painter born at Beverley, East Yorkshire. He studied at Hull College of Art, 1986--7, and Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, 1987--90, finishing with a First Class degree in Fine Art (Sculpture). In 1988 he worked as assistant to Richard Harris, then Sculptor-in-Residence at Grizedale Forest, Cumbria. Bastick has shown in various group exhibitions at, for example, the Cotton Gallery, 1989, and the Concourse Gallery, 1990, both in Birmingham; Myxna Art School, Leningrad, Russia, 1990; and the Gallery in the Forest, Grizedale, 1993. His first solo exhibition, entitled ‘The Last Supper Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea’, was at the Dock Museum, Barrow-in-Furness, 1992, and in 1995 he had an exhibition of paintings (entitled ‘Orange’) at the Ludus Gallery, Lancaster. He has had residencies at Barrow-in-Furness (1991--2, ‘Cumbria Craft Residency’) and at Turton, near Bolton, Lancashire (1993, Turton Tower). His sculpture commissions include Unknown New Cargo, 1991, Hull Marina (Hull Open Sculpture Competition winner); The Arrival, 1993, Grizedale Forest; and Bath-time Two x Two, 1995, ‘The Washlands’, Burton-upon-Trent, Staffordshire.
Source
: information from the sculptor. [LR 2000]

Harry Bates (1850--1899)
Sculptor: Born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire. Between 1869 and 1882 he was apprenticed and worked as a carver for Farmer & Brindley. He studied at the South London Technical Art School and then at Royal Academy Schools, where, in 1883, his Socrates Teaching in the Agora won him a travelling studentship. He went to work in Paris where he came into contact with Rodin. In Paris he modelled a triptych illustrating The Aeneid. One of the leading practitioners of the New Sculpture, Bates’ sculptures include Hounds in Leash, exhibited at the RA in 1889, Pandora, exhibited at the RA in 1890, and Mors Janua Vitae, exhibited at the RA in 1899. He was also responsible for the architectural carving on a number of buildings, including the Institute of Chartered Accountants, City of London, and Holy Trinity Church, Sloane Street, Chelsea. His public monuments include the Lord Roberts Memorial (Calcutta, 1896; copy at Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow) and the Queen Victoria Monument (Dundee, 1899).
Sources: Beattie, 1983; Noszlopy, 1998. [Man2004]

Harry Bates (1850/1--99)
Born at Stevenage, Herts., Bates was employed as a stone-carver by the firm of Farmer and Brindley, before entering the South London Technical Art School (1879--81), where he was taught briefly by Jules Dalou. He then went on to study at the Royal Academy Schools, winning a travel scholarship in 1883. The next two years he spent in Paris, in contact with Dalou. He is supposed also to have encountered Rodin. Bates became a leading member of the ‘New Sculpture’ movement, applying the new freedom of modelling associated with the movement to the treatment of Classical subjects, often in a painterly style of relief. His Aeneid Triptych, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1885, is now in the Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Glasgow. Bates’s life was short, and his free-standing subject pieces are few. They include Hounds in Leash (bronze), exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1889, and now at Gosford House, East Lothian, and Pandora (marble with ivory and bronze), shown at the Royal Academy of 1890, and now in Tate Britain. His Mors Janua Vitae, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1899 (now Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool), combines bronze, ivory and mother of pearl, to convey a symbolist message about life after death. Bates’s two public monuments are an equestrian statue of Lord Roberts for Calcutta, of which a version is in Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow, and a seated figure of Queen Victoria for Aberdeen. He provided distinguished sculpture in stone and terracotta to buildings by the architects Aston Webb, John Belcher, J.D. Sedding and Thomas Verity.
Source: S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983. [CL2003]

Harry Bates (1850--99)
Born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire. After working as an architect’s clerk he became an apprentice stone carver with Farmer & Brindley (q.v.). In 1883 he won a travelling scholarship from the RA Schools, which enabled him to study in Paris under Dalou and Rodin. He was a key figure in the New Sculpture movement, a good illustration of which is his bronze Aeneid triptych in GAGM (1883). Major public works include relief panels for John Belcher’s Institute of Chartered Accountants, London (1899) and the Monument to Queen Victoria, Dundee (1890). He was elected ARA in 1892.
Sources: BN, 3 February 1899, p.160 (obit.); Beattie, p.240; Mackay. [G2002]

Harry Bates (1850/1--1899)
Born at Stevenage, Hertfordshire. Between 1869 and 1882 he was apprenticed and worked as a carver for the well-known firm of architectural carvers, Farmer and Brindley. He went to SLTAS in 1879 and studied at the RA Schools 1881--3, during which time he won a travelling studentship. This enabled him to work in Paris 1883--5, when he was in contact with Dalou (who had taught him at SLTAS), and Rodin. He was responsible for architectural carving for various buildings including the Institute of Chartered Accountants, City of London; and Holy Trinity church, Sloane Street, Chelsea. Sculptures include: Homer, RA 1886 (relief panel); Pandora, RA 1890; Mors Janua Vitae, RA 1890; Lord Roberts Memorial, Calcutta, 1896 (copy at Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow); Queen Victoria Memorial, Dundee, 1899. AWG 1886; ARA 1892.
1
. S. Beattie, The new sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983, p.240; 2. W. Armstrong, ‘Mr. Harry Bates’, Portfolio, 1888, pp.170--4; 3. E.J. Winter Johnson, ‘Mr. Harry Bates ARA’, Artist, December 1897, pp.579--88; 4. Obituary, Magazine of Art, 1899, p.240. [B1998]

Gilbert Bayes (1872--1953)
Sculptor. Born in London. He studied at the City and Guilds Technical College, Finsbury before entering the RA Schools in 1896 where he was taught by George Frampton and Harry Bates. After winning the gold medal and travelling studentship in 1899, he spent a year studying in Italy and Paris. Inspired by medieval legend and romance, his early style was a blend of French Symbolism and English Arts and Crafts. His early work consists largely of equestrian knight statuettes, for example: Sirens of the Ford, 1899 (version at Preston); Knight Errant (Oxford, 1900), and decorative panels such as Jason Ploughing the Acre of Mars (RA, 1900), mostly cast in bronze. He also made many reliefs in terracotta, stone and various metals, decorating pedestals (Sigurd, RA, 1910) and buildings (The Aldeburgh Memorial, RA, 1917) as well as fountains and memorial sculpture. Statues include an over life-size marble figure of the Maharaja of Bickaneer (RA, 1914) and Sir William Chambers and Sir Charles Barry on the Victoria and Albert Museum. He designed and modelled stoneware for Doultons, including an ornamental clock for Selfridges and the frieze on the façade of Doulton’s London headquarters. Exhibited regularly at the RA until 1952; Salon des Artistes Français 1922--30. President of RBS, 1939--44.
Sources: Spielmann, 1901; McKenzie, 2002. [Man2004]

Gilbert Bayes (1872--1953)
London-born sculptor, he was the son of the painter and etcher Alfred Walter Bayes, and the brother of the painter Walter John Bayes. He studied at the City and Guilds College, Finsbury, and at the RA Schools, 1896--9, where he was taught by George Frampton and Harry Bates (qq.v.). After winning the Gold Medal and Travelling Scholarship in 1899, he spent three months in Italy and nine months in Paris, where he exhibited at the 1900 Exposition Universelle. He specialised in poetic and romantic subjects taken from the classics and Wagner’s operas, but also executed the statues of Sir William Chambers and Sir Charles Barry on the V&A. For J.J. Burnet’s London practice he carved a statue of Joseph Priestly at the Institute of Chemistry, Russell Square (1914), and the bronze group at the entrance to Selfridge’s, Oxford Street (1928). Elected HRI in 1918, he was awarded the RBS medal in 1935, and served as PRBS, 1939--44.
Sources: Spielmann, pp.143--4; Grant: Waters; Gray. [G2002]

Gilbert Bayes (1872--1953)
Born 4th April 1872 in London, died 10th July 1953 in London. He studied at the City and Guilds Technical College, Finsbury before entering the RA Schools in 1896 where he was taught by George Frampton and Harry Bates. After winning the gold medal and travelling studentship in 1899, he spent three months studying in Italy and nine months in Paris. Inspired by medieval legend and romance, his early style was a blend of French Symbolism and English Arts and Crafts. He also carved hieroglyphic figures in a neo-Assyrian style in many reliefs such as King Assurnasirpal, Sydney 1903--6. His early work consists largely of equestrian knight statuettes, for example: Sirens of the Ford, 1899 (version at Preston); Knight Errant, St. Cross College, Oxford 1900, and decorative panels such as Jason Ploughing the Acre of Mars, RA 1900, mostly cast in bronze. He also made many reliefs in terracotta, stone and various metals, decorating pedestals (Sigurd, RA 1910) and buildings (The Aldeburgh Memorial, RA 1917) as well as fountains and memorial sculpture. Larger statues include an over life-size marble figure of the Maharaja of Bickaneer, RA 1914. An enthusiast of polychromy, between 1929 and 1939 he designed and modelled stone-ware for Boultons, including an ornamental clock for Selfridges and the frieze on the façade of Doulton’s headquarters on the Albert Embankment. Exhibitions: regularly at the RA until 1952; Salon des Artistes Français 1922--30.
1
. W.S. Sparrow, ‘A young English sculptor: Gilbert Bayes’, The Studio, vol.25, March 1902, pp.102--8; 2. C. Marriott, ‘The recent works of Gilbert Bayes’, The Studio, vol.72, December 1917, pp.100--13; 3. J. Cooper, Nineteenth century romantic bronzes, London, 1975, p.94; 4. Beattie, 1983, pp.36, 240--1; 5. L. Irvine, ‘The architectural sculpture of Gilbert Bayes’, Journal of the Decorative Art Society, no.4, 1980, pp.5--11. [B1998]

Bedingfield and Grundy (active c.1932 -- c.1969)
Leicester-based architectural practice.
Sources
: Kelly’s Directory of . . . Leicester and Rutland (edns from 1932--69). [LR 2000]

William Behnes (1795--1864)
Sculptor and painter. Born in London, the son of a pianomaker from Hanover and his English wife. Part of his childhood was spent in Ireland, where he started attending drawing school. In 1813 he entered the Royal Academy. At this time he was painting portraits on vellum. It was the example of the sculptor Peter Chenu which persuaded William Behnes, and his brother Henry, who later changed his name to Burlowe, to adopt the sculptor’s profession. In 1819, Behnes was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Arts for the invention of ‘an instrument for transferring points to marble’. He first exhibited at the RA in 1815. Behnes’s production consists largely of portrait busts and statues. His many church monuments are modest in scale, but occasionally include emotive figures, such as the mourning son, in the monument to Mrs Botfield at Norton, Northants. In 1837, Behnes, who had sculpted Queen Victoria’s portrait in 1828, became her Sculptor in Ordinary, although this did not lead on to further commissions. His statue of Sir Henry Havelock in Trafalgar Square (1861), is reputed to have been the first statue to have been based on a photographic portrait of the subject. Behnes’s extravagant habits reduced him to destitution in his final years. Despite the predominance of portraiture in his œuvre, some ideal and imaginary works by him are recorded, including a Lady Godiva, shown at the Great Exhibition in 1851, a Cupid with Two Doves (London International Exhibition of 1862), and a relief illustrating Shakespeare’s ‘Seven Ages of Man’.
Source: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968. [CL2003]

William Behnes (c.1795--1864)
The son of a Hanoverian piano manufacturer who settled in London, Behnes worked for his father for a while before, in 1813, starting at the RA Schools. He first practised professionally as a portrait painter but then changed to sculpture c.1819, producing mainly portrait busts over the next twenty years; it is said that no other sculptor produced more. These are mostly remarkable for their bold modelling and sensitivity to facial expression.
Behnes was appointed Sculptor in Ordinary to the Queen in 1837, but thereafter received no further royal patronage. He is best known for the statue of Sir Henry Havelock in Trafalgar Square, London (1861). Sadly, as his commissions multiplied, ‘he fell into unsatisfactory habits’ and eventually died penniless. Among his commemorative statues are Dr Babbington in St Paul’s Cathedral and Sir William Follett in Westminster Abbey. His many notable pupils included Henry Weekes, Thomas Woolner, J.H. Foley and G.F. Watts.
[
1] DNB, vol.II, pp.131--2. [2] Turner, (ed.), p.59. [3] Art Journal, 1864, pp.83--4. [NE 2000]

John Bell (1811--95)
Born in Suffolk, Bell went to London at the age of 16, and enrolled in Henry Sass’s Drawing School in Soho. In 1829 he moved on to the Sculpture School of the Royal Academy. After completing his training he exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the Society of Arts, and became a founder member of the Etching Club in 1838. In 1839 he was an unsuccessful entrant for the Nelson Memorial competition. It was, however, with his ideal works that Bell first attracted the attention of critics and public. His figure of Dorothea, inspired by an episode in Don Quixote, shown at the Royal Academy in 1839, proved especially popular. A marble version was commissioned by Lord Lansdowne, and like many of Bell’s compositions it was later adopted by the Minton factory as a Parian Ware statuette. Bell’s Eagle Slayer, a poetic conception of his own, was ideal sculpture of a more heroic and morally elevated kind. It was shown first at the Royal Academy in 1837, but often thereafter in a variety of materials. As a public statuary, Bell was employed first at the Sydenham Crystal Palace in 1853, and in the following year he produced two historical figures for St Stephen’s Hall, Westminster. He adopted a sombre, heroic style and symmetrical composition for the Wellington Memorial in the Guildhall (1856), and again in 1860 for the Guards Crimean War Memorial in Waterloo Place. Bell’s proposal of a kneeling figure of the Consort in medieval armour for the Albert Memorial was not adopted, but he was commissioned to produce the marble group of America for the north-west corner of the memorial. Positioned on the memorial in 1870, this group, with its five symbolic figures around a charging bison, was described as ‘a really great work’ by The Times, at the unveiling in 1872. In 1847, Bell had co-operated with Henry Cole in his attempt to introduce artistic quality into domestic utensils, the so-called Felix Summerly’s Art Manufactures, and he went on to provide many models for industrial reproduction in a variety of materials. The Coalbrookdale Ironworks and Minton’s were his most frequent collaborators. Bell was a poet and art theorist, a frequent contributor to Building News and the Journal of the Society of Arts.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; B. Read, Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982; R. Barnes, John Bell. The Sculptor’s Life and Work, Kirstead, 1999. [CL2003]

Robert Anning Bell (1863--1933)
Painter, decorative artist, and illustrator, designing mosaics, stained glass, fabrics (for Morris & Co.), and wallpapers (for Essex & Co.). Born in London, he was first articled to an architect, later studying at the RA and in Paris. For a time he shared a London studio with George Frampton with whom he collaborated. He was Professor of Art in the Department of Applied Art, University College, Liverpool, 1894--98; Professor of Decorative Art at Glasgow School of Art from 1911; and Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, London, 1918--24. He was a Member of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, and the Royal Watercolour Society. He was also a member of the Art Worker’s Guild, becoming a Master in 1921. He was elected ARA in 1914 and RA in 1922. Important commissions include the tympanum mosaics in the main porch of Westminster Cathedral (1902, to a design by J.A. Marshall); the main front mosaics on the Horniman Museum, South London, 1902; the north front mosaics on Birmingham University and also the St Andrew and St Patrick mosaics in the central lobby of the House of Lords (1923--24).
(source: Gray, 1985) [L 1997]

Frantisek (Franta) Belsky (1921--2000)
Sculptor. Born in Brno, Czechoslovakia, son of economist, Joseph Belsky. At 16 he won prize in sculpture competition in Prague. Family fled to England in 1938. Belsky studied at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. He joined other Czech exiles in the army to fight during the war, serving in the artillery, and was decorated for his wartime service. He restarted his education, studying sculpture at the Royal College of Art. As a sculptor he was known for his portraiture but also produced abstract sculpture and architectural works. Portrait busts include Cecil Day-Lewis (National Portrait Gallery, 1952), Admiral Lord Cunningham (Trafalgar Square, 1967), Harry S. Truman (Presidential Library, Independence, Missouri, 1974), John Piper (National Portrait Gallery, 1987) and Winston Churchill (Churchill College, Cambridge). Belsky also executed many busts of members of the royal family. His public statues include Winston Churchill (Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri; British Embassy, Prague) and Lord Mountbatten of Burma (Horseguards Avenue, London, 1983). Other sculptures include Joy Ride (Town Square, Stevenage, 1957) and Triga (Callex House, Knightsbridge, 1958). The massive Shell Centre Fountain (Lambeth, 1963) is also by Belsky. Long-serving member and president of RSBS. Governor of St Martin’s School of Art, 1967--88. He married Margaret Owen in 1964, who was to become better known as the cartoonist, Belsky. She died in 1989. In 1996 he married the Czech sculptor, Irena Sedlecka. Vaclav Havel presented Belsky with Presidential Medal of Merit in 1999.
Sources: Belsky, 1992; Guardian, 7 July 2000. [Man2004]

Richard Charles Belt
Belt worked as an ornamentalist in the studio of the sculptor John Henry Foley. From 1871, he was an assistant to Charles Lawes, a pupil of Foley. In 1875 Belt became independent, and in 1879 won the competition for the Byron Monument for Park Lane, London, a project promoted by Benjamin Disraeli. Following the statue’s unveiling in 1880, an article appeared in the magazine Vanity Fair, claiming that all the work produced by Belt between 1876 and 1880, including the Byron statue, had been executed by foreign assistants. The article led to the famous Belt v. Lawes libel case of 1882--4. This case hinged on the question of artistic authenticity. Belt won the case, and was commissioned in 1885 by the Corporation of the City of London, to create a replica of Francis Bird’s statue of Queen Anne in front of St Paul’s. The following year, Belt was jailed for the fraudulent sale of jewellery. He had exhibited busts at the Royal Academy since 1873, but ceased to exhibit in 1885. Other works by him are the memorial to Izaak Walton in St Mary’s Church, Stoke-on-Trent (1878), and an undated female nude, entitled Hypatia (marble, Drapers’ Company Hall, London). Until it was destroyed in the Second World War, Belt’s bust of Disraeli (1882) stood in the City of London Guildhall.
Sources: B. Read, Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982; The Times, Law Reports from 1882, 1883 and 1884. [CL2003]

Beltane Studios (1996--)
Foundry and sculpture fabrication workshop established by three brothers Ruaraig, Iomhar and Njord Maciver in a converted water-mill building in Peebles. In addition to casting bronze work by artists such as Allison Bell, Vincent Butler and Scott Associates (qq.v.), the firm also undertakes independent sculptural commissions, a recent example of which is the replacement of the full-size bronze figure (itself copied from Alexander Carrick’s war memorial at Blairgowrie) which had been stolen from the Walkerburn War Memorial in 1997. Current projects include a Millennium Fountain for the proposed Eastgate Theatre in Peebles.
Source: information provided by the company. [G2002]

Zadok Ben-David (b. 1949)
Sculptor born in Bayhan, Yemen. His family later moved to Israel and from 1971--3 he studied at Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, Jerusalem. He moved to England in 1974 and was assistant to sculptor N.H. Azaz. In 1975 he entered Reading University to study Fine Art and in 1976 took the advanced course in sculpture at St Martin’s School of Art and Design. He himself taught sculpture at St Martin’s from 1977--82 and then, from 1982--5, at Ravensbourne College of Art and Design, Bromley. He had his first solo exhibition at the Air Gallery, London, in 1980. Other solo exhibitions include Woodlands Art Gallery, London, 1982, and the Benjamin Rhodes Gallery, London, 1987 and 1992. In 1987 he was artist-in-residence at Stoke-on-Trent City Art Gallery and in the following year represented Israel (jointly with Moti Mizrachi) at the Venice Biennale.
Sources
: Benjamin Rhodes Gallery, 1987; Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990. [LR 2000]

Philip Benson (b.1950)
Self-taught sculptor, who took up wood carving for therapeutic reasons in 1990, and who has since made a speciality out of carving large animals from storm-damaged trees in the west end of Glasgow.
Source: Eddie Toal, ‘Wood you believe it’, ET, 5 June 1995, p.3. [G2002]

Percy George Bentham (1883--1936)
Sculptor. Studied at the City and Guilds of London School of Art, the RA Schools and in Paris as well as under Alfred Drury and W.R. Colton. Bentham was based in London. His works include ideal figures, portrait busts and war memorials. He exhibited at the RA from 1915 to 1930. His work included The Angler (1916) and The Bubble-blower (1917). Bentham also provided figures for a fountain in Hayling Island.
Source: Usherwood, 2000. [Man2004]

Percy George Bentham (1883--1936)
Bentham studied at the City and Guilds of London School of Art, the RA schools and in Paris as well as under Alfred Drury and W.R. Colton. His works include portrait busts, statues and many war memorials. He exhibited at the RA from 1915.
Source: Who Was Who, 1929--40, London, 1941. [WCS2003]

Percy George Bentham (1883--1936)
Studied at the City and Guilds of London School of Art, the RA Schools and in Paris as well as under Alfred Drury and W.R. Colton. His works include portrait busts, statues and ‘many war memorials’. He exhibited at the RA from 1915.
[
1] Who Was Who, 1929--1940, London, 1941, p.98. [NE 2000]

Phillip Bentham (b.1910)
The son of Percy Bentham, he studied at the Central School of Arts and Crafts and Kennington School of Woodworking. He began work in his father’s Fulham Road studio. He was in the RAF during the Second World War, spending three and a half years in a Japanese prisoner of war camp. Phillip Bentham was primarily an architectural sculptor working in bronze and stone. His work included the clock figures on Fortnum and Masons in Piccadilly. In 1966 he was based in London but, by 1980, he was living and working in Worthing. He had associations with the Morris Singer foundry.
Source: Herbert Art Gallery and Museum/City of Coventry Libraries, Arts and Museums Department, A Survey of Public Art in Coventry, 1980. [WCS2003]

James Beresford & Sons
Monumental masons based in Belper, Derbyshire, who executed war memorials for Matlock Bath (1921), Cannock Chase (1923) and Scunthorpe (1926), as well as several other smaller memorials in Derbyshire. In 1900, the company also had a branch in Derby.
Sources: Kelly’s Directories for Belper and Derby, 1900; Information provided by Jane Furlong, Project Officer for the United Kingdom National Inventory of War Memorials, 28 April 2004. [SBC2005]

Anna Best (b. 1965)
Born in London, Best completed a foundation course at Hounslow Borough College, 1983--4, then studied at the Art Students’ League of New York in 1984. Studying under Dick Whall, she gained a first-class honours degree in Fine Art (Sculpture) at Coventry Polytechnic. Her sculptures are designed in whatever medium is most appropriate for their specific location. She has won several awards, including a British Council travel grant to America (1991) and a Sculpture Space Inc., New York, funded residency (1993). In 1988 she established the Red Cow Studios Co-operative. In 1991 she was a participant at the Triangle Artists’ Workshop in New York, and in 1992 she was both co-ordinator and participant in the Shave Artists’ Workshop, Somerset. From 1989, Best lectured part-time at the Chelsea School of Art and at Hounslow Borough College. Her exhibitions include the McGrigor Donald Sculpture Prize Exhibition and tour, 1990; Lockbund Sculpture Exhibition, Oxford Art Week, and On Site, Bermondsey, 1992, and Burning Toast, a collaborative work with Richard Reynolds, 1993.
Source: information from the artist. [WCS2003]

Philip Bews (b.1951)
Before turning to sculpture in the early 1980s, Bews worked as a landscape architect for Runcorn New Town Development Corporation. He works in a wide variety of materials, including stone, wood, steel, bronze, cast cement and ephemeral natural materials, mainly in collaboration with his partner, Diane Gorvin. Much of their largely figurative work is commissioned for public sites by local and national government and by industry. His major commissions include Deal Porters (1990, Surrey Quays, London Docklands), Pigs and Donkey for Barnards Wharf, Rotherhithe (1992, funded by London Docklands Development Corporation), Time and Tide (1993, Queen’s Dock, Liverpool, for HM Customs and Excise), Janus (1994, Warrington), Queen of Mercia (also 1994, for Manchester Ship Canal Company), Mill Girl and Calf (1995, Burnley), Dragon (1996, St Wilfrid’s Park, Hulme, Manchester), Electrolysis (1997, for ICI, Runcorn), Shell Seats (also 1997, for Blackpool Borough Council) and Old Father Thames (1999, Gabriel’s Wharf, London). More recently, he has been working on public sculptures that reflect the area’s industrial past for Dudley’s southern bypass. Up until 1996, exhibitions of his work were limited to north-west England, but he has since exhibited more widely, in Western Australia (1996), London (1997), Gloucestershire (1997 and 1998), Oxfordshire (1998) and Herefordshire (1998).
Sources: AXIS, The Axis Database Online, 1999, www.axisartists.org.uk/; Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.145; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.323. [SBC2005]

Philip Bews (b. 1951)
After taking a degree course in Landscape Architecture at Manchester Polytechnic, 1970--74, he was employed by Runcorn New Town Development Corporation as an associate landscape architect, 1974--82. From 1982--86 he was at Liverpool Polytechnic, where he was awarded first class BA (Hons) in Fine Art. In 1986--87 he was awarded a Sir John Moores Scholarship in Fine Art and, in the same years, was sculptor-in-residence at Birchwood Community and High School, Warrington. In 1988--89 he was part-time tutor in sculpture and three-dimensional studies at Wirral Metropolitan College. He has shown in various group exhibitions and his major commissions include Covetina (1988, Norton Priory Museum, Runcorn); Survivor (1989, Wirral Country Park, Thurstaston); Deal Porters (1990, Surrey Quays, London Docklands); Pigs and Donkey (1992, Barnards Wharf, London Docklands); Brian Bevan Memorial (1993, Warrington); and Stone Carving (1994, Grosvenor Park Garden for the Blind, Chester). His most important public work in Liverpool has been executed in collaboration with Diane Gorvin.
(source: Bews) [L 1997]

Jon Bickley
Born in the Midlands, he grew up in Lichfield. He studied at Norwich School of Art. Bickley, who lives at Old Buckenham, Norfolk, is an animal sculptor. He has worked as a zoo-keeper with big cats and Asian elephants, and while doing this work modelled and painted his charges. He won the Crown Estates Conservation Award at an exhibition of the Society of Wildlife Artists at the Mall Gallery. He has recently been producing work using scrap metal.
Source: information provided by the Mall Gallery. [CL2003]

William Henry Bidlake (1861--1938)
Architect. Son of the church architect, George Bidlake of Wolverhampton, Bidlake went to Tettenhall College, Wolverhampton and Christ Church College, Cambridge. Articled to Sir Robert Edis and Bodley and Garner, Bidlake was also assistant to Sir Rowland Anderson RSA. He entered the RA Schools in 1883, winning the RIBA Pugin Prize in 1895. Moving to Birmingham in 1887, he joined John Cotton in an architectural partnership and designed many churches in Birmingham and the West Midlands. His works include St Thomas, Stourbridge; St Oswald of Worcester, Bordesley (1892--3); Branch School of Art, Moseley (1904); St Patrick, Earlswood, Warwickshire (1899--1901); St Leonard, Dordon, Warwickshire, south aisle (1901); Bishop Latimer Memorial Church, Hands­worth (1903); St Mary, Wythall, Worcestershire (1903); Emmanuel Church, Wylde Green, Sutton Coldfield (1909); additions to St Stephen, Small Heath, 1910 (since demolished). Bidlake’s houses include Withens, 5 Barker Road, Sutton Coldfield (1898); Woodside and The Dean, Bracebridge Road, Birmingham. He was an instructor at Birmingham Central School of Art and helped to form Birmingham College of Architecture, becoming its Director. He was awarded the Gold Medal by the Birmingham Civic Society in 1923.
Sources: Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, a biographical dictionary, London, 1985; RIBA Journal, obituary, 10 January 1938. [WCS2003]

William Henry Bidlake (1861--1938)
Architect, the son of the Wolverhampton-based church architect George Bidlake. He was articled to Sir Robert Edis and Bodley and Garner, and was assistant to (Sir) R. Rowand Anderson. In 1883 Bidlake entered the Royal Academy Schools and in 1885 won the RIBA Pugin Prize. In 1887 he joined John Cotton (also a Pugin Prize winner) in a Birmingham-based partnership which went on to design numerous churches and houses in Birmingham and the West Midlands, specialising in an Arts and Crafts style. Bidlake was also an instructor at Birmingham Central School of Art and was instrumental in the establishment of the Birmingham College of Art School of Architecture of which he became a Director. In Leicestershire, in addition to the Houghton-on-the-Hill war memorials (see p.62), he designed The Knole, Stoneygate, Leicester (1910). He exhibited at the RA in 1909 and 1931. In 1923 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Birmingham Civic Society. He retired to Bestbeech, West Sussex, and died 6 April 1938 in the house he had built there.
Sources
: Gray, A.S., 1985; Service, A., 1977. [LR 2000]

John Bingley (fl.1773--1802)
London-based sculptor who in c.1790 went into partnership with J.C.F. Rossi producing principally works in terracotta. The partnership got into financial difficulties, however, and was dissolved within a few years. As an independent practitioner Bingley designed a number of carved marble chimney-pieces, for patrons such as the Duke of Bridgewater (1796, Cleveland House, London) and Mr Henry Peters (one for his country seat at Betchworth Castle, Surrey, and another for his London house in Park Street, both 1801). Bingley also executed a number of church monuments, including those to Mary Darker (died 1773) and John Darker (died 1784), Church of St Bartholomew the Less, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, James Evelyn (died 1793), St Nicholas’s Church, Godstone, Surrey, and Captain Willcox (died 1798), Church of St Mary and St Bega, St Bees, Cumbria.
Sources
: Good, M. (compiler), 1995; Gunnis, R., [1964]. [LR 2000]

J.G. Binney
J.G. Binney is referred to as the sculptor for South Shields Town Hall. It is not clear whether he was related to, or the same person as, H.C. Binney who exhibited 1893--1922 with works in the Walker Art Gallery and at the Birmingham Royal Society of Artists.
[
1] Gunnis, p.196. [2] Johnson, J. and Greutzner, A., Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976, p.57. [NE 2000]

Charles Bell Birch (1832--93)
At the age of 12 Birch attended drawing classes under Alfred Stevens at the Royal Academy. In 1846, he went to Berlin with his parents, continuing his sculpture studies at the Berlin Academy and in the studios of C.D. Rauch and L.W. Wichmann. In 1852 he returned to England and became a student at the Royal Academy, winning two medals. He then worked for ten years in the studio of J.H. Foley, at first as a pupil and later as an assistant. He built up a solid career during the 1860s and 1870s in portrait busts, statues and medallions. When Foley died in 1874, he took over the management of his studio. He later gained a reputation for representing contemporary military heroes in action, notably the statues Lieutenant Walter R. Pollack Hamilton, V.C., Royal Dublin Society (1880) and Major General Earle (1883, Liverpool). Other works include his memorial statues Disraeli (1883, Liverpool); Earl of Dudley (1888, Dudley); and Earl of Beaconsfield [Disraeli], Junior Constitutional Club, London (1893).
Sources: Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.323; Graves, A., Royal Academy Exhibitors 1769--1904, London, 1905, pp.197--8; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.349f., 363; Thieme, U. and Becker, F., Allegemeines Lexikon der Bildenen Kunstler, Leipzig, 1910, pp.46--7; Underwood, E.G., A Short History of English Sculpture, London, 1933, p.108; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.450. [SBC2005]

Charles Bell Birch (1832--93)
Sculptor. Born in Brixton, London. Studied at the School of Design, Somerset House, 1844--6, before continuing his studies at Berlin Royal Academy and in the studios of the sculptors, Ludwig Wilhelm Wichmann and Christian Rauch. On his return to England in 1852 he entered the RA Schools, gaining two medals. Birch’s life-size sculpture, The Wood Nymph, won a £500 prize from the Art Union for the ‘best ideal figure’ in 1864. He worked as pupil and then principal assistant to J.H. Foley, on whose death in 1874 he succeeded to his Regent’s Park studio. A frequent exhibitor at the RA, noted for his naturalistically-conceived military groups. These included the memorial to Lieutenant W.R. Pollock Hamilton VC, who died defending the British Residency in Kabul, and The Last Call (1879). His portrait statues include a colossal bronze Disraeli (1883) and Major-General William Earle (1887), both outside St George’s Hall, Liverpool. A bronze study of Queen Victoria had versions commissioned for India and England. Birch was elected ARA in 1880.
Sources: DNB; Magazine of Art, 1894; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

Charles Bell Birch (1832--93)
Born in Brixton, London, Birch studied at the Government School of Design in Somerset House between 1844 and 1846. He then travelled with his father to Berlin, continuing his sculpture studies at the Berlin Academy and in the studios of C.D. Rauch and L.W. Wichmann. On his return to England in 1852 he entered the Royal Academy, where he won two medals. He then worked for ten years, first as a pupil, then as principal assistant in the studio of J.H. Foley. When Foley died in 1874, Birch took over the management of the studio. He had already by this time received a premium of £600 from the Art Union for his life-size figure of A Wood Nymph in 1864. Birch gained a reputation for his representations of contemporary military heroes in action. The first of these was a group, exhibited in 1880 at the Royal Academy, of Lieutenant R. Pollock Hamilton, pistol and sabre in hand, striding over a fallen Afghan tribesman, now in the collection of the Royal Dublin Society. In the same year Birch became one of the council members for the newly-established City of London Society of Arts. He designed the society’s seal. The year 1880 also saw Birch create the celebrated City dragon in bronze atop the Temple Bar Memorial in Fleet Street, which attracted some unfavourable attention at the time. His jubilee statue of Queen Victoria, a cast of which was erected posthumously on the Victoria Embankment, had been created originally for Udaipur in India. Versions of it exist in seven different locations.
Source: DNB. [CL2003]

Charles Bell Birch (1832--93)
Born at Brixton, London. From 1844--46 he was a pupil at the School of Design, Somerset, but moved in 1846 to Berlin with his father, studying at the Academy of Arts and in the studios of Ludwig Wilhelm Wichmann and Christian Rauch. Whilst still in Berlin he executed a plaster bust of the English ambassador, subsequently carried out in marble for the King of Prussia. On his return to England in 1852 he entered the RA Schools, gaining two medals. He then worked for ten years as pupil and then principal assistant in the studio of J.H. Foley, and on his master’s death in 1874 succeeded to his Regent’s Park studio. In 1864 Birch won a premium of £600 from the Art-Union for his life-size figure, A Wood Nymph. From this time he was a frequent exhibitor at the RA, where his dramatically-composed, naturalistically-conceived military groups were much admired. These and his many commissions for portrait statues led to his election as ARA in 1880.
(DNB, 1901; Magazine of Art, 1894) [L 1997]

Francis Bird (1667--1731)
Born in London, he was sent to Flanders when about 11 years of age, where he studied, according to George Vertue, under the sculptor ‘Cozins’. This was possibly the obscure Henry Cosyns. He then went on to Rome, where he stayed until 1689. On his return to London, he worked with Grinling Gibbons and C.G. Cibber, but then returned to Rome for a further nine months, studying with the French sculptor Pierre Legros. Immediately upon his return to London, Bird executed a statue of Henry VIII after Holbein, for St Bartholomew’s Hospital. Between 1705 and 1725 he worked on the sculptural decoration of St Paul’s, and on the multi-figure monument to Queen Anne in front of the cathedral’s western entrance (the original monument is now at Holmhurst, Sussex). Between 1717 and 1721, he produced a number of portraits of founders and other statues for collegiate buildings in Oxford. In 1711 Bird became one of the directors of Sir Godfrey Kneller’s Academy on its foundation. Amongst the ‘electors’ of this Academy was the architect James Gibbs, who, like Bird, was a Catholic. They worked together on the huge tomb of John Holles, Duke of Newcastle (1723), in Westminster Abbey, whose design and execution proclaim the Roman training of its two authors. Nevertheless Bird seems to have been more at his ease in smaller monuments, like the one to Dr Grabe (d. 1711), also in Westminster Abbey, or the macabre wall monument to Mrs Benson (1710) in St Leonard’s Shoreditch. Bird produced little in the final years of his life, but in one late work, the monument to William Congreve (1729) in Westminster Abbey, he conspicuously rejected the current taste for Antiquity, and showed Congreve in modern costume, surrounded by the attributes of his art.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; R. Rendel, ‘Francis Bird, Sculptor 1667--1731’, Journal of Recusant History, II, no.4, 1972; M. Whinney, Sculpture in Britain1530--1830, revised by J. Physick, London, 1988. [CL2003]

Birmingham Guild of Handicrafts
Established in 1890 by local admirers of Ruskin and Morris, with Montegue Fordham as one of the first directors. W.H. Bidlake, the architect, was an honorary director. The Guild employed about twenty craftsmen and occupied a medieval building, Kyrle Hall, in Sheep Street, Birmingham. The Guild expanded and in 1895 became a limited company with the Right Hon. William Kenrick MP as a director. Arthur Dixon (1856--1929), metalworker, was a chief designer for the Guild and he wrote a summary of the Guild’s aims and ideals for The Quest (vol.II), a quarterly magazine hand-printed on the premises in Sheep Street. In 1910 financial problems were resolved by amalgamation with the metal-working firm of E. & R. Gittins, who made jewellery as well as the architectural metalwork in which the Guild specialised. The Guild is still in existence and has added agricultural and light engineering work to the architectural work it does.
Source: Anscombe, I. and Gere, C., Arts and crafts in Britain and America, London, 1978. [WCS2003]

Douglas Bisset (1908--2000)
Born in Strichen, Aberdeenshire, he left school at the age of fourteen and did not begin attending art classes until he became involved in a charitable foundation at Christchurch, in the east end of Glasgow in the late 1920s. He then became an apprentice with Holmes & Jackson (q.v.), and began attending sculpture classes as a part-time student under Archibald Dawson (q.v.) at GSA, where he also later worked as a pupil-teacher. In 1932 he won the Keppie Scholarship, which allowed him to travel to Copenhagen, where he continued his studies under the Danish Neo-classicist Einar Utzon-Frank (1888--1955). As the winner of the Prix de Rome he travelled to Italy in 1939, but his strongly anti-Fascist views forced him to transfer to Athens, where he worked at the British School of Archaeology. After the Second World War he was Head of Sculpture at Leeds School of Art and the City and Guilds School of Art, London, and in 1980 he moved to Mexico for health reasons, not returning to Glasgow until 1995. He produced mainly portrait busts and female nudes for private collectors, very rarely exhibiting his work. There are two bronze busts by him in GAGM and a plaster portrait of William Stewart, produced on May Day, 1930, in the People’s Palace Museum.
Sources: Johnstone; recorded interview with Ian Harrison, 13 January 1980. [G2002]

Michael Black
An Oxford-based sculptor, who has worked as a portraitist, and as a restorer of Oxford’s ancient monuments. In 1971 he took a death-mask of the academic, Sir Maurice Bowra. A cast of this mask, and a bronze bust of Sacheverell Sitwell (1985) by Black are in the National Portrait Gallery, London. In the early 1970s, he was commissioned by the Hebdomadal Council of Oxford University to replace the 13 herm busts around the exterior of Sir Christopher Wren’s Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford. The busts had already been replaced once before in 1868. Black pursued the remaining seventeenth-century originals before carving his own versions in Clipsham stone. Around this time, he made a replacement Pelican for the sundial of Corpus Christi College. Work for the City of London followed. In 1976 his monument to Reuter was inaugurated in Royal Exchange Buildings, and in 1984/5 he carved the niche figures of Crutched Friars for the Commercial Union Insurance Office.
Sources: ‘Sheldonian Busts’, Architectural Review, November 1970, pp.280--1; J. Blackwood, London’s Immortals, London, 1989. [CL2003]

Kevin Blackwell
Leicestershire sculptor. He studied at Leicester Polytechnic and Sheffield Polytechnic and took a postgraduate degree at Dundee. His first exhibition was in 1986 in Yorkshire.
Source
: L. Mercury, 9 July 1993. [LR 2000]

Naomi Blake (b. 1924)
She was born in Czechoslovakia, and survived internment in Auschwitz. From 1955--60, she studied at Hornsey School of Art, and then worked in Milan, Rome and Jerusalem, before settling definitively in London. She showed with the Society of Portrait Sculptors from 1962. Numerous works by her have been placed in public institutions, including the North London Collegiate School (1972), Bournemouth Synagogue (1975), Bristol Cathedral (1980), Walsingham Parish Church (1988), and Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital (1990). In recent years she has exhibited at the New Academy Gallery & Business Art Gallery, London.
Sources: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists Since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

Naomi Blake (b. 1924)
Sculptor born in Czechoslovakia and interned during the Second World War in Auschwitz concentration camp. She studied at Hornsey School of Art, 1955--60, and worked in Milan, Rome and Jerusalem, eventually settling in London in the 1970s. She has shown in numerous exhibitions including several from 1962 onwards at the Society of Portrait Sculptors, as well as others at the Woodstock Gallery, 1972; Magdalene Street Gallery, 1976; Alwin Gallery, 1977 and 1979; Embankment Gallery, 1980; Royal West of England Academy, 1989; and Chelmsford Cathedral Festival, 1991. She was elected an associate member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1979. Her publicly-sited sculptures include View II, 1977, Fitzroy Square, London; Image, 1979, Waterlow Park, Highgate, London; Refugee, 1981, Bristol Cathedral Garden; Mother and Child, 1984, Norwich Cathedral Precinct; Sanctuary, 1985, the churchyard of St Botolph Aldgate, London; and Renew Our Days, 1986, forecourt of the Sternberg Centre for Judaism, Finchley, London. Her work is generally abstract but often with a strong figurative element.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; National Art Library information file; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

John Blakeley (b. 1929)
Sculptor. Born in Stockport. He worked as a cabinet-maker before spending two years in the Royal Marine Commandos. He then became a lumberjack in Canada. Blakeley studied sculpture at Stockport Art College and then under Professor Carlos Nicholi in Italy. Blakeley returned to Stockport. Among his works is a memorial at Ravensbruck Concentration Camp in the form of a bronze statue of a mother and child, and Young Christ in the Temple in St Mary’s Church, Stockport. His portrait busts include Joseph Smith, commissioned by the Mormon Church, Salt Lake City.
Source: Stockport Messenger, 18 September 1981. [Man2004]

John Blakeley (b. 1946)
Blakeley was born in Blackpool, and studied at the local School of Art between 1962--5. Between 1965--6 he studied at the St Martin’s School of Art, and then at the City and Guilds of London Art School (1966--70), becoming a member of the SPS and an associate of the RBS. Currently living and working in Welwyn Garden City, he has taught at the Sir John Cass College, and is mainly noted for his work in clay and stone. Exhibitions include the Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston, Guildhall, Royal Exchange, and Mall Galleries.
Source: information from the artist. [WCS2003]

John Marriot Blashfield (fl.1839--1870)
Blashfield opened a terracotta works at Poplar after buying some of Coade’s moulds when William Croggan closed down the factory in 1836. In 1858, he moved to Stamford, Lincolnshire, where he employed a number of sculptors to model for him. Works turned out by Blashfield’s firm include the urns for the Royal Mausoleum at Windsor; vases for Buckingham, Kew and Hampton Court Palaces; and a heroic Apollo Belvedere for the Earl of Normanton. He also supplied a number of works for the Crystal Palace, a statue of Australia, four colossal Tritons and a fountain for the Renaissance Court.
Sources: Dawson, J., The Wedgwood Memorial Institute, Burslem, 1894; Dobraszczyc, A., A Walk Around the Wedgwood Institute, Burslem, WEA Social History Walks, University of Keele, undated; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964, p.56; Illustrated London News, 11 October 1873; Kelly, A., Mrs. Coade’s Stone, Upton upon Severn, 1990; Swale, A., ‘The Terracotta of the Wedgwood Institute, Burslem’, Journal of the Tiles and Architectural Ceramics Society, vol.2, 1987, p.22; Wedgwood Institute (Burslem Library), Files. [SBC2005]

Sir Reginald Blomfield (1856--1942)
Architect and writer. Born in Devon. He trained as architect, articled to Arthur Blomfield, 1881. Established his own practice in 1884. Blomfield became a leading figure in the Art Workers’ Guild in the 1880s. He was also an influential writer, books such as The Formal Garden in England (1892) touching on a subject that was to be one of his primary interests. In 1918 he was appointed by the Imperial War Graves Commission, with Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, to design the military cemeteries in France and Belgium. His own contributions included the symbolic War Cross and the Menin Gate at Ypres.
Source: Fellows, 1985. [Man2004]

William James Bloye (1890--1975)
Bloye studied at Birmingham School of Art (1904--9) and at the Royal Academy (1914). During 1917 he became a part-time teacher of modelling at two branch schools of the Birmingham School of Art. In 1919 he was appointed as the new full-time teacher of modelling at the Central School in Margaret Street. He spent two four-week periods as a pupil of Eric Gill at Ditchling in Sussex in 1921 and 1922, training in stone carving and letter cutting. This acquaintance with Gill proved to be a significant influence on Bloye’s work. By about 1925 he had a thriving studio in Golden Hillock Road, Small Heath, where he was engaged on many public commissions, particularly for architectural carving, and was himself employing no less than seven assistants, all of whom had trained under him at the School of Art. In 1925 Bloye became a member of Birmingham’s Civic Society and from this period established himself as the city’s unofficial civic sculptor receiving virtually all commissions of an official nature, including work for libraries, hospitals, clinics and the University as well as a number of carved signs for public houses. He retired from the School of Art in 1956 and moved to Solihull, continuing to execute commissions, mainly fountains and portrait busts, until his death. The School of Art in Birmingham has a collection of his maquettes.
Sources: Birmingham Post Yearbook and Who’s Who 1967--68, p.789; Birmingham Post, 15 June 1938, 21 March 1952 and 29 May 1967; Information provided by Edward Allen, senior partner of S.N. Cooke, April 1985; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.184; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.247; Royal Academy of Arts, Student Registers 1890--1922, p.30. [SBC2005]

William James Bloye (1890--1975)
Bloye studied at Birmingham School of Art 1904--9, receiving the William Kenrick Scholarship for 1905--6 and from early in 1914 until the outbreak of the First World War he studied sculpture at the Royal Academy. In 1917 he became a part-time teacher of modelling at Vittoria Street and City Road Schools -- two branch schools of the School of Art. In 1919 he was appointed as the new full-time teacher of modelling at the Central School at Margaret Street, providing that he be allowed time and facilities to continue his own training which had been interrupted by the war. He spent two four-week periods as a pupil of Eric Gill at Ditchling in Sussex in 1921 and 1922, paid for by the Birmingham School of Art. Here he trained in stone carving and letter cutting, both areas in which the School was seen to be deficient by a Board of Education Report of 1921. This acquaintance with Gill proved to be a significant influence on Bloye’s work. By about 1925 Bloye had a thriving studio in Golden Hillock Road, Small Heath, where he was engaged on many public commissions, particularly for architectural carving, and was himself employing no less than seven assistants, all of whom had trained under him at the School of Art. In 1925 Bloye became a member of Birmingham’s Civic Society and from this period established himself as the city’s unofficial civic sculptor receiving virtually all commissions of an official nature, including work for libraries, hospitals, clinics and the University. He retired from the School of Art in 1956 and moved to Solihull, continuing to execute commissions, mainly fountains and portrait busts, up until his death.
Sources: Information provided by Edward Allen, senior partner of S.N. Cooke, April 1985; Birmingham Post Yearbook and Who’s Who 1967--68; Royal Academy of Arts, Student Registers 1890--1922; Birmingham Post [i] 29 May 1967 [ii] 21 March 1952 [iii] 15 June 1938. [WCS2003]

William James Bloye (1890--1975)
Born in Cornwall in 1890, he died on 6th June 1975 in Arezzo, Italy. He studied at Birmingham School of Art 1904--9, receiving the William Kenrick Scholarship for 1905--6 and from 1914 until the outbreak of World War I he studied sculpture at the Royal Academy. In 1917 he became a part-time teacher of modelling at Vittoria Street and City Road Schools -- two branch schools of the Birmingham School of Art. In 1919 he was appointed as the new full-time teacher of modelling at the Central School at Margaret Street, providing that he be allowed time and facilities to continue his own training which had been interrupted by the war. He spent two four-week periods as a pupil of Eric Gill at Ditchling in Sussex in 1921 and 1922, paid for by the School. Here he trained in stone-carving and letter-cutting, both areas in which the School was seen to be deficient by a Board of Education Report of 1921. This acquaintance with Gill proved to be a significant influence on Bloye’s work. By about 1925 Bloye had a thriving studio in Golden Hillock Road, Small Heath, where he was engaged on many public commissions, particularly for architectural carving, and was himself employing no less than seven assistants, all of whom had trained under him at the School of Art. In 1925 Bloye became a member of Birmingham’s Civic Society and from this period established himself as the city’s unofficial civic sculptor receiving virtually all commissions of an official nature, including work for libraries, hospitals, clinics and the University. He retired from the School of Art in 1956 and moved to Solihull, continuing to execute commissions, mainly fountains and portrait busts, up until his death. ARBS 1934; FRBS 1938.
1
. Information given in phone call by Edward Allen, Senior Partner of S.N. Cooke, architects, April 1985; 2. Post, 15th June 1938; 3. Post, 21st March 1952; 4. Post, 29th May 1967; 5. Royal Academy of Arts, Students Registers 1890--1922, p.30; 6. Birmingham Post year book and who’s who 1967--68, Birmingham, 1968, p.789. [B1998]

Judith Bluck (b. 1936)
Sculptor. Born in London. Apprenticeship in engraving. Yorkshire-based sculptor working in different media including bronze and brick. Animal sculptures include Small Workhorse (Ealing Broadway, 1985), Sheep (Milton Keynes) and Otter Group (The Lanes, Carlisle). Works in brick include The Legend of the Iron Gates (Sainsbury supermarket, Wilmslow, Cheshire). Other commissions include St Francis of Assisi (Bristol), Security Doors (Crown Courts, Portsmouth), Crucible Fountain (Sheffield, 1979), Natural Force II (Yorkshire Building Society, Bradford), Jimmy Dyer (Carlisle) and Boy on a Capstan (Whitehaven). Fellow of RSBS, member of the Society of Portrait Sculptors and Art Workers’ Guild. Winner of Otto Beit medal and awards from the Société des Artistes Français.
Sources: artist; Yorkshire Building Society. [Man2004]

Helaine Blumenfeld (b.1943)
Blumenfeld acquired a Doctorate in Philosophy in 1963, and then studied under Ossip Zadkine in Paris during the mid-1960s, where she learnt to work in clay, wood, stone and metal. She moved to England in 1969. Her work is strongly rooted in classical mythology. She states that, ‘For me mythology has to do with that knowledge which isn’t obvious to us. But which is universal, timeless, and which advances our discovery of who we are and how we fit into the world. I think that we’ve superimposed a socially constructed mythology which we are supposed to believe, but I don’t think helps us in life and understanding the meaning of life. As you know I’ve been trying, through sculpture to discover a new mythology.’1 She was the only American member of the Visual Arts Panel of the Arts Council of Great Britain, appointed in 1980. She now lives in Tuscany, and works predominantly in marble.
Sources: Upson, N., Mythologies: The Sculpture of Helaine Blumenfeld, London, 1998; Blumenfeld, Helaine, The New Sculpture of Helaine Blumenfeld 1982--88, London, 1989; Blumenfeld, H., Helaine Blumenfeld: Cambridge 1972--1992, Cambridge and London, 1992. [WCS2003]

Helaine Blumenfeld (b. c.1940)
American sculptor, mainly of abstract organic pieces in marble, terracotta and bronze. Since 1969 she has lived at Grantchester, England, and divides her time between there and Pietrasanta, Tuscany, where she lives and works with a community of other sculptors. Having obtained a PhD in philosophy at Columbia University, New York, in 1964, she went to Paris in the following year to study sculpture with Ossip Zadkine. She had her first solo exhibition, consisting of bronzes, at the Palais Palfy, Vienna, in 1966, and since then has shown around the world, with exhibitions at the Chapman Sculpture Gallery, New York, 1968; the Palais Royale, Gallerie Jacques Casanova, Paris, 1969; Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, England, 1973; the Bonino Gallery, New York, 1976 (retrospective); Zoumboulakis Gallery, Athens, 1979; the Villa Schiff, Montignoso, Italy, 1985; Galerie Kampen, Oslo, Norway, 1986; and Sarina Tang Fine Art, Singapore, 1994. Her major commissions include Figurative Landscape, 1983, 5--piece sculpture in Norwegian granite, City Centre, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Double Torso, 1985, bronze, Capital and Counties, Basingstoke, England; Creation, 1990, marble, Capital House, Heathrow, England; Dialogue, 1991, marble, Paris; and Flame, 1993, marble, British Petroleum HQ, Brussels, Belgium. She was from 1981--8 a member of the Arts Council of Great Britain Visual Arts Panel and in 1993 was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors.
Sources
: Dunford, P., 1990; Lucie-Smith, E. and Buckland, D., 1982; Upson, N., 1998. [LR 2000]

Bryan Blumer (1925--81)
Blumer was educated at Durham University and the Royal College of Art. In the early part of his career, he taught sculpture at Birmingham College of Art in Margaret Street. During the 1960s, there were opportunities for him to work alongside architects and planners, designing and making works of public sculpture. He set up the company Playspace in order to use his abilities as a sculptor to develop creative play opportunities for children. His socialist beliefs led him to direct his energies towards the development of participatory arts activities during the early 1970s, when he set up a community arts initiative based at Trinity Church, Digbeth, in Birmingham. In 1977 he moved to Corby, Northamptonshire, to set up a second community arts company. His aim was to promote a wide range of arts activities, ranging from mural painting to a community printshop and local writing and publishing groups.
Sources: Information provided by the artist’s widow, 2002; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.248. [SBC2005]

Bryan Blumer (1925--81)
Born in Sunderland, Blumer was educated at Durham University and the Royal College of Art. In the early part of his career, he taught sculpture at Birmingham College of Art in Margaret Street. During the 1960s, there were opportunities for him to work alongside architects and planners, designing and making works of public sculpture. He set up the company Playspace in order to use his abilities as a sculptor to develop creative play opportunities for children. His works include play sculptures in Chetton Green, Wolverhampton, and Windmill Lane, Smethwick. His socialist beliefs led him to direct his energies towards the development of participatory arts activities during the early 1970s, when he set up a community arts initiative based at Trinity Church, Digbeth, in Birmingham. In 1977, he moved to Corby, Northamptonshire to set up a second community arts company. His aim was to promote a wide range of arts activities, varying from mural painting to a community printshop and local writing and publishing groups.
Source: information from the sculptor’s widow. [WCS2003]

Ferdinand Victor Blundstone (1882--1951)
Sculptor. Born in Switzerland. Studied art at Ashton-under-Lyne before moving to London where he studied at South London Technical Art School. Entered the RA Schools where his awards included the Landseer Scholarship. He exhibited at the RA and at many leading galleries. During the war he may have lived for a time with family members in Heaton Chapel, near Stockport. Blundstone executed a number of war memorials including one for the London office of the Prudential Assurance Company and a memorial in Folkestone. He was awarded a silver medal for garden sculpture at the Paris Exhibition 1925. His public commissions include the Samuel Plimsoll Memorial (Victoria Embankment, 1929). One of his final works, a statue of Wendy for Hawera, New Zealand (1951), was completed by Gilbert Bayes.
Sources: Bénézit; Waters, 1975. [Man2004]

Ferdinand Victor Blundstone (1882--1951)
Born in Switzerland of English and French parents, he first studied art at Ashton-under-Lyne. He drew animals at Manchester Zoo. A cast he made of a dead lion brought him to the attention of the painter Herbert Dicksee, who helped further his career in art. Blundstone moved to London, and attended first the South London Technical Art School, and then the Royal Academy Schools. The RA travelling studentship enabled him to visit Egypt, Greece and Italy. After the First World War, Blundstone received commissions for war memorials for the Prudential Assurance Company’s London office, for Stalybridge, Lancs., and for Folkestone. In the 1920s he assisted Gilbert Bayes in the Modelling Department of the Sir John Cass School. As with Bayes, Blundstone’s work in the inter-war period took on a pronounced déco quality, especially in small domestic bronzes, but the same quality can be detected in his Memorial to Samuel Plimsoll on the Victoria Embankment (1929). At the end of his life, Blundstone sculpted a Wendy Memorial, a counterpart to Sir George Frampton’s Peter Pan, for Hawera in New Zealand. This was incomplete when the sculptor died and some final touches had to be given to it by Gilbert Bayes before it was despatched.
Sources: A. Yockney, ‘Modern British Sculptors: Some Younger Men’, Studio, 1916, vol.67, p.26. [CL2003]

Charles Frederick Blythin (d. 1953)
FRIBA. He was senior partner in the firm of Riches and Blythin, of Croydon. One of his latest buildings was John Newnham School, Selsdon Park Road, Croydon, 1951--53, with L.C. Holbrook.
(sources: Builder [obit.], 17 July 1953; Cherry & Pevsner, 1983) [L 1997]

Neville Boden (1929--96)
Sculptor and teacher born in Alperton, South Africa. He worked as a boilermaker before moving to London in 1958 and studying sculpture at Chelsea School of Art, 1958--63. From 1965--8 he was a Gregory Fellow at Leeds (and his work was featured in ‘The Gregory Fellows’ exhibition, Leeds City Art Gallery, 1966). He exhibited with the London Group from 1961 (and was president, 1973--9) and with the Artists’ International Association in 1963 and 1964; his work was included in ‘Chromatic Sculpture’ (Arts Council touring exhibition), 1966--7, and in ‘Three Decades’ (ILEA artists), Royal Academy, 1983; his solo exhibitions include the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1973, and the Camden Arts Centre, London, 1976 and 1986. Boden taught at the London College of Printing, and at Chelsea, Camden, Central St Martin’s and Kingston schools of art. His work is included in the collections of the Arts Council and the Tate Gallery, in the Leeds Sculpture Collections, and in the Bradford and Hull city art galleries. Boden died 24 June 1996 at London having lived for a number of years at La Indiana, Andalusia, Spain.
Sources
: Buckman, D, 1998; Camden Arts Centre, 1986; National Art Library information file. [LR 2000]

Bodley and Hare (active 1907--40)
Architectural practice based at Gray’s Inn Square, London. George Frederick Bodley (1827--1907) was one of the leading architects of nineteenth-century England. Following his death the practice was continued by Cecil Greenwood Hare (1875--1932) as Bodley and Hare, which name it retained until 1940, some years after Hare’s death. The last commission in which Bodley was involved was probably St Faith’s Church, Brentford, 1906--7. In 1909 Hare designed the reredos for All Saints Church, Swiss Cottage, London, ‘in the style of his partner Bodley’.1 For Holy Angels Church, Hoar Cross, Staffordshire, Hare designed the west narthex, 1906, and the Monument to F.G. Lindley Meynell (with a kneeling figure by Bridgeman and Sons), 1910. In 1916 the practice was commissioned by the London Evening News to produce a design for street shrines to the dead of the First World War for the poorer areas of London, the cost of each one executed to be financed from a fund established by the newspaper. In 1920 Hare designed the south chapel (a war memorial) and in 1932 the choir stalls for St Peter’s Church, Ealing.
Sources
: Cherry, D. and Pevsner, N., 1991; Cherry, D. and Pevsner, N., 1998; Felstead, A. et al., 1993; King, A., 1998; Good, M. (compiler), 1995.
Note: [1] Cherry, D. and Pevsner, N., 1998, p.200. [LR 2000]

George Frederick Bodley (1827--1907)
Bodley was an English church architect and designer of church furnishing, in many ways the late Victorian counterpart of Pugin in his choice of late Gothic forms, and of Scott in his influential Gothic Revival practices. Bodley became the first pupil of Gilbert Scott in the 1840s, but later reacted against his former master’s modes of design, moving towards greater simplicity. The richly decorated church of Hoar Cross, Staffordshire, and the more majestic and austere church of Pendlebury, Lancashire (built in the 1870s), show these two aspects of his work. Bodley’s finest churches are probably those at Clumber, Northumberland (designed 1886), Eccleston, Cheshire (begun 1899) and Holy Trinity, Prince Consort Road, London (begun 1901). He was also an adviser to the cathedral chapters of York, Peterborough, Exeter and Manchester, where his word carried great weight in matters of decoration.
Source: Richards, J.M., Who’s Who in Architecture from 1400 to the Present Day, London, 1977, pp.44--5. [SBC2005]

Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834--90)
Born in Vienna, the son of Josef Daniel Böhm, an eminent Hungarian medal engraver and connoisseur. He started out as a medal engraver, and attended the Vienna Academy (1852--3), but by the late 1850s he had begun to produce statuettes of operatic celebrities. Around 1858, Boehm left Vienna for Italy. He then spent three years in Paris, where he married an English woman and converted to Protestantism. In 1862 he settled in England, where he immediately attracted attention with portrait busts and statuettes, and with his animal sculptures. In 1869 he received three commissions from Queen Victoria, and was appointed sculpture tutor to the young Princess Louise. Boehm became the Queen’s first Sculptor in Ordinary, and he was made a baronet in 1889. The lively, naturalistic modelling of his portraits, and the anatomical accuracy of his animal works, many of which were of equine subjects, struck a new note in contrast to the often bland idealism of high Victorian sculpture. Vastly prolific, Boehm created many public statues, the most celebrated being the equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, at Hyde Park Corner, with its four attendant soldier figures, representing the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom. Boehm’s assistant in his later years, and the heir to his vital modelling style, was the symbolist sculptor of Eros, Alfred Gilbert.
Source: M. Stocker, Royalist and Realist: The Life and Work of Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, New York and London, 1988. [CL2003]

Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834--90)
Boehm was educated in Vienna, Austria. He grew up surrounded by the extensive fine art collection of his father, the Director of the Imperial Mint. He studied in London, at the British Museum, and travelled to Italy, France and Vienna. He returned to London in 1862, becoming a British citizen in 1865. He was influenced by the drawings of Old Masters and the Elgin Marbles at the British Museum, but he believed that artists should not try endlessly to recreate the classical. Boehm became one of the foremost sculptors and portraitists in Britain, and was made Sculptor in Ordinary to Queen Victoria. During the 1880s he executed most of the public monuments commissioned in London, as well as working on funerary monuments and portraits.
Sources: Speel, B., Sculpture on Bob Speel’s Website, www.speel.demon.co.uk/other/sculpt.htm, 1999; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982; Stocker, Mark, Royalist and Realist: The Life and Work of Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, London, 1988. [WCS2003]

Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834--90)
Born in Vienna, he settled in London in 1862, becoming naturalised in 1866. He studied in London, Vienna and Paris. His portrait busts and equestrian studies endeared him to Queen Victoria, who commissioned bronze statuettes of her family and statues of herself and her father for Windsor Castle; she appointed him Sculptor in Ordinary in 1881. Among his public works are the monuments to John Bunyon, Bedford (1874), Thomas Carlyle, Chelsea (1882), The Duke of Wellington, Hyde Park Corner (1889) and Sir Francis Drake, Plymouth Hoe (1885). A sculptor of medals and medallions, he modelled the head of Queen Victoria for the 1887 Jubilee coinage. He exhibited at the RA from 1882, was elected RA and made a baronet in 1889.
Source: Grant. [G2002]

Peter Bohn (b.1930)
Bohn attended Vittoria Street Art School, Birmingham (1941--4) and Birmingham School of Art (1944--56) on a part-time basis while working in William Bloye’s studio. Carving in stone, wood and slate, he has worked freelance since 1956 (except between 1959--71 when he joined the Birmingham Guild). His works include religious figures, coats of arms and architectural restoration, mainly in Birmingham and the Midlands.
Sources: Birmingham Mail, 31 August 1956; Birmingham Post, 22 November 1961; Letters from the artist, 16 April 1985, 30 January 1996; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.184. [SBC2005]

Peter Bohn (b.1930)
Born in Coventry 19th October 1930, he moved to Sutton Coldfield and attended Vittoria Street Art School, Birmingham 1941--4 and Birmingham School of Art 1944--56 on a part-time basis while working in William Bloye’s studio. Carving in stone, wood and slate, since 1956 he worked as a freelance except between 1959 and 1971 when he joined the Birmingham Guild. In 1972 he moved to Malvern. Works include religious figures, coats of arms and architectural restoration mainly in Birmingham and the Midlands such as: Mother and Child, St. Mary’s school, Wednesbury 1956; coat of arms, Smethwick Swimming Baths; coat of arms, Birmingham University Graduates hall of residence; Crucifix, Our Lady and St. Hubert church, Warley; Stations of the Cross, Loyola Hall, Liverpool; statue of Thomas Maxfield, Newcastle under Lyme; and restoration at St. Philip’s church, Birmingham and various Oxford colleges. He also modelled the Lloyds Bank horse in various sizes.
1
. Letter from the artist, 16th April 1985 and 30th January 1996; 2. ‘New bank on its old site’, Post, 22nd November 1961; 3. ‘Ex-guardsman sculptor’, Mail, 31st August 1956. [B1998]

Peter Bolton (1955--88)
Bolton graduated from Camberwell School of Art with a first class BA (Hons) in Graphic Design and Illustration. His work demonstrated an interest in popular culture observed in such diverse areas as fairgrounds and sport, crime and politics. Working mainly in wood and found objects, his narrative pieces show a bias towards the mechanical. His exhibitions include New Faces at the British Crafts Centre (1979); Toys for Everyone, a travelling Arts Council Exhibition (1980); A Case for the Spectacular, the Design Centre (1980); Wood Exhibition, another travelling Arts Council Exhibition (1981); and a one-man show at Stafford Art Gallery in 1982.
Sources: Houston, J., ‘New Faces’, Crafts, March/April 1979, p.52f.; Information provided by fellow artist, Andrew Holmes, 2001; Letter and curriculum vitae from the artist; Staffordshire County Council, file on Peter Bolton to 1983; Staffordshire Probation Sevice, Pictures of Health, unpaginated, n.d. [SBC2005]

Joseph Bonehill
Architectural sculptor fl.1860--90. Joseph Bonehill was listed as a stonemason in Slater’s Manchester Directory for 1858. Three years later he was described as a ‘sculptor and architectural carver’, occupying city-centre premises, near Cross Street. By 1871 the firm is identified as J. and T. Bonehill, ‘sculptors in marble, wood, monuments, chimneypieces, headstones, reredoses, screens, pulpits, fonts, tombs &c’. In 1889 the firm became W. Bonehill and Co. By 1900 the directories only identify a William George Bonehill, a stonemason with an address in Moss Side. There is no known list of the firm’s principal ecclesiastical and secular commissions, but the quality of the work identified in this survey suggests that Bonehill possessed a considerable talent.
Sources: Manchester Directories 1858--1900; Builder, 5 June 1869, 3 May 1879. [Man2004]

Stanley Bonnar (b.1948)
Brought up in Leith, he studied sculpture at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee, 1968--72, and was Town Artist at Glenrothes New Town, 1973, where he produced The Witty Parade of Hippos, and at East Kilbride and Stonehaven New Town, 1974--7. After working as a scenic artist at the Royal Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh, he joined Blackness Public Arts Project, Dundee, 1981--4, then became a part-time tutor in the Department of Environmental Art, GSA, 1985--92. Winner of an SAC Award in 1994, his recent public work includes The Leith House, Edinburgh (1996). He is currently collaborating with Mark Bonnar on film work.
Sources: Pride, pp.82--3; Gooding and Guest, project no.5; information provided by the artist. [G2002]

Fernando Botero (b. 1932)
Born in Medellin, Colombia, he studied for two years at a school for matadors. In 1948 he exhibited with a group of local artists, and contributed illustrations to the newspaper El Colombiano. Botero’s early works were inspired by the Mexican muralists, Orozco, Siqueiros and Rivera. In 1950 he moved to Bogota, where he exhibited paintings at the Galerià Leo Matiz. In 1952 he travelled to Spain, and studied from 1952 to 1953 at the Academia de San Ferdinando in Madrid. In 1953 he moved on to Paris. However, it was in New York, which he visited first in 1957, and where he bought a studio in 1960, that he developed the style in which he has been working ever since. Its overblown forms, emphasised by contrast with delicate detailing, are typified in a work like The Presidential Family (1967, Museum of Modern Art, New York), full of reminiscences of the work of Velasquez and Goya. In 1973 he moved back to Paris and began to produce sculpture, which he saw as a logical extension of his painting. In 1976 and 1977 he concentrated exclusively on sculpture. Since establishing a sculpture workshop at Pietrasanta in Italy in 1983, he has been able to produce pieces of very large dimensions for sites all over the world.
Sources: C. Ratcliff, Botero, New York, 1983; Botero s’explique -- Entretien avec Hector Laoiza en 1983, Pau, 1993; The Grove Dictionary of Art, Macmillan, London, 1996. [CL2003]

Ernest Bottomley (active 1960s)
Loughborough-based artist. [LR 2000]

Richard Lockwood Boulton & Sons (fl.1850--1970)
The business was founded by the brothers of Richard Boulton under the title Boulton & Swales during the 1850s, and was based at Westminster Bridge, London, with branches in Birmingham and Worcester. They won a medal at the Great Exhibition of 1851, and exhibited not only at the Royal Academy in 1859, but at several Paris exhibitions. Their works include the carvings on Northampton Town Hall (1861--4) and Wolverhampton Museum and Art Gallery (1883--5). Upon the death of his brothers, Richard Boulton amalgamated the firm in one place at Cheltenham (1876), with his four sons as managers. The firm gave Cheltenham a reputation as a centre for ecclesiastical art and church furnishings in marble, stone and wood. In February 1908, it was appointed Ecclesiastical Church Furnishers to Edward VII.
Sources: Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.184; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, p.240f. [SBC2005]

Richard Lockwood Boulton & Sons, Cheltenham (1850s--c.1970)
Richard Lockwood was born in 1835 (possibly in Birmingham) and died in Bournemouth, 23rd January 1905. He trained with the architect E.W. Godwin in the west of England and studied the works of John Ruskin. He carved for other neo-Gothic architects such as Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and A.W.N. Pugin. In the 1850s the business of R.L. Boulton and Sons was founded by the brothers of Richard Boulton under the title Boulton & Swales and was based at Westminster Bridge Road, London, with branches in Birmingham and Worcester. The brothers died after twenty years and this prompted R.L. Boulton to amalgamate the firm in one place at Cheltenham (c.1876), with his four sons as managers -- L.D., R.W., G.D. and F.C. Boulton. It gave Cheltenham a reputation as a centre for ecclesiastical art and church furnishings in marble, stone and wood. R.L. Boulton retired in 1893, handing over the business to his sons. In February 1908, R.L. Boulton & Sons was appointed Ecclesiastical Church Furnishers to HM King Edward VII. The firm ceased trading c.1970. Exhibited at the RA in 1859. The firm won a medal at the Great Exhibition 1851, and at Paris International Exhibitions.
1
. Cheltenham Examiner, 25th January 1905; 2. R.L. Boulton, Catalogue, c.1910; 3. Graves, vol.I, London, 1905, p.250. [B1998]

James Bowden & Sons
Stonemasons. Bowden & Sons was a Bolton firm, premises at Parkend, operating throughout the late Victorian and Edwardian years. John William Bowden was one of the sons. The Fielding monument appears to have been their only public statue.
Sources: Bolton Directories; Bolton Journal and Guardian, 11 July 1896. [Man2004]

Robert Bowers (b.1967)
Stone-carver whose work is in a bold graphic style, and contains references to both the human form and architecture. His commissions include the AJS Memorial in Wolverhampton (1996), the design of the Birmingham Young Professional of the Year award (2001 and 2002, enlarged to create a new work, Future, for Brindleyplace, Birmingham, 2004), and pieces for both the Marie Curie Foundation and the Body Clinic (2003, Solihull). He also designed and created the body of a new speedway bike for the millennium, and has been asked by Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council to restore William Bloye’s Apollo.
Sources: Information provided by Lee Benson, Number Nine the Gallery, 19 November 2003; Number Nine the Gallery -- The Contemporary Gallery in Birmingham, biographical entry for Robert Bowers, accessed 13 March 2002, www.ajw.net/numbernine/ [SBC2005]

Judy Boyt (fl. 1980s)
She trained first at Wolverhampton Art College, and then took a Masters in industrial ceramics at the University of North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent. She worked for several years in the design industry, modelling figures for reproduction in bone china and porcelain. Her first free-lance commission was for a group of Polo Players for the jewellers Garrards. In 1991 she won the British Sporting Art Trust Award for her statue of the Grand National and Cheltenham Gold Cup Winner, Golden Miller (Cheltenham, Race Course). She is herself an experienced rider. Her works have been cast by the Morris Singer Foundry.
Source: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists Since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

E.J. & A.T. Bradford
A firm of architectural and monumental sculptors, whose premises, between 1905 and 1978, were at 62 Borough Road, South London. In 1936 the operatives registered at this address were Alfred Thomas Bradford and Ronald Walter Fitch Bradford. From 1975 the name of the firm became Bradfords Studio, but the business carried on was still ‘architectural sculpture’.
Source: Post Office London Directory. [CL2003]

Victoria Brailsford (b.1966)
Trained at Humberside College of Higher Education in sculpture and at Bishop Burton Agriculture College in chainsaw maintenance and use. In 1991 she gained useful experience as an assistant to the ‘woodman’ sculptor, David Nash. She has been commissioned by a number of local authorities and has been artist-in-residence at sculpture parks in Britain and Canada.
[
1] Information provided by Cleveland Arts, 1998. [NE 2000]

Edward George Bramwell (1865--1944)
Bramwell, who studied at the City and Guilds School of Art in London, trained under George Frampton, William Frith and Thomas Stirling Lee. His practice focused on the production of statuettes and small groups. He taught modelling at Westminster School of Art, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1898.
Source: McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002, p.477. [SBC2005]

Edward George Bramwell (1865--1944)
Born in London, he studied at the City and Guilds School of Art, London, winning a silver medal for sculpture and a travelling scholarship. Working under George Frampton, W.S. Frith (qq.v.) and T. Stirling Lee, he produced statuettes and small groups. He taught modelling at Westminster School of Art, and exhibited at the RA from 1898.
Source: Mackay. [G2002]

Antanas Brazdys (b. 1939)
Born in Lithuania, Brazdys studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, and at the Royal College of Art in London (1962--4). He taught at the Royal College, and went on to become senior sculpture lecturer at the Cheltenham College of Art. Brazdys exhibited with other Royal College trained sculptors at the Art Council’s 1965 exhibition Towards Art II, and, in more mixed company, at the Battersea Park open-air exhibition in 1966. His preferred material at this time was stainless steel. His sculpture was abstract, his forms inhabiting a domain between the geometrical and the amorphous, their sometimes brilliant surfaces reflecting back the world around. Brazdys executed commissioned works for the Arts Council, Harlow New Town and the British Steel Corporation. His piece, Ritual, executed between 1968 and 1969 for the Hamerton Group (see Coleman Street, City), had the distinction of being the first abstract public sculpture in the City of London.
Source: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

Antanas Brazdys (b. 1939)
Sculptor in steel, born in Lithuania. At the age of eight he fled with his family to England to escape the Russian occupation. His family later moved to the USA and he studied firstly, 1962--4, at the Art Institute of Chicago and then at the Royal College of Art, London. He then taught at the Royal College and at the Gloucester College of Art. In 1965 he had his first solo exhibition, at the Hamilton Galleries, London, and his work was featured in the influential Arts Council of Great Britain touring exhibition of sculptors from the Royal College, ‘Towards Art II’. His awards include the Sainsbury Award for Sculpture, 1963, and the first prize in the Sunday Times Sculpture Competition, 1968. His public sculptures include Ritual, 1969, Basinghall Street, London, EC2, and several for Harlow New Town, including Echo, 1970; Solo Flight, 1982; and High Flying, 1982.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

Chaz Brenchley (b.1959)
Writer, particularly of horror fiction, based in Sunderland. Started writing romance stories in teenage magazines at the age of eighteen. His first published book was for a series of adult romances. He later switched to novels about serial killers: the first, The Samaritan, was published by Hodder and Stoughton. [NE 2000]

John Bridgeman (1916--2004)
Bridgeman studied painting at Colchester School of Art (1936--9) under Barry Hart and Edward Moss, and then at the Royal College of Art (1947--9) under Frank Dobson. In 1951, he became a tutor of sculpture at Bromley, Kent and Willesden, London, later becoming Head of Sculpture at Carlisle College of Art (1951--6), and then in 1956 succeeding William Bloye at Birmingham School of Art. He produces figures and groups in bronze, cement fondu and stone. His commissions include: Madonna for Coventry Cathedral (1970); the Boat Children Memorial, London Embankment (1984--5); and, in the late 1980s, a portrait roundel of Sir Adrian Boult for Adrian Boult Hall. As a result of ill health, he later worked on smaller pieces. He exhibited at the Festival of Britain in 1951 and at the Royal Academy from 1957.
Sources: Birmingham Post Yearbook and Who’s Who, 1961--2, p.730; Birmingham Post, 16 November 1968 and 16 May 1970; Letters from the artist, 1984 and 2 March 1996; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.184f.; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.248. [SBC2005]

John Bridgeman (b.1916)
Bridgeman studied painting at Colchester School of Art 1936--9 under Barry Hart and Edward Moss and then at the Royal College of Art 1947--9 under Frank Dobson. Bridgeman worked as a letter carver on war memorials and for the Design Research Unit organised by Misha Black in 1951, becoming a tutor of sculpture at Bromley, Kent and Willesden, London 1951. He became Head of Sculpture at Carlisle College of Art 1951--6 and then succeeded William Bloye as Head of Sculpture at Birmingham School of Art 1956--81, moving to work in Leamington Spa. Producing figures and groups in bronze, ciment fondu and stone, his commissions include: a bust of Professor McClaren, on the occasion of his retirement, for the University of Birmingham Medical School; Wall Panels, Swan Hotel, Yardley, now lost; Madonna, Coventry Cathedral (1970); Mother and Child, All Saints Church, West Bromwich (1981); Family Group and Crucifix, St Bartholomew’s Church, Eastham Community Centre, London (1983); Boat Children Memorial, London Embankment (1984--5); and Fountain Sculpture, South Staffordshire Waterworks, Walsall (1985). Exhibited at the Festival of Britain in 1951 and at the RA from 1957; Birmingham City Museum and Art Gallery; Compendium Gallery, Moseley, Birmingham; Stratford-upon-Avon; Lincoln; Boston and Leamington Spa with the ‘79 Group’.
Sources: Birmingham Post Yearbook and Who’s Who, 1961--2; letter from the artist/sculptor/architect, 1984 and 2 March 1996; Birmingham Post [i] 16 November 1968: p.9 [ii] 16 May 1970. [WCS2003]

John Bridgeman (b.1916)
Born 2nd February 1916 in Felixstowe, Suffolk, he studied painting at Colchester School of Art 1936--9 under Barry Hart and Edward Moss and then at the Royal College of Art 1947--9 under Frank Dobson. Bridgeman worked as a letter carver on war memorials and for the Design Research Unit organised by Misha Black in 1951, becoming a tutor of sculpture at Bromley, Kent and Willesden, London 1951. He became Head of Sculpture at Carlisle College of Art 1951--6 and then succeeded William Bloye as Head of Sculpture at Birmingham School of Art 1956--81, moving to work in Leamington Spa. Producing figures and groups in bronze, ciment fondu and stone, his commissions include: a bust of Professor McClaren, on the occasion of his retirement, for the University of Birmingham Medical School; Wall Panels, Swan Hotel, Yardley, now lost; Madonna, Coventry Cathedral 1970; Mother and Child, All Saints church, West Bromwich 1981; Family Group and Crucifix, St. Bartholomew’s church, Eastham Community Centre, London 1983; Boat Children Memorial, London Embankment 1984--5; and Fountain Sculpture, South Staffordshire Waterworks, Walsall 1985. Exhibited at the Festival of Britain 1951 and at the RA from 1957; Birmingham City Museum and Art Gallery; Compendium Gallery, Moseley, Birmingham; Stratford-on-Avon; Lincoln; Boston and Leamington Spa with the ‘79 Group’. ARCA 1947; RBS 1957; FRBS 1960.
1
. Birmingham Post year book and who’s who 1961--2, Birmingham, 1962, p.730; 2. A. Everitt, ‘A modern midland sculptor in praise of tradition’, Post, 16th May 1970; 3. Post, 16th November 1968, p.9; 4. Letters from artist, 1984 and 2nd March 1996. [B1998]

Robert Bridgeman & Sons of Lichfield (active from 1879)
Founded in 1879 by Robert Bridgeman, the practice of Bridgeman & Sons of Lichfield specialises in ecclesiastical and architectural work in wood, stone, alabaster and metal. They produce work both to their own designs and also to the designs of architects, with whom they have a long history of collaboration. Apart from producing pieces for churches, cathedrals, schools and other historic buildings, they also do a range of conservation and restoration work. Their work includes the Gothic façade of the John Rylands Library, Deansgate, Manchester and restoration work on the west front of Lichfield Cathedral during the 1880s as well as pieces in St Philip’s Cathedral and St Chad’s Cathedral in Birmingham and sculptures in most other cathedrals in England. In addition, their works can be seen in Australia, New Zealand, the USA and Italy. The firm was sold to Linfords when Robert Bridgeman’s grandson Charles retired in 1968, and now operates as Linford-Bridgeman.
Sources: Bridgeman & Sons, R., Heritage of Beauty, Lichfield, n.d; Keyte, O., The Annals of a Century: Bridgemans of Lichfield 1878--1978, Lichfield, 1995, pp.1--5, 20; Lichfield Mercury, 21 November 2002; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.185; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.248. [SBC2005]

Robert Bridgeman & Sons
Architectural sculptors. Founded in 1879 by Robert Bridgeman, the practice of Bridgeman & Sons of Lichfield specialise in ecclesiastical and architectural sculpture, carving and restoration work. They have carried out work in most cathedrals in England as well as colleges, halls, churches and mansions. They also have work in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Italy and Sweden.
Sources: Keyte, 1995; Noszlopy, 1998. [Man2004]

Robert Bridgeman & Sons of Lichfield
Founded in 1879 by Robert Bridgeman, the practice of Bridgeman and Sons of Lichfield specialises in ecclesiastical and architectural work with wood, stone, alabaster and metal. They produce work both to their own designs and also to those of architects, with whom they have a long history of collaboration. Apart from producing pieces for churches, cathedrals, schools and other historic buildings, they also do a range of conservation and restoration work. Their work includes pieces in St Philip’s Cathedral and St Chad’s Cathedral, Birmingham, and in most cathedrals in England. They also have work in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Italy and Sweden.
Sources: Bridgeman, R., & Sons, Heritage of Beauty, undated, publicity leaflet; Keyte, O., The Annals of a Century, Bridgemans of Lichfield 1878--1978, Lichfield, 1995. [WCS2003]

Robert Bridgeman & Sons of Lichfield
Founded in 1879 by Robert Bridgeman, the practice of Bridgeman and Sons of Lichfield specialise in ecclesiastical and architectural masonry, carving and restoration work. They produce pieces in wood, stone, alabaster and metal both to their own designs and those of architects, with whom they have a long history of collaboration. Other work in Birmingham includes pieces in St. Philip’s Cathedral and St. Chad’s Cathedral, and they have work in most cathedrals in England as well as colleges, halls, churches and mansions. The firm is still in operation.
1
. Robert Bridgeman and Sons, Heritage of Beauty, publicity leaflet, undated. [B1998]

Alan Bridgwater (1903--62)
Bridgwater trained at Birmingham School of Art (1923--33). Granted several bursaries, he later taught evening classes and worked in William Bloye’s studio during the vacations. The Victoria and Albert Museum purchased one of his test pieces: this memorial tablet (1928) is now in the Tate Gallery collection of British sculpture. In 1934 he set up as a sculptor in Harborne, Birmingham, taking a partner and practising as Bridgwater and Upton from 1937 to 1946. He was appointed part-time teacher of sculpture at Dudley School of Art in 1948, later teaching full-time at Birmingham School of Art (from 1952). Much of his public sculpture was done in collaboration with architects for whom he produced panels and statues, mainly for churches and schools. For example, he carved the figures for Dudley police station (1939--40) and the coat of arms and stone lettering panels for King’s Norton War Memorial (1947). He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1937 to 1962.
Sources: Birmingham Post Yearbook and Who’s Who, 1960--61, p.731; Birmingham Mail, 29 January 1932; Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.188; Curriculum vitae from the artist; Letter from the artist’s widow, Mrs B. Bridgwater, 22 March 1986; MacKay, J., Dictionary of Western Sculptors in Bronze, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1977, p.51; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.185; Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905--1970, vol.1, Wakefield, 1973, p.193. [SBC2005]

Alan Bridgwater (1903--62)
Born in Sparkbrook, Birmingham, 17th June 1903, he died there in January 1962. He won a scholarship to study sculpture at Birmingham School of Art where he attended full-time from 1923--33. Granted several bursaries, he later taught evening classes and worked in William Bloye’s studio during the vacations. One of his test pieces was purchased by the Victoria and Albert Museum: this memorial tablet (1928) is now in the Tate Gallery collection of British sculpture. Bridgwater applied for the Prix de Rome in 1930, for which he was highly commended and received a letter from Eric Gill commending his entry. In 1934 he set up as a sculptor in Harborne, Birmingham, taking a partner and practising as Bridgwater and Upton 1937--45. In 1948 he was appointed part-time teacher of sculpture at Dudley School of Art and was promoted to full lectureship at Birmingham School of Art in 1952. He moved to studios in Edgbaston in 1951. Bridgwater has works in private and public collections including academic works such as Torso, 1932 (in Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery); Fawn, 1936 (in Dudley Art Gallery); maquette for Unknown Political Prisoner, 1952 (in artist’s widow’s collection); The Thinker, 1958, for which he received an honorable mention in the Paris Salon, 1959. His portraits include: W. Benslyn FRIBA, 1948, bequeathed to BMAG; Lindsay Bullivant FRIBA, 1948; Abraham Lincoln, 1960. Much of his sculpture was done in collaboration with architects such as George Drysdale, Bromilow, Smeeton and While, Holland Hobbiss and J.B. Surman, for whom he produced panels and statues mainly for churches and schools. Works include: figure and panel, St. Hubert’s church, Rowley Regis 1935; figures, Dudley police station 1939--40; coat of arms and stone lettering panels, Kings Norton War Memorial, 1947; five figures, Wawkesley Farm church, Longbridge Lane 1956; Dudley College of Education, Hall of Residence 1956; keystones, St. Boniface church, Quinton 1958. Exhibited at RA from 1937--62, RSA from 1950s, Royal Glasgow Fine Arts 1958; RWA 1950; RBSA, Dudley, Rugby and other Midland galleries. He also exhibited portraits and landscapes in oils. ARBSA 1935; ARBS 1948; RBS 1949; Council Member of RBS.
1
. ‘Birmingham student’s sculpture’, Mail, 29th January 1932; 2. Birmingham Post year book and who’s who, Birmingham, 1960--61, p.731; 3. WWA, 12th edition, Eastbourne, 1964, pp.74--5; 4. RAE, vol.I, Wakefield, 1973, p.193; 5. J. Mackay, Dictionary of western sculptors in bronze, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1977, p.51; 6. Letter from the artist’s widow, Mrs. B. Bridgwater, 22nd March 1986. [B1998]

John Broad (1873?--1919)
Modeller. Broad was employed as modeller by Doulton of Lambeth. He produced a considerable quantity of terracotta work. The six vitreous enamelled terracotta panels at St Bede’s College were among his earliest work. He exhibited at the RA from 1890 to 1900. His public commissions included the terracotta monuments of General Gordon and Queen Victoria in Gravesend. He also modelled Queen Victoria and India for the Doulton Fountain (Glasgow, 1888).
Source: McKenzie, 2002. [Man2004]

John Broad (d. 1919)
He was a modeller for the Lambeth firm of Doulton’s. One of his earliest works for the firm was a series of panels in coloured vitreous enamelled terracotta, representing the academic disciplines, for St Bede’s College, Manchester (1878--84). Broad went on to produce a very considerable body of work in unglazed terracotta and in white glazed Carrara Ware. He contributed the group representing India to Doulton’s Victoria Fountain, shown at the Glasgow International Exhibition of 1888. The fountain is now at Glasgow Green. Broad’s groups of Britannia and Commerce, from the Birkbeck Bank in Southampton Buildings, London (1895--6), are now at Beale Park, Pangbourne. A large Carrara Ware sign, modelled by Broad in 1915, adorns the street front of the Adam and Eve public house in Homerton High Street, East London. He modelled terracotta public monuments for Gravesend. One of these is to General Gordon. The other two, both of 1897, are of Queen Victoria (Market Place and outside the Technical College). He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1890 to 1900. Ceramics by him were shown at the London Arts and Crafts Exhibition of 1891, and at the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893.
Sources: P. Atterbury and L. Irvine, The Doulton Story, Stoke-on-Trent, 1979; R. Mackenzie, Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002. [CL2003]

John Broad (1873?-1919)
Principally a modeller of figures, monuments and terracotta ware with Doulton & Co., of Lambeth (q.v.), he also executed statues of General Gordon and Queen Victoria, Gravesend, and a number of portrait medallions. Examples of his ceramics were exhibited at the Arts and Crafts Exhibition, London, 1891, the Chicago World’s Fair, 1893, and the RA, 1890--1900.
Sources: Bergesen, p.95; Darke, p.87. [G2002]

Broadbent & Son
Abraham Broadbent exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1901 to 1919. His exhibits were predominantly statuettes of poetic subjects. In 1913 he exhibited a work entitled The White Man’s Burden, designed as a terminal for the Union Government Building in Pretoria, South Africa. In 1905 he executed portrait figures of Huntington Shaw and Thomas Tompion, for Aston Webb’s façade of the Victoria and Albert Museum. He was renowned for his decorative carving in the English baroque manner, and carried out an extensive programme of such work for the Eton School Hall between 1904 and 1908. This was the style adopted by his son Eric R. Broadbent, who seems to have been responsible for most of the decorative work on E. Lutyens’s Britannic House, Finsbury Circus, London (1921--5). Little else seems to be known about Eric Broadbent, other than that he executed the modernistic group of winged figures with a globe over the entrance to the BOAC Terminal Building on Buckingham Palace Road, London (c.1939). Both Abraham and Eric Broadbent were registered as resident at 430 Fulham Road.
Sources: Buildings of England and the Post Office London Directory. [CL2003]

Abraham Broadbent (fl.1900--20)
Based in London, Abraham Broadbent exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1901 and 1919. He worked in a variety of media including silver, bronze, marble and terracotta. His exhibits were predominantly statuettes of poetic subjects, including The Slave (1906), a relief, Orpheus and Eurydice (1909), a head of Beatrice (1911), and a marble group entitled The Daughters of Pandarus (1916--19). He was renowned for his decorative carving in the English baroque manner, and carried out an extensive programme of such work for the Eton School Hall between 1904 and 1908, somewhat after his work on the Co-operative Society and Technical School façades in Leek (1899--1900).
Sources: Graves, A., Royal Academy Exhibitors 1769--1904, London, 1905, p.289; Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905--1970, vol.1, Wakefield, 1973, p.199; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.452. [SBC2005]

Stephen Broadbent (b. 1961)
Sculptor. Born in Wroughton, Wiltshire. Educated at Bluecoat School, Liverpool. Trained with Liverpool sculptor, Arthur Dooley, 1979--83. Work developed from limited edition bronze sculpture into larger public sculptures, including environmental sculpture and water features. Established Broadbent Artworks Ltd in 1997. Public sculpture includes Reconciliation (Liverpool, 1989, also Glasgow and Belfast), A Celebration of Chester (Capital Bank, Chester, 1990), Trades and Professions of Edinburgh (Saltire Court, Edinburgh, 1994), The Bull Ring (St Andrew’s Gardens, Liverpool, 1999), Encounter (Birchwood Science Park, Warrington, 2002). Water features include River of Life (Warrington, 1996) and Seasons (Cathedral Gardens, Manchester, 2002).
Source: artist. [Man2004]

Stephen Broadbent (b.1961)
Liverpool-based sculptor, but born in Wroughton, he trained with Arthur Dooley (q.v.), 1979--83. His first one-man show was held at the Aberbach Gallery, London, 1982. Public works by him include the bronze relief panels of The Trades and Professions of Edinburgh, Saltire Court, Edinburgh (1991), and Challenge, at Capital House, Chester (1993).
Source: Cavanagh, p.323. [G2002]

Stephen Broadbent (b. 1961)
Born in Wroughton, he trained with Arthur Dooley in Liverpool, 1979--83, and, at the time of writing, works mainly from the Bridewell Studios, Liverpool. His first one-man show was at the Aberbach Gallery, London, 1982. His public commissions include The Trades and Professions of Edinburgh (bronze relief panels, 1991, Saltire Court, Edinburgh); A Celebration of Chester (1992, Chester Town Hall square); and Challenge (bronze sculpture, 1993, outside Capital House, Chester).
(source: Sculpture in the Making: A Celebration of Chester, 1992) [L 1997]

Sir Thomas Brock (1847--1922)
Brock studied at the Government School of Design in Worcester and at the Royal Academy from 1867, winning a gold medal in 1869 for his group Hercules Strangling Antaeus. From 1866, he was a pupil of John Henry Foley. He made numerous portrait busts, funerary monuments and public statues, achieving a reputation as a monumental sculptor after his master, Foley, died in 1874. In 1877, he assisted Frederic Lord Leighton with the execution of his bronze Athlete Wrestling with a Python, a piece that is regarded as central to the development of the movement known as The New Sculpture, in which a greater emphasis was placed on naturalism. His commissions included Rt. Rev. Henry Philpott, DD, Bishop of Worcester, Worcester Cathedral (1896), the tomb of Frederick Lord Leighton, St Paul’s Cathedral (1900), an equestrian statue Black Prince, Leeds (1902), Gladstone Memorial (1903, Westminster Abbey) and Sir J.E. Millais (1904, London). The most prestigious of his works, the Queen Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace (in collaboration with Aston Webb, 1901--9), earned him his knighthood at its unveiling in 1911. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1868 onwards, becoming a Royal Academician in 1891. In 1905, he became the first president of the Royal Society of British Sculptors.
Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983, pp.134, 241; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.323f.; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.357; Darby, E. and M., ‘The Nation’s Memorial to Victoria’, Country Life, 16 November 1978, pp.1647--8; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.185; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.248f.; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.69, 75, 289, 329, 344--5, 364, 371--9; Spielmann, M., British Sculpture and Sculptors of Today, London, 1901, pp.26--33. [SBC2005]

Thomas Brock (1847--1922)
Brock studied at the Government School of Design in Worcester and at the Royal Academy, from 1867, winning a Gold Medal in 1869. He made numerous portrait busts, funerary monuments and public statues, and achieved a reputation as an establishment sculptor after his master J.H. Foley died in 1874. He was influenced by the young sculptors, Alfred Stevens, Alfred Gilbert, Alfred Drury and Onslow Ford and his works were always highly competent and in a grand style. Commissions include: Sir Bartle Frere, Victoria Embankment Gardens (1888); Rt. Rev. Henry Philpott, DD, Bishop of Worcester, Worcester Cathedral (1896); tomb of Sir Frederick Leighton, St Paul’s Cathedral (1900); Queen Victoria Memorial, Buckingham Palace, in collaboration with Aston Webb (1901--9). He exhibited at the RA from 1868 onwards. He was elected ARA (1883); RA (1891); First President of RBS (1905); Hon. DCL Oxford (1909).
Sources: Country Life, 16 November 1978; Spielmann, M., British Sculpture and Sculptors of Today, London, 1901; Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983. [WCS2003]

Sir Thomas Brock (1847--1922)
Sculptor born 1 March 1847 at Worcester where he attended the Government School of Design. In 1866 he moved to London and became a pupil of John Henry Foley. In 1867 he entered the Royal Academy Schools gaining, in 1869, the RA gold medal in sculpture for his group, Hercules Strangling Antaeus, which was exhibited at the RA in 1870. In this same year, 1870, he produced his first portrait statue, Richard Baxter, at Kidderminster. When Foley died in 1874, Brock undertook to complete many of his unfinished commissions, thereby succeeding to much of his practice. Brock’s numerous public commissions include portrait statues of Sir Bartle Frere, 1888, Victoria Embankment Gardens, London, and Sir J.E. Millais, 1904, Tate Gallery grounds, London; the Tomb of Lord Leighton, 1900, St Paul’s Cathedral; and an Equestrian Statue of the Black Prince, 1902, Leeds, but the most prestigious was the Memorial to Queen Victoria (with Aston Webb) in front of Buckingham Palace, earning him his knighthood at its unveiling in 1911. Brock exhibited at the RA, 1868--1922, and was elected ARA in 1883 and RA in 1891. He was first president of the Royal Society of British Sculptors at its founding in 1905 and membre d’honneur of the Société des Artistes Français. He was made honorary ARIBA in 1908, honorary DCL at Oxford University in 1909, and honorary RSA in 1916. He died 22 August 1922.
Sources
: DNB; Beattie, S., 1983; Who Was Who 1916--1928. [LR 2000]

Thomas Brock (1847--1922)
Born in Worcester in 1847 and died in London 1922. He studied at the Government School of Design in Worcester and at the Royal Academy, from 1867, winning a gold medal in 1869. Brock made numerous portrait busts, funerary monuments and public statues and achieved a reputation as an establishment sculptor after his master J.H. Foley died in 1874. He was influenced by the young sculptors, Alfred Stevens, Alfred Gilbert, Alfred Drury and Onslow Ford and his works were always highly competent and in a grand style. Commissions include: Sir Bartle Frere, Victoria Embankment Gardens 1888; Rt. Rev. Henry Philpott, DD, Bishop of Worcester, Worcester Cathedral 1896; tomb of Sir Frederick Leighton, St. Paul’s Cathedral 1900; Queen Victoria Memorial, Buckingham Palace, in collaboration with Aston Webb, 1901--9. Exhibited at the RA 1868 onwards. ARA 1883; RA 1891; First President of RBS 1905; Hon DCL Oxford 1909; KCB 1911.
1
. M.H. Spielmann, British sculpture and sculptors of today, London, 1901, pp.26--33; 2. E. and M. Darby, ‘The national memorial to Victoria’, Country Life, 16th November 1978; 3. Beattie, 1983, pp.134 and 241. [B1998]

Sir Thomas Brock (1847--1922)
Born at Worcester where he attended the Government School of Design, in 1866 he moved to London and became a pupil of J.H. Foley, leaving the following year to go to the RA Schools. In 1869 he gained the RA gold medal in sculpture for his group, Hercules Strangling Antaeus. When Foley died in 1874, Brock undertook to complete many of his unfinished commissions, including the William Rathbone for Sefton Park, thereby succeeding to much of his practice. Among Brock’s numerous commissions for London, the most prestigious was the Memorial to Queen Victoria (with Aston Webb) in front of Buckingham Palace, earning him his knighthood at its unveiling in 1911. Brock was elected ARA in 1883 and RA in 1891. He was first president of the Royal Society of British Scuptors at its founding in 1905 and membre d’honneur of the Société des Artistes Français. He was made honorary ARIBA in 1908, honorary DCL at Oxford University in 1909, and honorary RSA in 1916.
(sources: Beattie, 1983; DNB 1922--1930) [L 1997]

Richard Broderick (b.1963)
Sculptor and designer living in North Tyneside, one of three lead artists at Northern Freeform. Trained at Newcastle Polytechnic 1982--5, Broderick exhibited at the first Fresh Art exhibition in London (1986) and was represented by the Nicholas Treadwell Gallery. From 1987, however, he became involved with collaborative arts projects which have included Fish Quay Festival, banner parades and large-scale sculptures. Works outside the North East include street furniture at Doulton-in-Furness.
[
1] Information supplied by the artist, 1999. [NE 2000]

William Brodie (1815--81)
The son of a Banff shipmaster, and brother of the sculptor Alexander Brodie, he worked first as a plumber in Aberdeen while teaching himself sculpture. In 1847 he moved to Edinburgh to study at the Trustee’s School of Design until c.1851, then visited Rome in 1853 to study under Lawrence MacDonald. Returning to Edinburgh, he established a large practice specialising in portrait busts and statues, many of which were exhibited at the RA, the RSA and the RGIFA. He executed the Monument to John Graham Gilbert, Necropolis (c.1863), the 71st Highland Light Infantry Memorial, Glasgow Cathedral (1863), and the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders Memorial, St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh (1864). Elected ARSA in 1857, and RSA in 1859, he was the Academy’s secretary, 1876--81. Most of his public work is in Edinburgh, including the famous tourist attraction Greyfriars Bobby (1872).
Sources: Scotsman, 31 October 1881, p.4 (obit.); Gunnis; Johnstone. [G2002]

Bromsgrove Guild
Founded by Walter Gilbert in 1898, offshoot of Arts and Crafts movement, in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. The guild’s work included metalwork, stonework, plasterwork, woodcarving and stained glass. A branch was established in Montreal in 1911. The gates of Buckingham Palace (1910) were among their most publicised commissions, but their list of private and public clients was extensive, including shipping companies. H. Crichton modelled the figure of Punch, for the magazine’s offices in Bouverie Street, London. A bronze bust of Wallace Hartley, bandmaster on the Titanic, (Colne, Lancashire, 1915) was also the work of the Guild. The Guild became a limited company in 1921. It ceased business in 1966.
Source: Watt, 1999. [Man2004]

Bromsgrove Guild (fl.1895--1965)
Late-Victorian offshoot of the Arts and Crafts movement, founded by Walter Gilbert. They produced craft work in a wide range of materials -- such as wood, metal, glass, embroidery and plaster -- for public and private commissions throughout Britain, their most prestigious work being the gates of Buckingham Palace. Among their commissions in Glasgow were plasterwork in the Central Station Hotel (1900--8), and at Averley, 996 Great Western Road, as well as stained glass (designed by H.J. Payne and Mary Newill) at Stoneleigh, 48 Cleveden Drive (1900--6).
Sources: Williamson et al., pp.210, 314, 321; Cavanagh, p.324. [G2002]

The Bromsgrove Guild
Formed in the 1890s by Walter Gilbert, its roots were in the Arts and Crafts Movement of late Victorian England. Guild members produced a whole range of craft objects in metal, wood, stained glass, embroidery, plaster etc. George Cowper joined the Guild from Coalbrookdale in 1907, bringing metalwork and casting skills with him. The Guild’s most prestigious commission at this time was the gates of Buckingham Palace. On Merseyside, Bromsgrove Guild work can be seen in the church of the Holy Trinity, Southport (woodwork, metalwork and glass), and the Anglican Cathedral (chancel gates, reredos and sanctuary rails). The Guild lasted until the 1960s.
(source: Crawford, 1977) [L 1997]

The Bronze Foundry (established 1979)
Foundry based at New Bradwell, Milton Keynes; since 1992/3 operating as The Mike Davis Foundry. Work outside Leicestershire includes James Butler’s Statue of J.H. Greathead, 1994, Cornhill, London. Davis, a sculptor in his own right, designed and executed Thor’s Footstool, stainless steel and granite, 1994, for Christiani and Nielson, Leamington Spa. [LR 2000]

John Brooke
Architect. Articled to Frederick Bakewell of Nottingham 1867--71. Educated at Nottingham School of Art. Practised in Manchester from 1873. In partnership with Alfred Hugh Davies-Colley (1846--1917). ARIBA 1881 and 1908 FRIBA. Member of Council and then President of the Manchester Society of Architects. Went into partnership with C. Ernest Elcock in October 1912. Also designed Holdsworth Hall, Manchester, 1911. Designed Manchester Royal Infirmary with E.T. Hall. Brooke was also the architect of several churches in Manchester as well as the Deansgate arcade.
Source: Felstead,
1993. [Man2004]

W.G. Brooker
Brooker is listed as having exhibited a bust of Sir C. Wheatstone at the RA in 1878.
[
1] Gunnis, p.300. [NE 2000]

Don Brown (b. 1962)
Born in Norfolk, Brown trained at the Central School (1983--5) and at the Royal College (1985--8). He showed individual works at the Lisson Gallery between 1993 and 1995. In 1996 he exhibited jointly with Stephen Murray (‘Bavaria’ at the Hayward Gallery and ‘Missiles’ at the Lisson Gallery). In the late 1990s, he experimented with scale, producing under life-size and miniature figures and objects. In 1998 he showed a miniature human skull in British Figurative Art II at the Flowers East Gallery. He has been showing work at Sadie Coles HQ since 1997. His resin figures Yoko I and Yoko II form part of the décor of the Admiralty Restaurant at Somerset House. In 1997, his Don was installed in another of Oliver Peyton’s restaurants, Mash, in Great Portland Street, London. Other versions of Don have been shown at the inaugural exhibition at the Milton Keynes Art Gallery (1999) and at the exhibition Second Skin, at the Henry Moore Institute, Leeds (2002). The one at the Leeds show, lent by the Jerwood Foundation, London, was made in 1998. It was cast from himself and then reproduced in aluminium, ‘with all flaws and imperfections removed’.
Source: information provided by Sadie Coles HQ. [CL2003]

George Brown & Sons (est. 1830)
Ecclesiastical and monumental sculptors with branches in Kidderminster, Stourport and Newark. They executed the Boer War Memorial in St Mary’s Church, Kidderminster (1903) as well as First World War memorials for Brierley Hill (1921), Wordsley (1921) and Lye (1926).
Sources: Information provided by Jane Furlong, Project Officer for the United Kingdom National Inventory of War Memorials, 28 April 2004; Kelly’s Directory (Worcestershire), 1904. [SBC2005]

Irene Brown (b.1960)
Trained at Cardiff College of Art and Design, Nottingham Trent Polytechnic and Reading University 1979--87, Brown has worked in a variety of media: animation, theatre and interior design, outdoor and installation sculpture. Works include Caesar’s Sofa, made of fibreglass and modelled from a Newcastle bull terrior (Gateshead Garden Festival, 1990); Take a Seat for the King’s Lynn Arts Centre, 1992; and Light Fantastic at Walsall Museum and Art Gallery, 1994.
[
1] AXIS, Artists Register, 1998. [2] Northern Arts Index, 1998. [NE 2000]

Keith Brown
Sculptor. Studied at Sunderland Polytechnic (DipAD 1967), Michigan University (Clemenstone Scholarship, 1969), Manchester Polytechnic (HAD, 1971), and the Royal College of Art (MA, 1972--5). Received the Sir James Knott Scholarship in 1975. Exhibitions include the 7th Symposium of Art and Technology, Connecticut, and Innovation and Tradition, Fine Arts at Manchester, Portland and Eugene, Oregon (both 1999); The Birth of the Baby: Manchester and the Modern Computer (Manchester Museum, 1998). Currently Head of Fine Art Sculpture at Manchester Metropolitan University (formerly Manchester Polytechnic). President and founder of FasT-uk (Fine Art Sculptors and Technology in the UK).
Source: artist. [Man2004]

James C. Brown (b.1917)
Born in Paris, he graduated in law at the École des Sciences Politiques and worked in the Ministry of Finance until 1945, when he took up sculpture. Entirely self-taught, he has developed his own highly idiosyncratic style. His works are largely figurative and depict animals, birds and human figures. Since 1955, he has worked mainly in the new plastic materials.
Source: Mackay, James, Dictionary of Western Sculptors in Bronze, Woodbridge, 1977. [WCS2003]

Percy Brown (1911--96)
Sculptor and potter born in Wolverhampton. He studied from 1927--32 at Wolverhampton School of Art and from 1932--5 at the Royal College of Art under Richard Garbe. In 1935 Brown was appointed Lecturer in Sculpture at Leicester College of Art, moving in 1946 to Leeds College of Art as Head of the Sculpture and Ceramics Department. In 1950 he went to Hammersmith School of Art, becoming Head in 1956 (retired 1975). Until 1955 his sculpture had consisted principally of architectural commissions and portrait busts; from that date, however, his sculpture became increasingly abstract. He exhibited at the RA from 1934 and had a retrospective exhibition at The Canon Gallery, Chichester, in 1991.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Crafts, no. 143, November/December 1996, p.64 (obituary by Charles Bernard); Percy Brown. Retrospective, n.d.; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Waters, G.M., 1975. [LR 2000]

Ralph Brown (b. 1928)
Sculptor born 24 April 1928 in Leeds. He studied at Leeds College of Art, 1948--51, Hammersmith School of Art, 1951--2, and at the Royal College of Art, 1952--6, where his teachers were Frank Dobson and John Skeaping. In 1954 he was awarded two scholarships, one to study under Zadkine in Paris and another to study in Greece; in 1957 he was sponsored by Henry Moore to study in Italy. Brown was Head of Sculpture, Bournemouth College of Art, 1956--8, and taught at Bristol College of Art and the Royal College, 1958--72. He lived in France, 1973--6. His first solo exhibition was at the Leicester Galleries in 1961 and he had a retrospective at the Henry Moore Centre for the Study of Sculpture, Leeds, in 1988. He also took part in the open-air exhibitions at Battersea Park, 1960 and 1963, and at Coventry Cathedral, 1968, and his work was included in ‘British Sculpture in the Sixties’, Tate Gallery, 1965, ‘British Sculpture ‘72’, Royal Academy, 1972, and in the 1993 Royal Society of British Sculptors exhibition, ‘Chelsea Harbour Sculpture 93’. He was elected ARA in 1968 and RA in 1972. His public sculpture commissions include Swimmers, Hatfield New Town, and Sheep-shearer, 1956, and Meat Porters, 1960, for Harlow New Town. Examples of his work are in the collections of the Arts Council and the Tate Gallery, in the Leeds Sculpture Collections, the Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterloo, Netherlands, and the Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who’s Who 1999. [LR 2000]

Walter Talbot Brown
Architect based in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire. He co-wrote with architect J.A. Gotch, Architecture of the Renaissance in England, Batsford, 1894. His partnership, W. Talbot Brown & Fisher, carried out the restoration of St Peter and St Paul Church, Great Bowden, 1886--7, and St Peter’s Church, Belton-in-Rutland, 1897--8. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1881 and 1909.
Source
: Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E., 1992. [LR 2000]

William Kellock Brown (1856--1934)
Born in Glasgow, the son of a metal worker and brother of the painter Alexander Kellock Brown, he trained under his father and attended sculpture classes at GSA. After winning a scholarship he moved to London to study at the RCA and RA Schools under Edouard Lantéri (1848--1917). Among the commissions he executed in London were the balconies on the Savoy Hotel (1888). A member of Mackmurdo’s Century Guild (briefly its chief metal worker), the Art Workers Guild, the Scottish Guild of Handicrafts and the Scottish Society of Art Workers, he returned to Glasgow to teach modelling, metal work and repoussé at GSA, 1888--98. His students included Albert Hodge, J.P. Main and J.H. Mackinnon (qq.v.), who benefited from the improvements he introduced in the life class. An independent artist from 1892, he carried out numerous commissions for architectural sculpture and monuments in Glasgow and the west of Scotland, including the John Watson Memorial Fountain, Hamilton (1893), the Monument to David Livingstone, Blantyre (1913) and the John Robertson Cenotaph, Southern Necropolis (1912). After the First World War he executed war memorials for Penpont (1920), Inverary (1922), Largs (1922), and Johnstone (1924). He exhibited regularly at the RA, the RSA, and the RGIFA from 1887, showing genre works, busts and Burns subjects, including an unsuccessful model for the Paisley Burns statue competition of 1893. He died of heart failure in Cambridge Street, leaving a colossal statue of Burns unfinished.
Sources: GH, 12 May 1924, p.5, 21 February 1934, p.15 (obit.); Southern Necropolis Newsletter, December 1988; Blench, et al., pp.13--14. [G2002]

Harold Brownsword (1885--1961)
Sculptor born in the Potteries, who studied at Hanley School of Art and the Royal College of Art (1908--13). He was headmaster of Regent Street Polytechnic, London (1938--50), and executed war memorials for Hanley, Longton, Eccleshill and Northallerton.
Source: Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, vol.6, Woodbridge, 1990, p.93. [SBC2005]

Albert Bruce Joy (1842--1924)
Sculptor. Born in Dublin. Bruce Joy (sometimes Bruce-Joy) studied at the National Art Training School and the RA Schools from 1863, and then in Paris and Rome. He worked in J.H. Foley’s studio and on his master’s death in 1874 unofficially inherited the commission for the statue of Robert James Graves, 1877 at the Royal College of Physicians, Dublin. He developed a reputation as a skilled portraitist and produced numerous busts, including Matthew Arnold in Westminster Abbey. His public statues include John Laird (Birkenhead, 1877), William Harvey (Folkestone, 1881), W.E. Gladstone (Bow Churchyard, London, 1882), Lord Frederick Cavendish (Barrow-in-Furness, 1885), John Bright (Birmingham, 1887) and W.H. Hornby (Blackburn, 1912). Refused ARA in 1878 but was elected ARHA (Associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy) in 1890 and RHA in 1893. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, from 1866. His brother was the artist, George William Joy.
Sources: Spielmann, 1901; Noszlopy, 1998. [Man2004]

Albert Bruce Joy (1842--1924)
Born in Ireland in 1842, he died in Surrey, 25th May 1924. Studied at the National Art Training School, and at the RA Schools from 1863 and in Rome. He then worked in J.H. Foley’s studio and on his master’s death in 1874 unofficially inherited the commission for the statue of Robert James Graves, 1877 at the Royal College of Physicians, Dublin. Producing a full range of conventional sculpture, his main works include: statues of Gladstone, Bow Road, London 1882; Lord Frederick Cavendish, Barrow-in-Furness 1885; bust of Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough, 1890; Memorial to Archbishop Benson, Rugby School chapel 1899. He exhibited at the RA from 1866; RSBA. He never sought or received the English Honour of Royal Academician.
1
. M.H. Spielmann, British sculpture and sculptors of today, London, 1901, p.34; 2. B. Read, Victorian sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.75, 351; 3. J. Mackay, Dictionary of British artists 1880--1940, 1976, p.82. [B1998]

Albert Bruce Joy (or Bruce-Joy) (1842--1924)
Born in Dublin, he studied at the South Kensington and RA Schools, and in Paris and Rome. He trained also under J.H. Foley. He was elected ARHA (Associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy) in 1890 and RHA in 1893. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, from 1866. His ability to record his sitter’s likeness with remarkable accuracy made him a highly sought after portraitist. His public sculptures include statues of John Laird (1877) for Hamilton Square, Birkenhead; W. E. Gladstone (1882) for Bow Churchyard, London; and John Bright (1891) and Oliver Heywood (1894) both for Albert Square, Manchester.
(sources: Gleichen, 1928; Johnson & Greutzner, 1976; Spielmann, 1901; Waters, 1975) [L1997]

James George Bubb (1782--1853)
Sculptor. Bubb studied at the Royal Academy Schools, winning a silver medal in 1805. He was employed as a sculptor at Mrs Coade’s artificial stone works at Lambeth. In around 1818 he began manufacturing terracotta in partnership with his former teacher, John Rossi. Works executed by Bubb included reliefs for the Commercial Rooms, Bristol, London Customs House and the Italian Opera House, Haymarket. He also executed funeral monuments and busts. Bubb exhibited at the RA from 1805 to 1831. His work was not highly regarded among his fellow sculptors, an assessment coloured by his conduct in obtaining the commission for the Pitt monument in 1806.
Sources: Gunnis,
1968; Kelly, 1990. [Man2004]

James George Bubb (1782--1853)
Bubb attended the Royal Academy Schools, winning a Silver Medal in 1805. He also worked with J.C.F. Rossi, later claiming that he had given considerable assistance in the carving of Rossi’s tomb of Captain Faulkener in St Paul’s Cathedral. In 1806 he won the Corporation’s competition for the monument to William Pitt the Younger for the Guildhall. The monument was not completed until 1813. Bubb worked for Mrs Coade’s artificial stone factory, and went on to produce his own recipe for architectural terracotta. This was used very extensively on the new London Custom House, opened in 1818. Although deemed unsatisfactory, Bubb proceeded to decorate a large number of buildings in London and Bristol with this material. His most inventive scheme was probably the frieze, illustrating the history of music and the dance from the earliest times to the present, for the Italian Opera House in the Haymarket (1827), of which only fragments have survived. Bubb abandoned his terracotta around 1830, although he was later employed by the firm of Blashfield to model some of their architectural ornaments. At the Royal Academy, Bubb exhibited portrait busts and mythological figures. He also executed a number of church monuments. He was a prolific, but not particularly talented sculptor, rather despised by the rest of the profession.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968. [CL2003]

Walter Buchan (fl.1837--78)
Little is known of Buchan’s life and career other than the fact that he trained under William Mossman Senior (q.v.), assisted John Mossman (q.v.) and was employed as a carver by Cuthbert Brodrick on Leeds Town Hall (1853--8) and by John Thomas (q.v.) at the Houses of Parliament, London. Work by him is rare but distinguished, and was much admired by Archibald Macfarlane Shannan (q.v.), who exhibited a plaster copy of his Trial by Jury frieze at the Corporation Galleries in 1911. He died obscure and in poverty in London, too late to benefit from John Mossman’s attempts to alleviate his plight.
Sources: A, 13 April 1878 (obit.), 26 September 1890; Gildard, pp.4--8. [G2002]

Herbert Tudor Buckland (1869--1951)
Architect. Buckland studied at Birmingham School of Art, was first articled to Henry Clere, and subsequently to Bateman and Bateman, both of Birmingham. He was a great winner of competitions, including that for a Birmingham University’s Women’s Hall of Residence. Influenced by Webb and Lutyens, his works included schools, colleges, university extensions and mansions. With his partner William Haywood, he designed the Royal Hospital School, Holbrook and extended Newnham College, Cambridge. He also designed George Dixon School, Birmingham, St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and Nobel House, Buckingham Gate, London. A member of many committees, he was president of Birmingham and Five Counties Architectural Association (1919--22), Chairman of the Allied Societies Conference (1922--5) and Vice-President of RIBA (1923--5). He was also architect to Birmingham Education Committee (1902--34) and a founder member of the Birmingham Civic Society. In the early years of the twentieth century Buckland, as a practising architect, taught at Birmingham School of Art (now part of the University of Central England).
Source: RIBA Journal, vol.58 (April 1951). [WCS2003]

Jim Buckley (b.1957)
Born in Cork, Eire, he studied sculpture at Crawford’s School of Art, Cork, 1975--80. He has contributed to international conferences on sculpture and has shown work at group and solo exhibitions throughout Europe, the USA and Japan, including Jim Buckley, at the Kyoni Gallery, Tokyo (1994). Winner of the Benno Schotz Prize in 1984, he has collected awards from a variety of sponsors and arts organisations, including an SAC Travel Award, 1984, and the Royal Bank of Scotland Prize, 1987. In 1988 he exhibited Red Gates at the Glasgow Garden Festival. He is a co-founder and co-director of Glasgow Sculpture Studios Ltd, and is represented in many major private and public collections.
Sources: Scott, pp. 46--7; Murray, pp. 32--3; Euan McArthur and Jim Buckley, Jim Buckley, Aberdeen, 1994 (ex. cat.). [G2002]

Kenneth George Budd (1925--95)
Mural designer born in London, 16th October 1925, died 21st January 1995. Studied at Beckenham School of Art 1941--4 and the Royal College of Art 1947--50. Several works are located in Birmingham, where he was commissioned by the Public Works Department to decorate the following inner ring road developments: Horsefair in 1908, mural, Holloway Circus 1967; J.F. Kennedy Memorial, mural, 1968; History of Snow Hill, mural, St. Chad’s Circus 1968. Other works include interchange and ring road mosaic and concrete murals, Newport, Gwent; mosaic coat of arms, Tower Foyer, Guy’s Hospital, London; Local Life 1890--1910, Abertillery, Gwent; various mosaics for Newport Borough Council and Gwent County Council 1990--3. He also carried out several joint commissions with his son, Oliver Budd, who has continued his practice since his death in 1995. ARCA 1950.
1
.WWA, 26th edition, Havant, 1994; 2. Letter from the artist’s son, Oliver Budd, 20th February 1996. [B1998]

Lionel Bailey Budden (1887--1956)
Liverpool architect, most importantly of the Birkenhead War Memorial, 1923--25, and the Liverpool Cenotaph, 1926--30, St George’s Plateau, both with the sculptor, Tyson Smith. He graduated from the School of Architecture, University of Liverpool, in 1909, with first class honours, winning also the University travelling scholarship and the Holt travelling scholarship with which he funded a year in Athens. He taught at the School of Architecture from 1911 and was successor to C.H. Reilly as Roscoe Professor of Architecture from 1933, until his retirement in 1952. He exhibited four times at the WAG between 1924 and 1930 and once at the RA, 1924, with his design for the Birkenhead War Memorial.
(source: RIBA Journal, September 1956). [L 1997]

Emlyn Budds
Sculptor. He went first to Norwich School of Art, before taking up degree studies at Loughborough College of Art and Design (1996--9). [LR 2000]

George Bullock (d. 1818)
Liverpool sculptor. He exhibited at the RA and the Liverpool Academy, 1804--16, and was President of the latter, 1810--11. He also produced work under the company name ‘Mona Marbles’, after the quarry he had discovered on the Isle of Anglesey, which yielded greenish-blue and purple marbles. The company was sufficiently successful for him to move to London in 1813, where he set himself up as a director of the Mona Marble Works. Mona marbles were used in his monuments to the Revd Glover Moore (St Cuthbert’s, Halsall, Lancs) and to Anna Maria Bold (St Luke’s, Farnworth, Lancs).
(source: Gunnis, 1951). [L 1997]

Burmantofts Works, Leeds Fireclay Company
Firm established in 1842 as Lassey and Wilcock, coal proprietors and brick makers, at Burmantofts, Leeds. By the early 1870s the firm had become Wilcock and Co., specialising in sanitary tubes and salt-glazed bricks. In 1879 James Holroyd took over as manager and was responsible for transforming the business into a nationally-known firm making architectural ornamentation in faience and terracotta. In 1888 the firm was renamed The Burmantofts Company Ltd. Burmantofts employed a number of first-rate artists as principal designers, notably W.J. Neatby and E. Caldwell Spruce. Burmantofts Works closed in 1957.
Sources: Stratton, 1993; Cavanagh, 2000. [Man2004]

Burmantofts Works, Leeds Fireclay Company
The firm began in 1842 as Lassey and Wilcock, coal proprietors and brick makers, at Burmantofts, just outside Leeds. By the early 1870s the firm had become Wilcock and Co., specialising in sanitary tubes and salt-glazed bricks. In 1879 James Holroyd took over as manager and within five years Wilcock and Co. had been transformed from a firm with a solid local reputation to a nationally-known firm making architectural ornamentation in faience and terracotta for some of the country’s leading architects, for example Alfred Waterhouse at the Yorkshire College, Leeds, 1877--86 and 1894; at the Victoria Building, Liverpool University, 1887--91; and at King’s Weigh House Chapel, Duke Street, London, 1889--91. In 1888 the firm was renamed The Burmantofts Company Ltd. The very next year, however, Burmantofts amalgamated with a number of other firms in the Yorkshire towns of Halifax, Huddersfield and Wortley, together forming the largest clay-working company in Britain. Holroyd was elected to the board of the parent company whilst continuing as manager at the Burmantofts Works. Burmantofts employed a number of first-rate artists as principal designers, including W.J. Neatby (see p.378) and E. Caldwell Spruce (see p.385). In 1906--7, Burmantofts also supplied a range of faience tiles for the entrances of many of the London Underground Railway stations, for example Leicester Square, Russell Square and Piccadilly Circus. Burmantofts Works eventually closed in 1957.
Sources
: Bradford Art Galleries and Museums, 1983; Stratton, M., 1993. [LR 2000]

George Burn
From c.1868 to 1880 Burn’s skills as a sculptor were in great demand on Tyneside. Unfortunately, no records have been found of his life or working practice beside the fact that he lived in or near Neville Street, Newcastle, from 1869 to 1878 and in Corporation Street, Newcastle, in 1883. The stiff, rather awkward manner of his sculpted figures suggest that he did not receive an academic training, and it may well be that he is the same George Burn whom trade directories give as trading in Newcastle as a ‘grocer and beer retailer’ in 1865.
[
1] Information provided by John Pendlebury, University of Newcastle, 1999. [NE 2000]

Neville Northey Burnard (1818--78)
Sculptor. Born in Cornwall, the son of a mason. Sir Charles Lemon MP persuaded Chantrey to employ Burnard in his studio. In 1848 Lemon’s influence secured permission to model a bust of the Prince of Wales, which was exhibited at the RA in the same year. Burnard continued to exhibit there until 1873. Following the death of his wife he took to drink, eventually dying in Redruth Workhouse. Principal public works include statues of Richard Lander (Truro, 1852) and Ebenezer Elliot (Sheffield, 1854). He also produced busts of Lord Macaulay (1859), Richard Cobden (1866) and William Gladstone (1871).
Sources: DNB; Gunnis,
1968; Martin, 1978. [Man2004]

John Burnet & Son (1882--6)
Architectural partnership formed in 1882 between John Burnet (1814--1901) and his son John James Burnet (1857--1938), later becoming Burnet, Son & Campbell, 1886--97, with John Archibald Campbell (1859--1909). Burnet Senior was the first Glasgow architect to use sculpture on a grand scale, often employing the Mossmans and James Young (qq.v.). After returning from the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris in 1878, Burnet Junior continued the trend throughout his Beaux-Arts and American Neo-classical phases, with Albert Hodge (q.v.) a frequent contributor to his Glasgow and London buildings. Burnet set up a London office in 1905, and was knighted for his King Edward VII Gallery, London (1903--14), which incorporates lions by Sir George Frampton (q.v.). The firm’s other important buildings providing opportunities for sculptors include Forsyth’s, Edinburgh (1906), with work by William Birnie Rhind and William Reid Dick (qq.v.). The firm continued as Burnet, Tait & Lorne, designing the Empire Exhibition, Glasgow, 1938 (see Bellahouston Park, Appendix A, Lost Works), the flagship of architectural Modernism in Scotland.
Sources: Gomme and Walker, pp.266--9; Service, pp.192--215; Gray; ET, 25 February 2000, pp.8--9. [G2002]

John James Burnet See John Burnet & Son [G2002]

Henry Burnett
Stonemason. Listed as tobacconist and monumental mason in Oldham commercial directory.
Source: Woralls’ Oldham Directory, 1871. [Man2004]

Jamie Burroughs (b.1961)
English sculptor, studied at Wimbledon School of Art, currently living in Hong Kong.
Vincent Butler (b.1933)
Manchester-born sculptor of figures, animals and portraits in bronze, he trained at Manchester School of Art and ECA, completing his studies in Milan under Marino Marini and Giacomo Manzù, 1955--7. After working in Italy he taught sculpture in Nigeria, 1960--3, then joined the staff of ECA. Casting most of his work himself, he has held several one-man shows and has exhibited at the RSA and the RGIFA since 1963, including a bust of Benno Schotz (q.v.) (1978, SNPG), Mother and Child (1986) and Primogenito (1988). His commissions include the Stations of the Cross, St Mark’s RC Church, Oxgangs Avenue, Edinburgh (1959) and a cross for St Paul’s RC Church, Pennywell Road, Edinburgh (1968). Winner of the Benno Schotz prize for portraiture in 1969, he was elected ARSA in 1972, and RSA in 1977.
Sources: Spalding; Billcliffe; McEwan. [G2002]

Henry Bursill
He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1855 to 1870. His exhibits were mainly portraits. In 1866 he showed busts of ‘the late Mr Behnes sculptor’, and of ‘John Gibson Esq. FRIBA’. The latter was the architect who employed Bursill to produce sculpture for his National Provincial Bank premises in Bishopsgate. In 1869, Bursill showed designs for his statues of Commerce and Agriculture for Holborn Viaduct. In the Holborn Valley Improvements Report of 18 November 1872, he is referred to as ‘the late Mr Henry Bursill’. The last letter from Bursill in the Corporation’s Holborn Valley Boxes is dated 18 April 1871, so he must have died between these two dates. Nothing further appears to be known about him, though he may have been the same Henry Bursill who produced a book on that favourite Victorian pastime, Hand Shadows, first published by Griffiths and Farrar of St Paul’s Churchyard, which was reissued by Dover Reprints in 1967. [CL2003]

James Walter Butler (b.1931)
Butler studied at Maidstone School of Art (1948--50), St. Martin’s School of Art and the Royal College of Art (1950--2). He worked as an architectural carver throughout the 1950s, interrupted only by a period of National Service. Later, he became a tutor of sculpture and drawing at the City and Guilds of London Art School (1960--75). Specialising in figurative bronzes, his major commissions include President Kenyatta, Nairobi (1973); Monument to the Freedom Fighters of Zambia, Lusaka (1974); Burton Cooper (1977); Richard III, Leicester (1980); John Wilkes, New Fetter Lane, London (1988), The Leicester Seamstress, Leicester (1990); Stratford Jester (1995); Billy Wright and Stan Cullis for Wolverhampton Wanderers Football Club (1996 and 2002); James Brindley, canal basin, Coventry (1998); Duncan Edwards, Dudley (1999); a sculptural tribute to the Kentucky Derby winner, Thunder Gulch (2000); Jack Walker for Blackburn Rovers Football Club (2001); and the Fleet Air Arm Memorial with its colossal figure of Daedalus, London (2001). He has exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy since 1958, and was elected a Royal Academician in 1972. In 1981 he was a made a fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors.
Sources: Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.221; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.358; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.186; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.249; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984, p.252; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.453; Who’s Who in Art, 28th edn, London, 1998, p.84. [SBC2005]

A. B. Burton (see Thames Ditton Foundry) [L 1997]

Andrew Burton (b.1961)
Andrew Burton is a well-known sculptor in metal, particularly of animals. He gained a first class degree in Fine Art from Newcastle University in 1983, going on to take his master’s degree there in 1986, when a travelling scholarship enabled him to visit India before taking a teaching post at the University. He has won commissions for Newcastle Business Park (1990), Gateshead Garden Festival (1990), Stevenage Museum (1992), Newcastle Quayside Development (1994), Durham (Durham Cow, 1997), Loanhead, Edinburgh (1998) and Dudley Southern Bypass (2000). From the outset, he has been a frequent exhibitor, showing at the Royal Academy, the Manchester City Art Gallery Summer Exhibition (1988) and Pelter/Sands, Bristol (1991). Towers, ziggurats and elephants featured in the Bristol show, in which many of his works showed animals bearing monumental buildings on their backs, opening up questions about man’s relation to animals and to ambition. More recently, he has produced a dramatic piece featuring two monumental trumpets surmounting millstones and giant cogs, Annunciation (London, 2000).
Sources: Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.218; Burton, A., Andrew Burton: Sculptures 1989--94, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1994; University of Newcastle, Staff Directory of Research Interests, accessed 19 November 2003, www.ncl.ac.uk; Usherwood, P., Beach, J. and Morris, C., Public Sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool, 2000, p.319; Who’s Who in Art, 28th edn, London, 1998, p.70. [SBC2005]

Andrew Burton (b.1961)
Metal sculptor and lecturer at Newcastle University, where he also studied fine art in the 1980s. Burton has works in many public collections and has undertaken commissions and residencies in Stevenage (1992) and Edinburgh (1998). He has exhibited at the RA, Laing and Hatton Galleries, Newcastle, as well as in group shows abroad. Burton was awarded the McGrigor Donald Sculpture Prize in 1990, and the Northern Arts Award to Artists in 1994.
[
1] Who’s Who in Art, 27th ed., 1996, p.70. [2] AXIS, Artists Register, 1999. [3] Buckman, p.218. [NE 2000]

Esmond Burton
A
stone- and wood-carver. Educated at Marlborough College, Burton was later articled to the carver Lawrence Turner. He was elected in 1919 as a carver to the Art Workers’ Guild. He worked on the reredos of St George’s Chapel in St Paul’s, for the cathedral architect Mervyn Macartney, and collaborated with Goodhart-Rendel in the church of East Clandon, Surrey. His most substantial work was his contribution of figures to the screen of Ripon Cathedral, completed in 1948. His largest single work was a stone eagle on the RAF Memorial Screen at Brookwood Cemetery, designed by Edward Maufe. Burton was first and foremost a medievalist, but he also worked on occasion in a less period-specific style in stone. He was a member of the Vintners’ Company, and was Master from 1948--9. He was also a member and President of the Master Carvers’ Association.
Sources: Sir Henry Blashfield, ‘The Sculpture of Esmond Burton’, Country Life, 27 January 1950, pp.234--5; G.T. Noszlopy and J. Beach, Public Sculpture of Birmingham, Liverpool, 1998. [CL2003]

Esmund Burton
Burton, a stone and wood carver who lived in London, produced decorative and architectural sculpture from the 1920s. Works include: architectural decoration at Trinity College of Music, London 1926; garden vases, Melchet Court, Hampshire 1926; Memorial to Lord Gerald Wellesley, headstone, 1926; panels in Music Room, for Harry Lauder, at Wernfawr, Harlech, Wales; courtyard fountain, illustrated in W. Aumonier’s Modern Architectural Sculpture. Burton was elected as a carver to the Art Workers’ Guild in 1919 and was a member and Past-President of the Master Carver’s Association.
1
. ‘A craftsman’s portfolio’, Architectural Review, vol.LX, no.361, December 1926, pp.258--9; 2. W. Aumonier, (ed.), Modern architectural sculpture, New York, 1930, pp.124, 131, 142; 3. Letter from Mr. P. Bentham, Honourable Secretary of the Master Carver’s Association, 18th March 1985. [B1998]

Frederick Bushe (b. 1931)
Sculptor, born in Scotland. He studied at Glasgow School of Art, 1949--53. In 1966--67 he attended the University of Birmingham School of Art, where he gained an Advanced Diploma in Art Education. In 1970 he won an Arts Council award. His public sculptures include 2 + 1 Standing Forms (1975, King’s College, Aberdeen University) and Horizontal Landscape (1981, Landmark Visitors Centre, Carrbridge, Scotland).
(source: Strachan, 1984) [L 1997]

John Bushnell (1636--1701)
Son of a plumber, he was apprenticed to the sculptor Thomas Burman, but journeyed abroad before the conclusion of his service. Bushnell travelled widely, in Spain, Flanders, France and Italy. Only one thing is known for sure about these wanderings, that he assisted the Flemish sculptor Justus le Court with the massive monument to Alvise Mocenigo in the church of S. Lazzaro dei Mendicanti in Venice. On his return to London he was commissioned in 1669 to produce a series of garden statues, now lost, for the country property of Sir Robert Gayer at Stoke Poges. In the following year he carved the four royal figures for the niches on Temple Bar. In 1670 he carved life-size stone figures of Charles I, Charles II and Sir Thomas Gresham for the Cornhill entrance to the Royal Exchange, which are now in the Old Bailey. These commissions exhibit the baroque flourish which Bushnell had acquired during his wanderjahre. This quality is also much in evidence in such church monuments as those to Viscount Mordaunt (1675) in All Saints Church, Fulham, and William and Jane Ashburnham (1675) in St James, Ashburnham, Sussex. Bushnell was an arrogant and quarrelsome character, whose eccentricity sometimes tipped over into madness. The tales which George Vertue has to tell of him, and an account of Vertue’s visit to his workshop after Bushnell’s death make entertaining reading. His sculpture, from the mid-1670s on, grew increasingly wayward and uneven in execution. His last work, the tomb of Thomas Thomond (1701) in the church at Great Billing in Northants is one of the more coherent products of Bushnell’s artistic dementia.
Sources: K. Esdaile, John Bushnell, Walpole Society, vols XV and XXI; Notebooks of George Vertue, I, II & IV, Walpole Society, vols XVIII, XX and xxiv; R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; M. Whinney, Sculpture in Britain 1530--1830, revised by J. Physick, London, 1988; K. Gibson, ‘The Trials of John Bushnell’, Sculpture Jourrnal, vol. VI, 2001. [CL2003]

James Butler (b. 1931)
Sculptor. Born in London. Educated at Maidstone School of Art and St Martin’s School of Art (1948--52). After National Service he worked as stonecutter for the Giudici Brothers, and from 1960 also taught sculpture and drawing at the City and Guilds School of Art in London. Butler’s reputation as a portrait sculptor began with a commission for a statue of Jomo Kenyatta (Nairobi, 1973). Subsequent public statues include John Wilkes (New Fetter Lane, London and Wilkes University, Pennsylvania), Thomas Cook (Leicester), Billy Wright (Molineux Stadium, Wolverhampton), James Brindley (Canal Basin, Coventry) and Duncan Edwards (Dudley) He is also known for his figures of dancers, children and the female nude. Other work includes the Dolphin Fountain (Dolphin Square, London). Elected ARA in 1964, RA in 1972, FRSBS in 1981, and President of Society of British Portrait Sculptors.
Sources: artist; Strachan, 1984. [Man2004]

James Walter Butler (b.1931)
Butler studied at Maidstone School of Art (1948--50), St Martin’s School of Art (1950--2) and the Royal College of Art. He worked as an architectural carver (1950--3 and 1955--60) and became a tutor of sculpture and drawing at the City and Guilds of London Art School (1960--75). Major commissions include Water Feature with Reclining Nude, Hatfield (1970); portrait statue of President Kenyatta, Nairobi (1973); Monument to the Freedom Fighters of Zambia, Lusaka (1974); Richard III, Leicester, (1980); Dolphin fountain, Dolphin Square, London; The Leicester Seamstress, bronze, Hotel Street, Leicester. He has exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy since 1958. He was elected RA in 1962, ARA in 1968, RWA in 1980, and FRBS in 1981.
Sources: Who’s Who in Art, 26th edition, 1994; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984. [WCS2003]

James Walter Butler (b. 1931)
Sculptor in bronze, born 25 July 1931 in London. He studied at Maidstone School of Art, 1948--50, and at St Martin’s School of Art and the Royal College of Art, 1950--2. He worked as an architectural carver from 1950--60 (interrupted by National Service, 1953--5) and taught sculpture and drawing at the City and Guilds of London Art School, 1960--75. His public commissions include statues of President Jomo Kenyatta, 1973, Nairobi; Field Marshal Alexander, 1985, Wellington Barracks, London; Sir John Moore, 1987, Sir John Moore Barracks, Winchester; John Wilkes, 1988, New Fetter Lane, London; James Henry Greathead, 1994, Cornhill, London; the Monument to the Freedom Fighters of Zambia, 1974, Lusaka; The Burton Cooper, 1977, Burton-on-Trent; the Dolphin Fountain, 1988, Dolphin Square, London; and The Stratford Jester, 1995, Stratford-upon-Avon. Butler exhibited at the RA from 1958 onwards and was elected ARA in 1964 and RA in 1972. In 1980 he was elected a Royal West of England Academician. In 1981 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors and in 1993 was included in the RBS show ‘Chelsea Harbour Sculpture 93’.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who’s Who 1999. [LR 2000]

James Walter Butler (b.1931)
Born in Deptford, 25th July 1931, he studied at Maidstone School of Art 1948--50, St. Martin’s School of Art 1950--2 and the Royal College of Art. He worked as an architectural carver 1950--3 and 1955--60 and became a tutor of sculpture and drawing at the City and Guilds of London Art School 1960--75. Major commissions include: Water Feature with Reclining Nude, Hatfield 1970; portrait statue of President Kenyatta, Nairobi 1973; Monument to the Freedom Fighters of Zambia, Lusaka 1974; The Burton Cooper, Burton-on-Trent, 1977; Richard III, Leicester, 1980; Dolphin fountain, Dolphin Square, London; The Leicester Seamstress, bronze, Hotel Street, Leicester. Exhibited regularly at the RA from 1958. ARA 1963; RA 1972; RWA 1980; FRBS 1981.
1
. Strachan, 1984, p.252; 2. WWA, 25th edition, Havant, 1992. [B1998]

James Butler (b. 1931)
Born in London, Butler trained at Maidstone School of Art (1948--50), and at St Martin’s School of Art (1950--2). He did his National Service with the Signals Corps (1953--5), and then worked for ten years as a stone-cutter, before taking a teaching post at the City and Guilds School of Art. Butler’s first major public commission was for a twice life-size figure of President Jomo Kenyatta for Nairobi. Other public commissions, many of them for modern and historical portrait figures, followed. The most recent has been the Fleet Air Arm War Memorial on the Victoria Embankment. This colossal figure of the winged Daedalus was unveiled by Prince Charles on 1 June 2001. Apart from his portrait statues, Butler has been a prolific sculptor of the female nude. He lives and works at Radway, Warks. He was elected RA in 1972, and became a fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1981.
Source: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists Since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

Timothy Butler (b. 1806)
He won a silver medal from the Society of Arts in 1824, and in 1825 was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools on the recommendation of William Behnes. Two years later he was awarded the Academy’s silver medal. Between 1828 and 1879, Butler exhibited over 100 portrait busts at the Royal Academy. Though his first RA exhibit was entitled Mars, he exhibited no further ideal works. He did however produce a small number of funerary monuments. Butler’s bust of Hugh Falconer (marble, 1866) is in the collection of the Royal Society, and his bust of Dr Jacob Bell (marble, 1863) is in the collection of the Pharmaceutical Society.
Source: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968. [CL2003]

Cackett, Burns Dick (Architects)
Robert Burns Dick (1868--1959) was the architect son of a Newcastle innkeeper and brewer’s agent. In 1893 he entered into partnership with the Charles T. Marshall (1866--1940) and five years later with James Cackett (1860--1928). The firm was responsible for a number of regional landmarks including the Laing Art Gallery; Spanish City, Whitley Bay; and the towers of the Tyne Road Bridge.
[1] Pearson, L., Northern City: An Architectural History of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle, 1996, pp.69,72. [2] DBArch, pp.148 and 602. [NE 2000]

Auguste-Nicolas Cain (1822--94)
Born in Paris, he worked as a joiner before studying sculpture under François Rude, Alexandre Guionnet and Pierre Mene, becoming a sculptor of monumental statuary, wax groups, and small animals and birds in bronze. His best-known public work is the equestrian Monument to Duke Charles of Brunswick, Geneva (1879). He exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1846, and won medals for his work in 1851 and 1863, and at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1867. A pair of stone lions by Cain outside the town hall of Oran, Algeria, is discussed, in slightly disparaging terms, by Albert Camus in his essay ‘Minotaur or the Halt at Oran’.
Sources: S. Larni, Dictionnaire de sculpteurs de l’école francaise au dix-neuvième siécle, 1914--21, vol.1; Mackay; Albert Camus, Summer, Harmondsworth, n.d. (Penguin 60s), pp.20--2. [G2002]

Frederick T. Callcott (d. 1923) He exhibited biblical, mythological and genre subjects at the Royal Academy between 1878 and 1921, as well as a number of portrait busts. His bronze group, Going to School, was shown at the RA in 1889, and again at the Paris Salon in 1898. Callcott exhibited also with the Royal Society of British Artists. His Memorial to the Surf Boat Disaster, consisting of a lifeboatman looking out to sea, cast by Elkington’s, was inaugurated on Marine Terrace, Margate, in 1899. Between 1904 and his death in 1921, Callcott contributed relief sculpture to H. Fuller Clark’s interior of the Black Friar public house in the City. [CL2003]

Christopher Campbell (b. 1956)
Sculptor born in Blackpool. He studied at Blackpool College of Technology and then Trent Polytechnic, Nottingham, where he settled. Many of his sculptures are based on animals, his best known perhaps being Camel, wood, 1984, for Milton Keynes General Hospital, commissioned by the Milton Keynes Development Corporation. He has work in Sheffield City Art Galleries.
Source
: Buckman, D., 1998. [LR 2000]

Neil Canavan (b.1948)
Newcastle-based sculptor trained at Hull and Newcastle University (1980--5). His work tends to use found materials such as slate and driftwood. He has had a number of commissions in the North East.
[
1] Information provided by the artist, 1999. [NE 2000]

Victor Candey
Exhibited regularly at the RA from 1958. Candey was a sculptor local to Coventry who taught for a considerable time at Coventry Art College, becoming Deputy Principal in 1940. He was also secretary of the Coventry and Warwickshire Society of Artists for thirteen years. Candey’s work was mostly exhibited locally, but in 1949 his bust of Alderman Alec Turner was accepted for the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition.
Source: Herbert Art Gallery and Museum/City of Coventry Libraries, Arts and Museums Department, A Survey of Public Art in Coventry, Coventry, 1980. [WCS2003]

George T. Capstick (d. c.1967)
A Liverpool architectural sculptor, he worked mainly in partnership with E.C. Thompson in the firm Thompson & Capstick, which closed down in 1939. Capstick exhibited only once at the WAG, in 1911. He was married to Edward Carter Preston’s sister, Winifred. [L 1997]

Holme Cardwell (1815--64)
Sculptor. Born in Manchester. Trained at Royal Academy Schools on the recommendation of Chantrey. He then went to Paris where he studied under Pierre Jean David, and subsequently to Rome where he established a studio. Exhibited at the RA from 1837 to 1856. Works include Greyhounds Playing, The Good Samaritan and Sabrina. His Manchester connections led to commissions for busts of John Kennedy, Thomas Henshaw and John Dalton. Venus Victrix and Huntsman and a Stag were among his works displayed at the Art Treasures Exhibition, Manchester, 1857.
Source: Gunnis,
1968. [Man2004]

John Edward Carew (1785--1868)
Born at Tramore near Waterford. He is supposed to have studied in Dublin before coming to London in about 1809, where he was engaged as an assistant to Sir Richard Westmacott. He continued in Westmacott’s employ until 1822, when the Earl of Egremont persuaded him to accept an exclusive arrangement to work for him alone. Carew produced a series of very fine genre and mythological figures and groups for the Earl, which are still at Petworth House. However, on discovering at his patron’s death in 1837 that he had been left nothing in the will, he brought an action against the executors, which he lost. Carew produced vigorous, and still surprisingly baroque, devotional sculpture: a high relief of the Baptism of Christ (1835) for the Roman Catholic Church in Brighton, and another of the Assumption of the Virgin (1853) for the Royal Bavarian Chapel in London (now in the Chapel of the Assumption, Warwick Street). Recognition of Carew’s outstanding abilities was implied by his being given the commission to execute the colossal bronze relief of The Death of Nelson, for the plinth of Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square. His portrait statues include Edmund Kean as Hamlet (1833, marble, Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London), and Henry Grattan (1857, marble, Palace of Westminster). His funerary monuments include the memorial to George IV’s mistress, Mrs Fitzherbert, in the Roman Catholic Church in Brighton, and the memorial with portrait statue of William Huskisson (1832), in Chichester Cathedral.
Sources: W.G. Strickland, A Dictionary of Irish Artists, Dublin and London, 1913; R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968. [CL2003]

Alberto Carneiro (b.1937)
Portuguese sculptor. After a childhood studying in religious sculptural workshops, Carneiro studied sculptural practice in Oporto and then at St Martin’s School of Art in London until 1958. He has exhibited frequently and has been awarded a number of Portuguese prizes for his work. Teaches sculpture at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Oporto.
[
1] Gateshead, Four Seasons, p.26. [NE 2000]

Sir Anthony Alfred Caro (b. 1924)
Born at New Malden, Surrey. As a schoolboy, Caro worked in the holidays in Charles Wheeler’s studio. In 1944 he graduated in engineering from Christ’s College, Cambridge, going on to serve in the Royal Navy until 1946. After leaving the Navy, he studied sculpture, first at the Regent Street Polytechnic, and then at the Royal Academy Schools. From 1951 to 1953 he worked as an assistant in the studio of Henry Moore. After traditional beginnings, Caro began, in 1954, to produce idiosyncratic figure sculpture, modelled in clay and cast in bronze. Initially this is reminiscent of Henry Moore’s monumentalism, but a more brutal larding-on of the clay from the mid fifties reflects the influence on Caro of Dubuffet and De Kooning. On a visit to New York, 1959/60, he met the critic Clement Greenberg and the sculptor David Smith. From 1962 Caro began to produce abstract welded metal pieces, and a one-man show at the Whitechapel Art Gallery in 1963 consisted entirely of this kind of work. This new direction received further encouragement from a longer stay in the United States in 1963/4. Caro taught at Bennington College and renewed his acquaintance with David Smith. Partly through his teaching at St Martin’s School of Art, Caro became one of the most influential figures in British sculpture in the 1960s and 70s, increasingly at home with abstract invention and frequently employing colour, though in general each piece is monochrome. From the late 1980s Caro’s sculpture has become more culturally allusive, containing references to paintings by Rembrandt and Rubens, to classical music, and to Greek sculpture and drama. It has also taken on an architectural dimension and at times a truly monumental scale. In 2000 Caro collaborated with Norman Foster on the design of London’s Millennium Bridge. He was knighted in 1987.
Sources: The Grove Dictionary of Art, Macmillan, London, 1996 (Lynne Cooke); D. Waldman, Anthony Caro, Oxford 1982; Anthony Caro. Five Decades 1955--1984 (Exh. cat.) Annely Juda Fine Art, London, March--May 1994. [CL2003]

William Douglas Caröe (1857--1938)
Born at Blundellsands, he was the son of the Danish Consul in Liverpool. He was articled to the Liverpool architect Edmund Kirby, 1879, then worked in the London office of J.L. Pearson, 1881--85. In 1885 he was appointed as an architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, becoming Senior Architect in 1895. He ran a very successful practice, winning both ecclesiastical and secular commissions. He was a brother-upholder of the Art Workers’ Guild and also wrote a history of Sefton. For Liverpool he also built the Swedish Seaman’s Church (Gustaf Adolfs Kyrka), Park Lane (1883--84).
(source: Gray, 1985) [L 1997]

William Douglas Caröe (1857--1938)
Architect born 1 September 1857 at Blundellsands, the son of the Danish Consul in Liverpool. He was articled to the Liverpool architect Edmund Kirby, 1879, then worked in the London office of J.L. Pearson, 1881--5. In 1885 he was appointed as an architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, becoming Senior Architect in 1895. He ran a very successful practice, winning both ecclesiastical and secular commissions. In addition to architectural work, he also designed a number of important church monuments, including those to Archbishop Temple in Canterbury Cathedral, Bishop Owen in St David’s Cathedral, Bishop Ridding in Southwell Cathedral, and Bishop Satterlee and Bishop Harding in Washington Cathedral, USA. Amongst his work in Leicestershire not included in the catalogue is the reredos, sedilia and piscina, c.1892, for Holy Trinity, Barrow-upon-Soar, the organ chamber, 1897, for St Bartholomew’s, Quorn, and woodwork, described by Pevsner as ‘excellent’, 1890s, for St Peter and St Paul, Syston. Caröe exhibited at the Royal Academy 1884--1935 and was a brother-upholder of the Art Workers’ Guild. He died 25 February 1938.
Sources
: DNB 1931--1940; Gray, A.S., 1985; Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E., 1992; Service, A., 1977. [LR 2000]

Alexander Carrick (1882--1966)
Born in Musselburgh, Carrick trained as a stone-carver with Birnie Rhind before going on to become a student and then teacher at Edinburgh College of Art. He received many commissions for architectural sculpture and war memorials, including those at Ayr, Dornoch, Forres, Fraserburgh, Killin and Berwick. Carrick was also one of the sculptors employed by the architect Robert Lorimer on the Scottish National War Memorial at Edinburgh Castle. After his retirement from teaching in 1942 he moved to the Borders.
[
1] Information provided by Elizabeth Doley, 1998. [NE 2000]

Derek Carruthers (b. 1935)
Artist and teacher born in Penrith, Cumberland. He studied art at King’s College, Newcastle University, 1953--7, his teachers there including Victor Pasmore and Lawrence Gowing. Carruthers went on to teach at Sunderland College of Art, 1957--64, and Trent Polytechnic, 1973--88, taking early retirement in the latter year to devote himself wholly to art. His earlier work, primarily sculpture, was abstract and influenced by Pasmore, although in the later seventies he re-embraced figuration and concentrated more on painting. Examples of his work are in Bradford City Art Gallery and the Abbot Hall Gallery, Kendal.
Sources
: information from the sculptor; Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990. [LR 2000]

Robert Carruthers (b.1925)
Born in 1925, he studied at Cheltenham College of Art and the Royal College of Art where he was awarded the major travelling scholarship 1953--4. He taught at the RCA, winning the French scholarship in 1958, and at Swindon College of Art. Public works include: The Tower to Ledoux, c.1970. Exhibited at AIA Gallery, London, 1966; Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1970 and in subsequent group exhibitions in England. He possibly exhibited at the RA in 1951 and 1955.
1
. RAE, vol.I, Wakefield, 1973, p.274; 2. City sculpture, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, 1972. [B1998]

Natasha Carsberg (b.1970)
Carsberg trained at North Essex School of Art (1988--9) and Falmouth School of Art and Design (1989--92). Her chief interest is in exploring the conflict between nature and the man-made environment by creating ephemeral organic forms in durable materials like industrial steel. Since 1993, she has undertaken a number of site-specific commissions for a variety of clients in Southern England. These have included Empty Shell (1994), a Christmas tree design for the Minories in Colchester (1998) and Shell Fragment II (1999).
Source: AXIS, The Axis Database Online, 1999, www.axisartists.org.uk/ [SBC2005]

George Carter (b. 1948)
Born in London, he studied at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1966--72. In 1972--74 he worked as a museum assistant in the Geffrye Museum, London, and, in 1974--79 did free-lance exhibition design, graphics and sculpture. His solo exhibitions include An Order of Field Architecture (a portable roof garden on the roof of the Hatton Gallery, University of Newcastle upon Tyne), and Folly at Marble Hill, Marble Hill House, Twickenham, 1978.
(source: Festival Sculpture, 1984) [L 1997]

Sheila Carter (b.1928) and family
Born in Bolton, Lancashire, 28th March 1928, Sheila Carter studied art at Bolton Art School before winning a scholarship to the Royal College of Art where she studied 1949--51. She graduated as a textile designer before going into industry, producing designs for woven textiles and later on doing some teaching work. She married Ron Carter, a blacksmith, and they gradually developed their own business, the Trapp Forge in Burnley. She now produces all the designs for the forge’s ironwork. Commissions include: Beacon for Europe, London 1993; railing and lighting scheme, Victoria Square, Birmingham; Gates, Manhattan Brewing Company, New York; Chapel for the Loyal Regiment, Preston parish church 1995 and extensive iron-work in Manchester, Cambridge, Blackpool, Glasgow and Edinburgh. Private commissions include: firegrate for HM the Queen, Home Farm, Sandringham; lanterns, chandeliers and other metalwork for the Crown Prince Khalid, Saudi Arabia. The forge is presently producing gates and panels for the Honorable Artillery Company, City Road, London.
1
. Telephone conversation with the artist, 8th February 1996; 2. Letter and promotional material from the artist, 8th February 1996. [B1998]

Hilary Cartmel (b. 1958)
Sculptor. Born in Wendover, Buckinghamshire. Studied at Exeter College of Art (1976--7) and Trent Polytechnic (1977--80). Works chiefly on site-specific sculptures, figurative and abstract, in metal. Public commissions include Lambis Shell (Wesley Green School, Oxford, 1983), Traffic Flow (wall relief, Maid Marian underpass, Nottingham, 1985), John Tradescant (Wilkinson Street, Lambeth, 1988), Carmen (Theatre Royal, Nottingham, 1989), Marathon Gates (Don Valley Stadium, Sheffield, 1990), The Filleters’ Gate (Fish Street, Hull, 1992), Portrait of Rotherham (Rotherham Transport Interchange, 1995--7) and A Bird in the Hand (Royal Mail Headquarters, Chesterfield, 1996). Recent work includes artworks at Home Farm Shopping Centre (Beaumont Leys, Leicester, 2001--2) and Henry Pease (with Michael Johnson) (Saltburn, 2001).
Sources: artist; Cavanagh, 2000. [Man2004]

Hilary Cartmel (b. 1958)
Sculptor born at Wendover, Buckinghamshire. She studied at Exeter College of Art, 1976--7, and Trent Polytechnic, 1977--80. She has had residencies at sculpture parks in Germany and in the UK, including Grizedale Forest, various public parks and schools, and at Carlton Hayes Hospital, Narborough, Leicestershire. Her first solo exhibition was at the Air Gallery, London, 1982; others have been at the Centre Gallery, Cheltenham, 1982, and Loughborough Art Centre, 1983. Her public commissions include Lambis Shell, 1983, Wesley Green School, Oxford; Traffic Flow (wall relief), 1985, Maid Marian underpass, Nottingham; The John Tradescant Commemorative Sculpture, 1988, Albert Square, Lambeth, London; Carmen, Theatre Square, and Three Swimmers, Arnold Leisure Centre, both 1989, Nottingham; The Herons Dream, a collaborative work with Christopher Campbell, Michael Johnson and Jonny White, 1991, Waverley Shopping Centre, Edinburgh; The Filleters’ Gate, 1992, Fish Street, Hull; Portrait of Rotherham, 27 screens for Rotherham Transport Interchange, 1995--7; and A Bird in the Hand, 1996, Royal Mail Headquarters, Chesterfield.
Sources
: sculptor’s curriculum vitae, dated 1998; Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

John Cartwright
Sculptor employed by Norbury, Paterson & Co. Ltd, Liverpool. In addition to the figure of St Luke on the Liverpool Eye and Ear Infirmary, Myrtle Street, his work for them included the model for the frieze on the frontage of the Sessions House, William Brown Street (WAG Spring Exhibition 1893, cat. 923). [L 1997]

John Cassidy (1860--1939)
Cassidy studied at the Manchester School of Art and lived in the Manchester area for the rest of his life, establishing a studio in Lincoln Grove. In 1887 he was engaged to give demonstrations in modelling from life at the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, during which he is said to have modelled more than 200 heads. As his reputation spread, his work was exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Royal Hibernian Academy, and frequently in Manchester City Art Gallery. His public sculpture includes Theology inspiring Science and Art, John Rylands Library, Manchester (1898), Hygeia, Duthrie Park, Aberdeen (1883), Edward Colston, Bristol (1895), Edward VII, Whitworth Park, Manchester (1913), and the Colwyn Bay War Memorial (1922).
Source: John Cassidy: Manchester Sculptor, University of Manchester, John Rylands Library, created 2002, accessed 19 June 2003, www.rylib.man.ac.uk [SBC2005]

John Cassidy (1860--1939)
Sculptor. Born in Littlewood, Slane, County Meath. Educated at Drogheda under a private tutor, and worked on the family farm. He studied art briefly in Dublin but left Ireland for London, eventually going to Manchester where he studied at the School of Art. Within three years Cassidy won four national medals for sculpture and several Queen’s prizes. He began sculpting professionally in 1887. At the Manchester Royal Jubilee Exhibition of that year, he was reported to have modelled 185 portrait busts and received commissions for many more. He decided to establish a studio in Manchester in preference to London. In the late 1880s he had premises in the Barton Arcade, Manchester, describing himself as a ‘modeller for bronze castings’. The decision proved successful, a steady supply of commissions arriving for busts, plaques and statues. Lancashire works include the statues John and Enriqueta Rylands, Ben Brierley, James Dorrian, Benjamin Dobson and Edward VII. Other major works included portrait statues of Edward Colston (Bristol,1895) and Queen Victoria (Belfast). The influence of the New Sculpture was evident in works such as Adrift. He exhibited at the New Gallery, London. After the First World War he sculpted many war memorials in the north of England and north Wales. Elected FRBS in 1914 and became successively Vice-President of the Manchester Academy of Fine Arts and President of the Manchester Sculpture Society. He had a studio in Lincoln Grove, Plymouth Grove, Manchester, but his final years were spent in Ashton upon Mersey. At the time of his death he was working on a bust of Pius XII.
Sources: Manchester Faces and Places (vol.IX); Manchester Evening News, 20 July 1939. [Man2004]

Castle Fine Art Foundry
Fine art bronze foundry based at Oswestry. The foundry cast the figures for Philip Bews’s Time and Tide outside the Customs and Excise Building, 1993, Liverpool, and Tom Murphy’s Statues of John Moores and Cecil Moores, 1996, in Church Street, Liverpool.
Source
: Cavanagh, T., 1997. [LR 2000]

David Cation (fl.1740--56?)
Mason and carver known chiefly in connection with his work on the first phase of Glasgow Town Hall (1737--42), and who, together with Mungo Naismith (q.v.), probably carved the keystone masks known as the ‘Tontine Faces’ (see Castle Street, St Nicholas Garden, main catalogue). A Council minute of 1741 records that he was paid half a crown per day for a little over a year, with one shilling a day for his apprentice, but the document does not specify which parts of the building they were working on; a further payment of £3 2s. was made in 1742 for carving the jambs and hearthstones of the chimney-piece. He may also have been responsible for the capitals and other passages of decorative carving on St Andrew’s Parish Church (1739--56), again in collaboration with Naismith.
Source: Cowan, pp.434--5. [G2002]

Bartolomeo Cavaceppi (1716--99)
Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. Apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from around 1729 to 1733, he had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S. Luca by 1732. From the early 1730s, he appears to have worked on the renovation of sculptures in Cardinal Alessandro Albani’s collection of antiquities. After this was bought by Pope Clement XII in 1733, Cavaceppi worked as the principal restorer of the works housed in the Capitoline Museum in Rome until the end of Benedict XIV’s papacy in 1758. By mid-century, his reputation had extended beyond Italy and, with Albani’s help, he had set himself up as an independent dealer in antiquities. Cavaceppi made a considerable fortune from his copies, casts and elaborately restored fragments, which he largely reinvested in artworks for his museum near the Via del Babuino. In 1770, he was at the forefront of those entrepreneurs who supplied and restored antiquities for the Vatican’s new museum, the Museo Clementino. In his comparatively few original works, Cavaceppi’s style ranges from extremes of high baroque virtuosity (as in his marble portrait Frederick II of Prussia) and the more staid classicism of his marble statues, Ceres (London, Syon House) and Diana (Rome, Villa Ruffo).
Source: Howard, S., ‘Bartolomeo Cavaceppi’, The Grove Dictionary of Art Online, ed. L. Macy, accessed 22 July 2003, http://www.groveart.com [SBC2005]

Joseph Hermon Cawthra (1886--1957)
Sculptor. Trained at Royal College of Art schools. Hermon Cawthra exhibited at the RA 1912--65; elected RBS. His work included imaginative sculpture, portrait busts and architectural sculpture. He produced sculpture for a number of war memorials including Shipley, Yorkshire and the figures representing the armed forces for Bootle (1922--5). Models of the civil and military friezes for the Bury war memorial were exhibited at the RA. His architectural sculpture included Peace and Plenty and Benevolence and Prudence (Corn Street, Bristol, c.1935), Africa House, Kingsway, London and the two niche figures for Harris’s Manchester Town Hall extension, the latter being exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1937. Cawthra also provided statuary for the renovated Burns Mausoleum, Dumfries (1936).
Sources: Royal Academy, 1985; Bénézit, 1976. [Man2004]

Lynn Russell Chadwick (b.1914)
Sculptor, largely self-taught, born 24 November 1914 in London. His earliest ambition was to be a sculptor but he was persuaded by his family to enter an architect’s office. He worked as an architect’s draughtsman from 1933 until the Second World War when he became a Fleet Air Arm pilot (1941--4). After the war, whilst working for architect Rodney Thomas, he made his earliest sculptures. Chadwick’s first experiments were with mobiles but in the early 1950s he began making sculptures based on humanoid and animal forms. His first solo exhibition was in 1950 at Gimpel Fils, London, and his first in the USA was in 1957 at the Saidenberg Gallery, New York. In 1951 he was commissioned to produce two large sculptures for South Bank restaurants for the Festival of Britain and one large sculpture for the International Open-Air Exhibition of Sculpture at Battersea Park. These, his first large-scale commissions, instilled in him the necessity of learning to weld, which he did at the British Oxygen Company’s Welding School at Cricklewood in summer 1950. In 1953 Chadwick gained a national prize in ‘The Unknown Political Prisoner’ competition. In 1952 he made his first appearance at the Venice Biennale and in his second, in 1956, he won the International Sculpture Prize. In 1959 he won first prize at the Concorso Internazionale del Bronzetto, Padua. He has had numerous solo exhibitions, including a retrospective at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park in 1991--2, and his works are represented in the collections of the Arts Council and British Council, in the Tate Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum, and in many collections around the world. In 1964 he was appointed CBE; in 1986 he was created Officier and then, in 1993, Commandeur, Ordre des Arts et Lettres, France.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Cerrito, J. (ed.), 1996; Farr, D. and Chadwick, E., 1990; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who’s Who 1999. [LR 2000]

John Henry Chamberlain (1831--83)
Architect and designer of stained glass, metalwork and domestic furniture, born 26 June 1831 in Leicester, the son of the Revd Joseph Chamberlain. He was first articled to Henry Goddard in Leicester but on completion furthered his training in a London practice. About this time Chamberlain became an ardent advocate of the teachings of John Ruskin, duly visiting Venice and other Italian cities before settling in Birmingham in 1856. His first short-lived partnership was with his friend William Harris. He then worked independently for a number of years before going into a more lucrative partnership in 1864 with William Martin who had already secured much work from Birmingham Corporation and other public bodies. The working relationship was ideal in that whereas Martin’s strengths were in planning and construction, Chamberlain’s was in the actual design of buildings. The practice thereafter produced many buildings for Birmingham, including the College of Arts and Crafts (1881--5), pumping stations for the Corporation Water Works Department, 30 board schools, several churches and numerous private houses. Chamberlain’s preferred sculptor was Samuel Barfield who worked for him on a number of independent schemes including Leicester’s Hollings Memorial, 1864 (see pp.319--20) and Birmingham’s Memorial Fountain to Mayor Joseph Chamberlain (no relation), 1880. Chamberlain’s work was firmly rooted in a Ruskin-influenced Gothic style; Ruskin in turn expressed his appreciation of Chamberlain’s work by selecting the architect as one of the trustees of the St George’s Guild. Chamberlain died suddenly of heart disease on 22 October 1883.
Sources
: DNB; Dixon, R. and Muthesius, S., 1985; Noszlopy, G. and Beach, J., 1998. [LR 2000]

John Henry Chamberlain (1831--1883)
Born in Leicester, 16th June 1831, he died in Birmingham, 22nd October 1883. The son of Revd. Joseph Chamberlain, he was articled to Henry Goddard of Leicester and finished his training in London. An ardent disciple of Ruskin, he visited Venice before settling in Birmingham in 1856. In 1864 he joined the architect William Martin who had often worked for the Corporation in a previous partnership. Martin and Chamberlain designed many of the best civic buildings in Birmingham, including the old Reference Library, Ratcliffe Place (1879) and the Midland Institute, Paradise Street (1855--7), both destroyed; thirty Board Schools in Birmingham; pumping stations for the Water Works Department and also churches and private houses. Although Chamberlain was not related to Joseph Chamberlain, the councillor and Mayor of Birmingham 1870--4, he was acquainted with leading public figures in the city. He was appointed member of the Midland Institute Council in 1867 (Hon. Sec. 1868--83); Chairman of the School of Art Board 1874--83; committee member of the old library in Union Street; a founding member and honorary secretary of the Shakespeare Memorial Library and original member of the Shakespeare Club. Appointed Professor of Architecture at both the School of Art and Queen’s College, where he became Vice-President in 1879, and was also chosen by Ruskin as a trustee of the St. George’s Guild. Elected member of the Society of Artists, 1861.
1
. L. Stephen, and S. Lee (eds.), Dictionary of national biography, vol.10, London, 1887, pp.2--3; 2. Pevsner, 1966, pp.118--19; 3. Hickman, 1970. [B1998]

Kathleen Chambers (b.1942)
A graduate of the Department of Sculpture at GSA, she has taught in Scotland, Canada and Ireland, and exhibited work at the Pearce Institute, Govan, 1988, and the City Chambers, Glasgow, 1989. She participated in adult education with the Govan Environment Project, 1988--90, and has been Exhibitions Co-ordinator at GSA since 1990.
Source: information provided by the artist. [G2002]

Basil Champneys (1842--1935)
Architect, late exponent of the Gothic style. Educated at Charterhouse and Trinity College Cambridge. Articled to John Prichard, diocesan surveyor of Llandaff Cathedral. Began practice in 1867. Won the Royal Gold Medal in 1912. Specialised in educational buildings including several in Oxford, Cambridge, and London. The Rylands Memorial Library was based on his earlier library at Mansfield College. It was said of him that ‘as an architect he was learned and correct, refined and scholarly, rather than highly original’. He took, it is said, what may be called the ‘literary’ view of architecture, being ‘more concerned that the details should be historically right and symbolically suggestive than that they should satisfy from a more formal point of view’.
Sources: Archer, 1985; Felstead, 1993. [Man2004]

Francis Legatt Chantrey (1781--1841)
Leading early nineteenth-century English sculptor. His first commission was the Revd J. Wilkinson Memorial for Sheffield Parish Church (1805), but it was his bust of the radical reformer John Horne Took, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1811, which brought him recognition. In the same year, he produced a full-length marble portrait of George III for the Council Chamber of the London Guildhall (destroyed by bombing in 1940). In 1912, Johnes of Hafod commissioned him to carve a memorial to his daughter, Marianne. This work (unfortunately destroyed when Hafod Church was burned in 1932) is considered by Gunnis to have been Chantrey’s noblest monument. Best known for his portrait statues and memorials, Chantrey had a large studio and foundry where he produced his bronze statues, including George Washington, (Boston, USA, 1826), George IV (London, 1829), Sir Thomas Munro (Madras, 1838) and the equestrian statue Duke of Wellington (London, 1840). His major works include The Sleeping Children, Lichfield Cathedral (1817); and his statues Lady Frederica Stanhope in Chevening Church (1823) and James Watt at Handsworth Parish Church (1824). Chantrey despised allegory, and his works are in a naturalistic style, depicting their subjects in modern or ceremonial costume rather than in classical robes. Knighted in 1835, he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1804 until 1842, and left part of his fortune to it to found what is known as the Chantrey Bequest.
Sources: Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.325; Graves, A., Royal Academy Exhibitors 1769--1904, vol.11, London, 1905, pp.40--2; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964, pp.91--6; McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002, p.479; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.187; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.7, 32, 93; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.454; Whinney, M., Sculpture in Britain 1530--1830, Harmondsworth, 1964, pp.399--425; Yarrington, A., Lieberman, I.D., Potts, A. and Baker, M., ‘An Edition of the Ledger of Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A. at the Royal Academy, 1809--1841’, Walpole Society, vol.56, London, 1991/2; Yarrington, A., ‘Anglo-Italian Attitudes: Chantrey and Canova’ in The Lustrous Trade: Material Culture and the History of Sculpture in England and Italy 1700--1860, London and New York, 2000, pp.138--41. [SBC2005]

Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey (1781--1841)
Born Norton, near Sheffield, son of a carpenter. Apprenticed to a carver and gilder in Sheffield but did not complete his training. He took up portrait painting and went to London, where he struggled to make a living, turning again to wood carving. Marriage in 1809 to a wealthy cousin, Mary Ann Wale, provided him with the financial security to pursue his interest in sculpting. His first notable work, a bust of Horne Tooke, was exhibited at the RA in 1811. He had first exhibited at the RA in 1804. A statue of George III for the Guildhall was also completed in 1811. A stream of successful commissions for statues, busts and church monuments in the following years secured Chantrey’s position as one of the country’s finest sculptors. Public statues included William Pitt (Hanover Square, London), William Roscoe (St George’s Hall, Liverpool) and marble and bronze statues of James Watt (Handsworth Parish Church, Greenock and Glasgow). He also executed the equestrian statues George IV (for Marble Arch but later Trafalgar Square, 1829) and the Duke of Wellington (Royal Exchange, 1840; completed by Henry Weekes). Elected ARA in 1815, RA in 1818, Royal Society in 1822 and knighted in 1835. Chantrey’s considerable fortune was used, after his wife’s death, to establish the Chantrey Bequest.
Sources: DNB; Gunnis, 1968; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

Sir Francis Chantrey (1781--1841)
Born at Norton, near Sheffield. He began work in a grocer’s shop, but was then apprenticed to a Sheffield carver and gilder. He received lessons in drawing from the mezzotint engraver Raphael Smith, who visited the carver’s workshop. Becoming disillusioned with wood-carving, Chantrey bought himself out of his apprenticeship and began to paint portraits for a living. He moved to London around 1809 and set up as a portrait sculptor. He had already carved one bust in Sheffield, and in 1811, when he exhibited a very characterful bust of Horne Tooke at the RA (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), Chantrey’s powers as a portraitist were recognised. In the same year, a full-length marble portrait of George III was commissioned from him by the Corporation of the City of London for the Council Chamber of the Guildhall (destroyed in bombing in 1940). Chantrey established his credentials as a sculptor of church monuments when he showed his moving family group, commemorating Marianne Johnes, at Spring Gardrens in 1812. The group was destined for Hafod in mid-Wales, where it was destroyed in the fire of 1932. Busts, statues and church monuments account for the bulk of Chantrey’s output. Virtually his only imaginary works are two Homeric reliefs, executed in 1828 for Woburn Abbey. Chantrey despised allegory, and his many church monuments are characterised by their direct appeal to sentiment, as in his celebrated Sleeping Children (1817), on the tomb of the children of Revd William Robinson in Lichfield Cathedral. His busts and statues are in a naturalistic style, and depict their subjects in tempered modern or ceremonial costume. His equestrian statues of George IV (Trafalgar Square, London), of Sir Thomas Munro (Madras) and of the Duke of Wellington (Royal Exchange, London), depart from precedent by the rejection of movement in the horse. Chantrey visited Paris in 1815 and Italy in 1819. He was elected ARA in 1815 and full RA in 1818. He was knighted in 1835.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; M.Whinney, Sculpture in Britain 1530--1830 revised by J. Physick, London, 1988; ‘The Chantrey Ledger’ (ed. A. Yarrington), in Walpole Society 1991/2, vol. LVI. [CL2003]

Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey (1781--1841)
Born in Norton, Derbyshire. He trained as a wood-carver before taking up portrait painting, but became a full-time sculptor after his marriage to a rich cousin enabled him to build his own studio. After achieving major success with a bust of the radical reformer John Horne Took (1811), he received commissions for busts, monuments and full-length portrait statues, including George Washington, Boston, USA (1826), William IV, Trafalgar Square (1829) and Sir Thomas Munro, Madras (1838). Although he ‘never received an hour’s instruction from any sculptor in his life’ (Gunnis), he was one of the most successful and prolific sculptors of his day, building a foundry to maintain his own exacting standards in bronze casting. Elected ARA in 1815 and RA in 1818, he exhibited at the RA from 1804 to 1842, and was knighted in 1835. His marble portrait of Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford is generally regarded as his finest bust.
Sources: Gunnis; Cavanagh, p.325. [G2002]

Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey (1781--1841)
Born in Norton, near Sheffield, 7th April 1781, he died in London, 25th November 1841. Apprenticed in Sheffield to Mr. Ramsey, a carver and gilder, he was taught to draw by the engraver Raphael Smith. Chantrey’s early career was spent as a portrait painter and wood carver in Sheffield and London. In about 1805 he turned to clay modelling and received his first commission, the Rev. J. Wilkinson Memorial for Sheffield parish church. Chantrey went to Paris in 1814 and Rome in 1819, where he visited the studios of Thorwaldsen and Canova. Most well-known for his portrait statues and memorials, Chantrey had a large studio and foundry where he produced his bronze statues, including those of Sir Thomas Munro, 1838 and the Duke of Wellington, 1840. His bust of Horne Took, which was exhibited at the RA in 1911, brought him recognition. Other major works include the Children of Rev. W. Robinson, Lichfield Cathedral 1812; statue of Lady Frederica Stanhope, Chevening church 1823. Exhibited at the RA 1804--42. He left part of his fortune to the RA to found what is known as the Chantrey Bequest. ARA 1815; RA 1818; Knighted 1835; FRS; FSA.
1
. Gunnis, 1964, pp.91--6; 2. Graves, vol.II, 1905; 3. E.G. Underwood, A short history of English sculpture, London, 1933; 4. E.B. Chancellor, The lives of the British sculptors, London, 1911; 5. M. Whinney, English sculpture 1720--1830, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1971. [B1998]

Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey (1781--1841)
Born in Derbyshire, his father was a carpenter. In Sheffield he served five years of a seven year apprenticeship to a woodcarver, before breaking his indentures and turning briefly to portrait painting. In 1802 he moved to London where he studied intermittently at the RA Schools, whilst again working for a woodcarver. By 1809 he had married his wealthy cousin and achieved sufficient financial security to be able to move to Pimlico and have his own studio built. From 1804 he exhibited chiefly portrait busts at the RA with great success. As a consequence, both the number of his commissions and the prices he could charge for them increased. Many of the most distinguished men of his time sat for him. He also executed many important full-length portrait statues, as well as bronze equestrian statues of the Duke of Wellington and George IV for London, building his own foundry so that the bronze could be cast to his own exacting standards. His first trip abroad was not until 1814, by which time his personal style was already formed. He was elected ARA in 1815, RA in 1818, and was knighted in 1835 by William IV. He was also an honorary DCL of Oxford University and an honorary MA of Cambridge.
(Sources: DNB; Gunnis, 1951; Whinney, 1988) [L 1997]

Siegfried Charoux (1896--1967)
Sculptor, painter and caricaturist. Born Siegfried Charous in Vienna, son of a dressmaker. Twice wounded in the First World War, Charoux studied 1922--4 at the Vienna Academy under Hans Bitterlich. More influential on his work at this point were the sculptors Josef Heu and Anton Hanak. Between 1923 and 1928, Charoux contributed hard-hitting political cartoons to the Vienna papers, chiefly Der Abend and the Arbeiter Zeitung. These and a number of sculptural projects, of which photographs survive from the inter-war years, testify to Charoux’ strongly held socialist convictions. The principal works which he actually realised in Vienna in these years were the Frieze of Work (1928--9) over the entrance to the Zürcher-Hof housing estate, and the Monument to Gotthold Ephraïm Lessing (1933--5) for the Judenplatz. The latter was destroyed by the Nazis, because Lessing was a Jew. Charoux replaced it with a more stylised figure in 1968. He moved to England in 1935, and was naturalised in 1946. His first major English commissions were for stone figures on new Cambridge University buildings, the School of Anatomy and the Engineering Laboratory. In such post-war works as The Islanders, a colossal plaster relief for the Festival of Britain (1951), and Neighbours, commissioned by the LCC for Highbury Quadrant, he celebrated British stoicism and social cohesion. Other important commissions from these years were the two family groups on the News Room War Memorial, Royal Exchange Buildings, Liverpool (1955), the Memorial to Amy Johnson for Hull, The Cellist (1958, Royal Festival Hall, London) and The Motorcyclist (1962, Shell Building, London). In 1958 Charoux was made an honorary professor of the Republic of Austria. He was elected ARA in 1949 and RA in 1956. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. After his death, his widow donated the contents of his studio to the town of Langenzersdorf, outside Vienna, where the Charoux Museum was opened in 1982.
Sources: DNB; H.K. Gross, Die Wiener Jahre des Karikaturisten und Bildhauers Siegfried Charoux, Vienna, 1997; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997. [CL2003]

Siegfried Joseph Charoux (1896--1967)
Sculptor born in Vienna, of French descent. He studied at Vienna School of Fine Arts, 1919--24, and the Vienna Academy, 1924--28. He worked as a political cartoonist until 1933. His public commissions in Vienna include the Robert Blum Memorial,1928, the Matteotti Memorial, 1930, and, in the Judenplatz, the Memorial to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, 1933--35, destroyed by the Nazis in 1938 and re-created by Charoux in 1968. Charoux moved to England in 1935 (naturalised in 1946). In 1938 he carved the stone figures for the new School of Anatomy and the Engineering Laboratory at Cambridge. His most famous public commissions in Britain include the Memorial to Amy Johnson for her native Hull, The Cellist, 1958, for outside the Festival Hall, London, and The Motorcyclist, 1962, for the Shell Building, London. In 1948 he received the city of Vienna’s highest award for sculpture and in 1958 was made an honorary professor of the Republic of Austria. In 1949 he was elected ARA and in 1956 RA. He was also a FRBS.
(sources
: DNB; Spalding, 1990; Strachan, 1984) [L 1997]

Julius Alfred Chatwin (1830--1907)
Birmingham-based architect. Articled in 1851 to Sir Charles Barry, the most successful British architect of his day, Chatwin became the most prolific church builder and restorer in Birmingham. He built, enlarged or altered almost all the city’s parish churches. Except for alterations he made to St Philip’s (now Birmingham Cathedral) in 1864--9 and 1883, all his decorations were in the Gothic style. In every case he designed all the interior fittings and decorative carvings, most of which were carried out by Robert Bridgeman & Sons of Lichfield. Chatwin also designed domestic and commercial architecture, becoming the architect for Lloyds Bank for over 30 years (from 1864 onwards). He was elected a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1863 and a member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1866.
Sources: Chatwin, P.B., The Life Story of J.A. Chatwin 1830--1907, Oxford, 1952; Felstead, A., Franklin, J. and Pinfield, L., Directory of British Architects 1834--1900, London, 1993; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.187. [SBC2005]

Julius Alfred Chatwin (1830--1907)
Born at Great Charles Street, Birmingham in 1830, the son of a button manufacturer, he was educated locally and at London University before working from 1846 as an architect for Branson and Gwyther of Birmingham, then the largest building contractors in the country, designing architectural decoration for them. Articled in 1851 to Sir Charles Barry, the most successful British architect of his day, he returned to Birmingham and opened an office on Bennett’s Hill in 1855 before visiting Italy in 1857. Chatwin was the most prolific church builder and restorer in Birmingham. He built, enlarged or altered almost all of the city’s parish churches, and except for alterations he made to St. Philip’s (now Birmingham Cathedral) in 1864--9 and 1883, all of his decorations were in the Gothic style. In every case he designed all of the interior fittings and decorative carvings, most of which were carried out by Robert Bridgeman and Company of Lichfield. Chatwin also designed domestic and commercial architecture including, from 1866, most of the north side of Colmore Row in an Italian Mannerist style. From the first bank he designed on Temple Row West in 1864, he became the architect for Lloyds Bank for over thirty years. He was also architect to his old school, King Edward VI, from 1866. Philip B. Chatwin, his son, became his partner in 1897, seeing through most of his father’s last works. Made FRIBA 1863; elected to the RBS 1866; its President 1864; Vice-President RSA; Fellow of the Royal Antiquary Society of Scotland.
1
. P.B. Chatwin, The life story of J.A. Chatwin 1830--1907, Oxford, 1952. [B1998]

Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud (1858--1921)
Born at Rheims, he studied under Jouffroy and Roubeaud II. He obtained honourable mentions in 1885 and 1886 and was elected as a member of the Société des Artistes Français in 1890. In 1891 he was awarded a third class medal. Shortly thereafter he moved to England, showing at the RA from 1893 onwards. His RA exhibits included portrait busts and statues, in both bronze and marble. Some of his sculptural work was executed for Farmer & Brindley. In Dublin (NG) is his bronze Bust of Revd James Healy, presented by Henry Yates Thompson. His public commissions in Britain include Cardinal Newman (1896, for Brompton Oratory) and Sarah Siddons (1897, for Paddington Green).
(sources: Bénézit, 1976; Gleichen, 1928; Gray, 1985; National Gallery of Ireland, 1975) [L 1997]

Sir Henry Cheere (1703--81)
Son of a Huguenot merchant residing in Clapham, South London. He was apprenticed to Robert Hartshorne. In 1726 he set up shop with Henry Scheemakers in St Margaret’s Lane, Westminster. The only monument on which the two sculptors are known to have collaborated is that to the Duke of Ancaster (d. 1728) at Edenham, Lincs. In 1734, Cheere was commissioned to produce three allegorical figures and a statue of Queen Caroline for Queen’s College, Oxford, and in the same year completed the statue of William III for the Bank of England. By building up a circle of contacts among wealthy Huguenots and in the court circle of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Cheere offered serious competition to the immigrant sculptors, J.M. Rysbrack and P. Scheemakers. Between 1730 and 1738 Cheere profited from the presence in his workshop of L-.F. Roubiliac. The young Sir Robert Taylor was also apprenticed to him in this period. Perhaps the most ambitious of Cheere’s church monuments is that to the 19th Earl of Kildare in Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin (1746). A large proportion of the workshop output, however, took the form of less substantial memorials and chimneypieces, in which elegant rococo ornament and reliefs stand out against coloured marble backgrounds. Cheere avidly sought public offices in the Parish of Westminster, and was knighted in 1760. Besides his own workshop, he was in long-term partnership with his brother, John, who in 1739, had taken over the lead statuary business of the Nost family, at Hyde Park Corner.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; M. Craske, ‘Contacts and Contracts: Sir Henry Cheere....’, in The Lustrous Trade, eds C. Sicca and A. Yarrington, London and New York, 2000. [CL2003]

John Cheere (d.1787)
In around 1739, John Cheere, in partnership with his brother, Sir Henry Cheere, took over the business of John Nost, including the yard and moulds for his lead-cast figures. Contemporary accounts describe the figures as life-size, and frequently painted. In 1752, Cheere produced Mars for Hampton Court. Augusta and Flora, 1759, were augmented by seven other mythological subjects in 1768, for Longford Castle. Two large wyverns for the brick gate-piers of Glynde, Sussex were made in 1759, and between 1762 and 1763 lead figures of Apollo, Venus, Mercury, Livia, Augusta, Flora and Fortina were made for Bowood. Sphinxes were supplied for the bridge at Blenheim in 1773, for Somerset House in 1778, and for Castle Hill, Devon (together with a lion and lioness). For Stourhead he made nine lead statues, including the River God in the grotto, often erroneously attributed to Rysbrack. For Castle Howard, he made two lead figures, a Dancing Faun and a Roman Gladiator. Wedgwood purchased from Cheere busts of Shakespeare, Plato, Homer and Aristotle, and in 1769 he produced the lead statue of Shakespeare which was presented by Garrick to the Corporation of Stratford-upon-Avon, and which was erected on the north side of the Town Hall. As well as working in lead, Cheere also worked in plaster, producing stock statues and busts of figures such as Homer, Virgil, Socrates, Milton, Chaucer and Shakespeare. His many works in plaster include four casts of classical figures for the Pantheon at Stourhead, 1766. He also made the chimney pieces for Kirtlington Park, Oxfordshire. Following his death in 1787, his nephew, Charles Cheere, offered the Royal Academy the figure of their choice from his uncle’s collection, and they selected Susannah. Samuel Whitbread purchased a number of the lead statues for Southill Park, Bedfordshire. The figure of Shakespeare was presented by Charles Cheere to Drury Lane Theatre, where it first stood in the portico, but latterly in the entrance hall.
Source: Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964. [WCS2003]

Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630--1700)
Born in Flensborg, at that time part of Denmark, but now in Germany. He travelled to Italy in 1647, with a grant from the Danish king, Frederik III. He came to England around 1655, where he found employment as foreman to the sculptor, John Stone. Stone, at the Restoration, was appointed Master Mason at Windsor, and after his death, in 1667, Cibber was appointed sculptor to Charles II. The following year Cibber joined the Leathersellers’ Company. Cibber shares with John Bushnell the credit for having introduced a version of continental baroque style into England. Cibber’s contribution was the larger and more consistent, above all because it was reinforced by an understanding of the science of allegory. His first important public commission was the relief on the plinth of the Great Fire Monument, showing Charles II Succouring the City (1674). This was followed by the two reclining male figures, representing Raving and Melancholy Madness, for the gate of Bedlam Hospital (c.1680), and the Four Rivers Fountain in Soho Square (c.1681), from which only the much worn figure of Charles II survives in situ. Though he certainly produced many more, Cibber’s only documented church monument is that to Thomas Sackville (1677) at Withyham, East Sussex, with its reclining figure of the commemorated youth, flanked by kneeling figures of his mourning parents. Cibber produced allegorical figures for Trinity College Library in Cambridge (1681) and statuary for the chapel, staircase and garden at Chatsworth (1687--91). His last works, from the 1690s, were for Christopher Wren: garden urns and the pediment with Hercules Triumphing Over Superstition, Tyranny and Fury (1691--6) for Hampton Court, and work at St Paul’s including the relief of a Phoenix Arising from the Ashes in the pediment of the South Transept (1697--1700). Cibber was the architect of the Danish Church (1694--6) in Wellclose Square near the Tower of London, which he adorned with wood and lead statuary. The church has been demolished, but most of the sculpture survives.
Sources: H. Faber, Caius Gabriel Cibber, Oxford, 1926; M.Whinney, Sculpture in Britain 1530--1830, revised by J. Physick, London, 1988. [CL2003]

Giovanni Ciniselli (1832--83)
Born in Novate near Milan and studied at the Milan Academy. Established a studio in Rome, where he was celebrated for his sculptures of mythological and religious subjects. His ‘fantastic creations attracted strong partisans at all the exhibitions at which they appeared’. Sculptures include The Ruses of Love, Dawn and Dusk, Suzanne, and Ruth. Awarded medal at Melbourne Exhibition of 1881.
Source: Bénézit, 1976. [Man2004]

Giovanni Ciniselli (1832--83)
Italian sculptor, born in Novate near Milan, he studied at the Brera Academy and also in Magni’s studio. In 1856 he settled in Rome, specialising in portraits, mythological subjects and figures from the Old Testament, and exhibiting in both Europe and Australia. He died in Rome.
Source: Stevenson (n.d.). [G2002]

Thomas John Clapperton (1879--1962)
Born in Galashiels, the son of a photographer, he studied at Galashiels Mechanics’ Institute, 1896, GSA, 1899--1901, Kennington School of Art and the RA Schools, 1904--5, where he was student assistant to Sir William Goscombe John (q.v.). He later studied in Paris and Rome on a travelling scholarship. Returning to London, he set up studios at Chelsea and St John’s Wood, receiving commissions for the Mungo Park Memorial and Flodden Memorial in Selkirk (1913), and allegorical figures on the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff (1914--37). After war service in India, he executed war memorials at Canonbie (1919), Minto (1921) and Galashiels (1925). He executed a colossal frieze for Liberty’s store in London (1926), and in 1929 produced the statue of Robert the Bruce, at the portcullis, Edinburgh Castle. He also made work in New Zealand, Canada and California. His last important work was the 49th West Riding Reconnaissance Memorial, Wakefield Cathedral (1947). Elected ARBS in 1923 and FRBS in 1938, he exhibited at the RGIFA from 1915 to 1951. He died at Upper Beeching, Sussex.
Source: Parker, passim. [G2002]

Michael Clark (1918--90)
Born in Cheltenham, 19th December 1918, died 24th January 1990. Son and pupil of Philip Lindsey Clark. He studied art at the Chelsea School of Art 1935--7 and sculpture at Kennington City and Guilds School 1947--50. Largely producing religious works, he is represented in over a hundred churches, schools and public buildings in Britain. Sculptor in stone, wood, bronze and glass fibre, his major works include: relief of Christ, St. Edward and St. Peter, awarded the RBS ‘Best work of the year’ medal; Glorious Assumption, carving in wood, The Friars, Aylesbury, awarded the Otto Beit medal 1960; Risen Christ, Church of Our Lady, St. John’s Wood, London. Exhibitions; RA 1949 onwards. Otto Beit Medal for Sculpture, 1960; 1978; Silver Medal, 1967. ARBS 1949; FRBS 1960; President RBS 1971--6.
1
. Royal Society of British Sculptors, Annual Report and Supplement, 1960, p.8, illus. p.22; 2.WWA, 20th edition, Wokingham, 1982, p.83; 3. Letter from the artist, 4th February 1985. [B1998]

Philip Lindsey Clark (1889--1977)
Born in London, the son of the sculptor Robert Lindsey Clark, he studied with his father, at Cheltenham School of Art (1905--10), and at the City and Guilds School, Kennington (1910--14). He received the Distinguished Service Order after the First World War, and on the return of peace continued his training at the Royal Academy Schools (1919--21). He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1920 to 1952, and also showed work at the Paris Salon from 1921. Clark produced a number of War Memorials, including one for Southwark (1923--4), and one commemorating the Cameronians for Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow. From 1926 to 1928 Clark provided architectural sculpture for buildings in the City by the architect G. Val Myer. From 1930 all his RA exhibits were of religious and often specifically Catholic subjects, and from this time he worked largely on church commissions. He became a Carmelite Tertiary, and eventually retired from London to live in the West Country. Amongst many religious works from his later years one could mention the Hanging Rood (painted and gilded pinewood, 1950) for St Mary’s Church, Crewe, and the reliefs of St Augustine and the Virgin and Child (precast stone, 1962) on the west front of St Augustine’s Church, Hoddesdon, Herts.
Sources: G.M. Waters, Dictionary of British Artists Working 1900--1950, Eastbourne, 1975; J. Johnson and A. Greutzner, The Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976; F. Spalding, Twentieth Century Painters and Sculptors, Woodbridge, 1990; D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

Philip Lindsey Clark (1889--1977)
Son of the sculptor Robert Lindsey Clark, he studied in Cheltenham, 1905--10, the City and Guilds School, Kensington, 1910--14, and at the RA Schools after serving in the First World War. He exhibited at the RA from 1920 and at the Salon des Artistes, Paris from 1921. His output included war memorials, sculptures for churches and cathedrals, and the Monument to William Dennis, the ‘Potato King’, at Kirton, Lincolnshire (1930).
Sources: Waters; Mackay. [G2002]

Robert Lindsey Clark (fl.1890s--1920s)
Based in Cheltenham, he was a sculptor and father of Philip Lindsey Clark (1889--1977). Between 1895 and 1924, he exhibited four pieces at the Royal Academy: a relief Psyche, Cupid and Fortuna (1895), a statuette, Cupid (1901), an equestrian statuette, Triumph (1923), and The Limber (1924, now in Cheltenham Museum and Art Gallery).
Sources: Graves, A., Royal Academy Exhibitors 1769--1904, vol.II, London, 1905, p.66; Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905--1970, vol.II, Wakefield, 1973, p.68. [SBC2005]

Edward Clarke
Clarke’s best-known work was the sculpture in Llandaff Cathedral, carved during the 1860s. It included scenes on the font showing the story of the Flood (destroyed during the Second World War), four relief panels for the pulpit, including St John the Baptist and Moses, figures of the Evangelists in the tympana of the sedilia, and a representation of the Lamb and Flag in the central tympanum of the reredos.
Source: Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982. [WCS2003]

Geoffrey Clarke (b.1924)
As a sculptor and graphic designer, Clarke is best known for his large-scale abstract works. He trained at Preston and Manchester Schools of Art before the Second World War. He studied at the Royal College of Art (1948--52) and taught there in the Light Transmission and Projection Department (1968--73). He won the silver medal at the Milan Triennale and represented Britain at the Venice Biennale in 1952, 1954 and 1960. His commissions for a range of new buildings include The Spirit of Electricity, Thorn House, London (1958), the ceremonial portals for the Civic Centre at Newcastle upon Tyne (1969) and Cast Aluminium Relief for the Nottingham Playhouse. Clarke has works in many permanent collections including Coventry Cathedral, Liverpool and Manchester Universities and the Tate Gallery. He was elected ARA in 1970 and RA in 1976.
Sources: Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984; Who’s Who in Art, 23rd edition, 1988; Black, P., Geoffrey Clarke: Symbols of Man: sculpture and graphic work 1949--94, London, 1994; Buckman, David, Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998; Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Geoffrey Clarke, RA: sculpture and works on paper, 1950--1994, Wakefield, 1994. [WCS2003]

Geoffrey Clarke (b. 1924)
Sculptor, etcher, and designer in stained glass and mosaic, born 28 November 1924 in Darley Dale, Derbyshire. He studied at Preston School of Art, 1940--1, and Manchester School of Art, 1941--2. His studies were interrupted by the Second World War (he served in the RAF, 1943--6), after which he spent a year at Lancaster and Morecambe School of Arts and Crafts, finishing off at the Royal College of Art, 1948--52. He later taught at the RCA in the Light Transmission and Projection Department, 1968--73. Clarke won the Silver Medal at the Milan Triennale, 1951, and appeared at the Venice Biennales of 1952 and 1960. His first solo exhibition was at Gimpel Fils in 1952 and a touring retrospective of his works was organised by Ipswich Museums and Galleries, 1994--5. His commissions include an iron sculpture, 1952, for the Time-Life Building, Bond Street, London; the High Altar Cross and candlesticks, Flying Cross and Crown of Thorns, 1953--62, for Coventry Cathedral; The Spirit of Electricity, 1958, for Thorn House in London; Relief (‘Bubble Chamber Tracks’), 1966--8, for the University of Liverpool; ceremonial entrance portals, 1969, for the civic centre at Newcastle upon Tyne; and Cast Aluminium Relief, c.1964, for the Nottingham Playhouse. He was elected ARA in 1970 and RA in 1976. Examples of his work are in the collections of the Arts Council, Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum, and in the Leeds Sculpture Collections.
Sources
: Black, P., 1994; Buckman, D., 1998; Cavanagh, T., 1997; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who’s Who 1999. [LR 2000]

Geoffrey Clarke (b.1924)
Sculptor and graphic designer best known for large-scale abstract works. Trained at Preston and Manchester Schools of Art and then served in the RAF, 1943--7. He studied at the Royal College of Art 1948--52, and taught there in the Light Transmission and Projection Department, 1968--73. He won the silver medal at the Milan Triennale and represented Britain at the Venice Biennale in 1952, 1954 and 1960. His commissions for a range of new buildings made him one of the leading public artists of the day and included: The Spirit of Electricity, for Thorn House in London (1958); the ceremonial entrance portals for the Civic Centre at Newcastle upon Tyne (1969); and Cast Aluminium Relief for the Nottingham Playhouse. Clarke has works in many permanent collections including Coventry Cathedral, Liverpool and Manchester Universities, the Tate Gallery and the British Council. Ipswich Museums and Galleries organised a touring retrospective of Clarke’s work in 1994--5. He was elected ARA in 1970 and RA in 1976.
[
1] Nairne and Serota, p.250. [2] Strachan, p.253. [3] Who’s Who in Art, 23rd ed., 1988, p.87. [4] Black, P., Symbols of Man, 1995, passim. [5] Buckman, p.266. [NE 2000]

Geoffrey Clarke (b. 1924)
Born in Derbyshire, he trained at Preston and Manchester Schools of Art and then served in the RAF, 1943--47. He studied at the Royal College of Art, 1948--52, and taught there in the Light Transmission and Projection Department, 1968--73. He won the silver medal at the Milan Triennale and appeared at the Venice Biennale in 1952 and 1960. His first one-man exhibition was at the Taranman Gallery in 1976. His commissions include The Spirit of Electricity for Thorn House in London (1958), the ceremonial entrance portals for the civic centre at Newcastle upon Tyne (1969) and Cast Aluminium Relief for the Nottingham Playhouse. He was elected ARA in 1970 and RA in 1976.
(sources: Nairne & Serota, 1981; Strachan, 1984; Tate Gallery Liverpool, 1988) [L 1997]

Robert E. Clatworthy (b.1928)
Sculptor born 31 January 1928 at Bridgwater, Somerset. He studied at the West of England College of Art, 1944--6; Chelsea School of Art, 1949--51; and the Slade School of Fine Art, 1951--4. He later taught at the West of England College of Art, 1967--71, and was visiting tutor at the Royal College of Art, 1960--72. He was a member of the Fine Art Panel of the National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design, 1961--71; a governor of St Martin’s School of Art, 1970--1; and Head of the Department of Fine Art, Central School of Art and Design, 1971--5. His first solo exhibition was at the Hanover Gallery, London, in 1954, and his work was included in the open air sculpture exhibitions at Holland Park, 1957, and Battersea Park, 1960 and 1963; in ‘British Sculpture in the Sixties’, Tate Gallery, 1965; and in ‘British Sculpture ’72’, Royal Academy, 1972. Clatworthy’s public commissions include The Bull, 1961, Alton Housing Estate, Roehampton; Horse and Rider, 1984, Finsbury Avenue, London. He was elected ARA in 1968 and RA in 1973. Examples of his work are in the Tate Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who’s Who 1999. [LR 2000]

Clegg and Knowles
Architects. Charles Clegg (1828--1922). Articled to Edwin Hugh Shellard for five years. Started practice 1851. In partnership with John Knowles as Clegg and Knowles. Took his son Charles Theodore Clegg into partnership from 1882. John Knowles, partner of Charles Clegg. The firm was responsible for many commercial buildings in Manchester city centre, including the Pickles Building on Portland Street and Princess Street.
Sources: Tracy, 1899; Felstead, 1993. [Man2004]

Benjamin Clemens
Sculptor. Based in London, working in first half of twentieth century. Works include Cain (1904), Immolate (1912), VAD Worker (1920), Stockwell War Memorial (1922) and Madonna and Child (St Stephen’s, Bournemouth). Clemens also sculpted the lions for the Government Pavilion, British Empire Exhibition, Wembley, 1923. He died 27 December 1957.
Sources: Bénézit, 1976; Royal Academy, 1985. [Man2004]

John Clinch (1934--2001)
Born in Folkstone, Kent, he studied fine art at Kingston School of Art, 1951--5, and sculpture at the RCA, 1957--61. A regular participant in group exhibitions since 1960, he held his first solo show in 1982. He has received several prestigious awards, including the Sir Richard Sainsbury Scholarship (1962), an ACGB Major Award (1979) and a Welsh Arts Council Travel Award (1989). His multi-figure, polychrome group in glass reinforced polyester, Wish You Were Here, was commissioned for the International Garden Festival at Liverpool in 1984. He was an ARBS and ARCA.
Source: Cavanagh, pp. 325--6. [G2002]

John Clinch (b. 1934)
Sculptor born at Folkestone, Kent. He studied fine art at Kingston School of Art, 1951--5, and specialised in sculpture at the Royal College of Art, 1957--61. In 1962 he was awarded the Sir Robert Sainsbury Scholarship. He taught at the University of Calgary, Canada, 1969--70, and from 1970 at Trent Polytechnic. In 1979 he won the Arts Council Major Award and in 1989, the Welsh Arts Council Travel Award. Clinch has shown in group exhibitions since 1960 and had his first solo exhibition at Graffiti, London, in 1982. In 1984 he was commissioned by the Merseyside Development Corporation to produce a sculpture (Wish You Were Here) for Liverpool’s International Garden Festival. Other public sculptures by Clinch include The Great Blondinis, Swindon city centre, and People Like Us, Cardiff Bay. He is an Associate of the Royal Society of British Sculptors and was included in the RBS exhibition ‘Chelsea Harbour Sculpture 93’. His sculpture, Mr ‘Fats’ Waller, 1981, is in the collection of the Arts Council.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Chelsea Harbour Sculpture 93; Festival Sculpture, 1984; Spalding, F., 1990. [LR 2000]

John Clinch (b.1934)
Studied Fine Art at Kingston School of Art, 1951--5 and sculpture at the Royal College of Art, 1957--61. His usually figurative work is often based on popular imagery of the past. Wish You Were Here was one of the sculptures chosen to remain on permanent display at the close of Liverpool’s International Garden Festival in 1994; other works include The Great Blondinis, Swindon, and People Like Us at Cardiff Bay. He has shown in group exhibitions since 1960 and had his first one-man exhibition in London in 1982.
[
1] PSoL, pp.64, 325. [2] Buckman, p.271. [NE 2000]

John Clinch (b. 1934)
Born at Folkestone, Kent, he studied Fine Art at Kingston School of Art, 1951--55, and sculpture at the Royal College of Art, 1957--61. In 1962 he was awarded the Sir Robert Sainsbury Scholarship. In 1979 he won the Arts Council Major Award and, in 1989, the Welsh Arts Council Travel Award. He has shown in group exhibitions since 1960 and had his first one-man exhibition in London in 1982. He is an ARBS and an ARCA.
(sources: Chelsea Harbour Sculpture 93; Festival Sculpture, 1984; Spalding, 1990) [L 1997]

Coade and Sealy (fl.1769--1820)
Based in Lambeth, Coade and Sealy manufactured artificial stone for architectural use including keystones, capitals and medallions, as well as busts, statues and monuments. Originally set up by Mrs Eleanor Coade (1733--1821) in 1769, the firm became known as Coade and Sealy after she went into partnership with her cousin John Sealy (1749--1813) in 1799. On the death of Sealy, Mrs Coade took on another cousin, William Croggan, who eventually gained sole control of the company on her death in 1821. He was succeeded by his son Thomas in 1835, but there was little demand for artificial stone by this time, and the moulds were sold in 1843. The firm employed several leading English modellers and designers, including John Bacon the Elder, John Rossi, John Flaxman, James George Bubb and Thomas Banks. Their works include the gate piers, Strawberry Hill, for Horace Walpole (1772); Monument to Sir Henry Hillman, formerly at St James’s, Hampstead Road, London, (c.1800); and the massive tympanum of the west pediment of the Royal Naval Hospital at Greenwich (1810--12).
Sources: Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.361; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964, pp.105--9; Kelly, A., Mrs. Coade’s Stone, Upton upon Severn, 1990; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.188. [SBC2005]

Coade Stone (firm fl.1769--1843)
Mrs Eleanor Coade came to London from Lyme Regis and set up her artificial stone business in about 1769. It was to prove the most successful firm of its kind, but it had been preceded by other similar enterprises. Richard Holt had developed a special kind of terracotta for outdoor statuary in a Lambeth yard in the late 1720s. The journalist and architectural entrepreneur, Batty Langley, produced a recipe for composition statuary in about 1731, and, later, there was to be an artificial stone yard at Goldstone Square, Whitechapel. The Coade Yard at Pedlar’s Acre, Lambeth seems to have grafted onto a business in the vicinity, which had been producing an improved version of Holt’s terracotta, with the additional ingredient of finely ground glass or quartz. Mrs Coade ran her business in partnership with her nephew John Sealey (1749--1813). They employed skilled artists, sometimes with Royal Academy training. (J. Bacon the Elder, J. Flaxman, J.C.F. Rossi, J. Bubb, J. De Vaere and T. Banks) and some reputable architects, to model or design their products. Their output was immense and their market virtually world-wide. It included architectural ornament, entire architectural features, such as ornamental screens, chimneypieces, garden statuary and ornaments, church monuments, busts of celebrities, and figures of school-children for charity schools. Full-length portrait statues were not beyond their capabilities. Examples of Coade Stone can be seen on many London buildings. Probably their most ambitious work was the sculpture, modelled from designs by Benjamin West for the west pediment of Greenwich Palace (1810--13). After Eleanor Coade’s death in 1796, the firm was taken over by her daughter, also named Eleanor. When John Sealey died, Eleanor Coade the Younger took her nephew, William Croggan as her partner. Croggan was soon in control of the firm. He was succeeded in turn by his son, Thomas John Croggan. The firm was finally closed in 1840, and the moulds sold off in 1843.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; A. Kelly, ‘Mrs Coade’s Stone’, Connoisseur, January 1978; A. Kelly, Mrs Coade’s Stone, Hanley Swan, 1990. [CL2003]

Coade and Sealy, Lambeth (active 1769--1820)
Coade and Sealy manufactured artificial stone for architectural use including keystones, capitals, and medallions, as well as busts, statues and monuments. Coade stone was hardwearing, relatively inexpensive and allowed for particularly fine detailing as the cast moulds were sometimes hand-finished before baking. Originally run by Mrs. Eleanor Coade (1708--96) and her nephew John Sealy (1749--1813), the business was taken over on Mrs. Coade’s death by her daughter, also Eleanor Coade (1732--1821). Her cousin, William Croggan, succeeded Sealy and eventually gained complete control of the company. Several leading English modellers and designers were employed by the firm, including John Bacon the Elder (1740--99) as chief sculptor, as well as John Rossi, Flaxman, James George Bubb and Thomas Banks. Works include: gate piers, Strawberry Hill, for Horace Walpole 1772; Monument to Sir Henry Hillman, formerly at St. James’s, Hampstead Road, London c.1800; a massive tympanum, west pediment, Greenwich Palace 1810--13.
1
. Gunnis, London, 1964, pp.105--9; 2. A. Kelly, Mrs. Coade’s Stone, 1990. [B1998]

Coade’s of Lambeth, Coade and Sealy (firm fl. 1769--1843)
Coade’s of Lambeth, a manufactory of artificial stone, was set up by Mrs Eleanor Coade in 1769. One of her advertisements precisely summed up the unique properties that made her product so successful: the stone, it claimed, has ‘a property peculiar to itself of resisting the frost and consequently of retaining that sharpness in which it excels every kind of stone sculpture’. This was not an inflated claim, as is attested by the good condition, even after nearly two hundred years, of much of the outdoor sculpture produced by her firm. It was for many years assumed that the Mrs Eleanor Coade referred to as the owner of the firm was the widow of George Coade (d. 1769), a wool merchant of Lyme Regis and Exeter. It has, however, been established by Alison Kelly that the owner was not the widow (1708--96) but the daughter, also called Eleanor (1733--1821). It was known that the daughter never married and the confusion arose from the contemporary use of ‘Mrs’ as a courtesy title for women in business whether they were married or not. Eleanor Coade had been born 3 June 1733 in Exeter. Following her father’s declaration of bankruptcy in 1759 the family moved to London. Eleanor soon established herself as a businesswoman and in 1769 purchased an artificial stone manufactory at Lambeth from Daniel Pincot, whom she retained for a short while as manager. He was replaced in 1771 by the sculptor John Bacon the Elder who for 28 years until his death in 1799 was to be not merely her manager but also her chief designer and modeller. Apart from the durability and relative cheapness of the artificial stone, the other principal ingredient in the firm’s success was that it employed as designers and modellers, in addition to Bacon, some of the finest sculptors of the day including (on an occasional basis) J.C.F. Rossi, John Flaxman and Thomas Banks. In 1799 Eleanor Coade went into partnership with her cousin, John Sealy (1749--1813), and the firm operated thereafter as Coade and Sealy. On the death of Sealy, Coade took on William Croggon (fl.1814--35) as manager and he in turn purchased the company on Coade’s death in 1821. The firm continued until Croggon’s death in 1835, at which point his son Thomas Croggon succeeded him. There was, however, no longer such demand for artificial stone and the moulds were finally sold off in 1843. Coade’s output was prolific, ranging from garden ornaments and architectural decoration through statues and monuments to what is perhaps its most ambitious and impressive work, the Nelson Pediment, designed for the firm by Benjamin West for the Royal Naval College (formerly Hospital) at Greenwich, 1810--12.
Source
: Gunnis, R., [1964]; Kelly, A., 1990; Turner, J. (ed.), 1996. [LR 2000]

Douglas Cocker (b.1945)
Cocker trained at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art in Dundee between 1963 and 1968, winning many awards that enabled him to travel extensively in Greece, Italy and America. Early on in his career, his box-like constructions incorporating both photographs and found objects conveyed a sense of place, as in his 1977 Perthshire Series. From 1981 to 1990, he taught sculpture at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen. It was during this period that he began to produce larger works that explored the themes of confinement and control, such as his State of a Nation, shown at the Scottish Sculpture Open at Kildrummy Castle (1985). During the early 1990s, Cocker continued to address this theme in smaller works such as Coda (1989) and Two Tribes/40 Shades (1994), both of which show a series of small objects in grids within boxes. More recently, his works have become more fluid, consisting of many sculpted wooden forms arranged in improvised patterns in a way that suggests a greater openness and optimism. His public art commissions are less imaginative. They include Song of Sisyphus, Nene Park, Peterborough (1988); Meridian for Mobil (UK), Aberdeen (1989); Conversation for the University of Glamorgan (1993); Font for Staffordshire County Council (Burton upon Trent, 1994); and Poet and Scholar for Ayr High Street (1995).
Sources: Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.274; Cocker, D., Sculpture and Related Works 1976--86, Glasgow, 1986; Essex County Council, Doug Cocker: Essex Fine Art Fellowship 1991--92, Chelmsford, 1992; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, vol.6, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1990, p.122; Talbot Rice Gallery, Doug Cocker: Sculpture and Drawings 1987--1995, Edinburgh, 1995. [SBC2005]

Doug Cocker (b.1945)
Born in Perthshire, he studied at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee. In 1982 he was appointed Lecturer in Sculpture at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, but resigned in 1990 to become a full-time practitioner. He works on a colossal scale, combining formal simplicity with a concern for weighty social issues, but almost invariably leavening the political critique with a vein of ironic humour. Among his best works is State of a Nation (1985, destroyed), a Greek temple mounted on rockers, the entire exterior surface faced with tree bark. He is also a prolific draughtsman, and has developed a distinctive form of multi-compartment box construction to accommodate, in miniature, the prodigious outpouring of ideas for sculptures that would otherwise remain as two-dimensional designs on paper. A good example is 2 Tribes/40 Shades (1989, private collection). He was elected ARSA in 1984, and in 1992 he was awarded a Wingate Scholarship.
Sources: Christopher Carrell et al., Doug Cocker: sculpture and related works 1976--1986, (ex. cat.), Glasgow, 1986; Pearson, pp.113, 126; Patrizio, pp.44--9, 145. [G2002]

Charles Robert Cockerell (1788--1863)
Neoclassical architect. The son and pupil of S.P. Cockerell, he became assistant to Sir Robert Smirke in 1809. In 1810--17 he travelled in Greece (working on the discoveries at Aegina and Phigaleia), Asia Minor, and Italy. He wrote extensively and knowledgeably on archaeology, architecture and sculpture (including Iconography of the West Front of Wells Cathedral, 1851) and illustrated the 1830 edition of Stuart and Revett’s Antiquities of Athens and Other Places of Greece, Sicily, etc. In 1833 he became architect to the Bank of England, designing its branches in Liverpool and Manchester. He took over as architect to St George’s Hall, following Elmes’ death in 1847 and built the Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Offices, Dale Street, 1855--57. Among his principal buildings outside Liverpool are the Cambridge University Law Library (1842) and the Taylorian-Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1845). He was Professor of Architecture at the RA, the first recipient of the RIBA Gold Medal in 1848, and RIBA President in 1860.
(sources: Fleming, Honour and Pevsner, 1991; Watkin, 1974) [L 1997]

Richard Cole (b.1952)
Sculptor, specialising in forms derived from the English landscape. Studied at Newcastle University 1971--7 and subsequently worked as a lecturer at various universities, most recently at the University of Humberside. He has had many exhibitions in Britain and abroad. Commissions include: Wave, Wakefield train station, 1988; Light Piece, Gordon District Council, 1991; and Le Parc de Merl, Luxembourg, 1995.
[
1] Buckman, p.278. [NE 2000]

Richard Coley (b.1938)
Sculptor in metal and fibreglass. Among the works he has exhibited at the RGIFA are Solar (1970), Cathedral (1971), Saturn’s Cradle (1972) and Pyramus (1975); the latter two were also exhibited at the RSA.
Sources: Laperriere; Billcliffe; McEwan. [G2002]

Stephen Collingbourne (b. 1943)
Sculptor born at Dartington, Devon. From 1960--1 he attended Dartington College of Art and then, from 1961--4, Bath Academy of Art, Corsham. After teaching at a comprehensive school in Oxford he returned to Dartington College of Art, where he lectured from 1965--70. In 1970 he took a foundry course at the Royal College of Art; in 1972 he worked as an assistant to Robert Adams and in 1972--3 lived in Malaysia. In 1974 he was fellow in sculpture at the University College of Wales and in 1976 was appointed lecturer in sculpture at Edinburgh College of Art. Collingbourne’s first solo exhibition was at Dartington Hall in 1968; others followed at the University of Wales, 1974, Oriel Gallery, Cardiff, 1975, and the MacRobert Arts Centre, Stirling University, 1979. His commissions outside Leicestershire include sculptures for Aberystwyth University College, Dyfed, 1977, and Royal Mile, Edinburgh, 1983.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

George Collin and Son (firm active c.1904--98)
Leicester firm of stonemasons. George Collin worked independently from c.1891 -- c.1899. He then established his own firm, operating first as ‘and sons’ and then from c.1916 as ‘and son’.
Sources
: Kelly’s Directory of . . . Leicester and Rutland (edns from 1891--1941). [LR 2000]

Henry Collins (1910--94)
Sculptor. Studied at Colchester School of Art and the Central School of Arts and Crafts. With his wife, Joyce Pallot (b. 1912), he worked on designs and murals, including those at the Shell Centre, the General Post Office Tower and for British Home Stores. He taught graphic design at St Martin’s School of Art and Colchester School of Art.
Sources: Buckman, 1998; Usherwood, 2000. [Man2004]

Henry Collins (1910--1994)
Painter and designer living and working in the Colchester area. Studied at Colchester School of Art and the Central School of Arts and Crafts. With his wife, Joyce Pallot (b.1912), he worked on designs and murals, including those at the Shell Centre, the General Post Office Tower and British Home Stores. For years he taught graphic design at St Martin’s School of Art and Colchester School of Art.
[
1] Buckman, pp.281 and 938. [NE 2000]

James Colquhoun (fl.1641--83)
Little is known about Colquhoun’s life, and the two statues listed in the main catalogue are the only surviving works that can be attributed to him. It is recorded, however, that he repaired and gilded the clock on the original Hutchesons’ Hospital (1683), and he is also credited with inventing Glasgow’s first fire engine -- an ‘ingyne for slockening of fyre’. A wright by trade, he was something of a polymath, and has been described as ‘a man of singular knowledge and skill in all mechanical arts and sciences’. He was, at different times, the Town Treasurer, Crafts Bailie and the Master of Works.
Sources: David Murray, ‘Early Art in Glasgow’, Scottish Art and Letters, vol.1, no.1, November 1901--January 1902, pp.13--14. [G2002]

William Robert Colton (1867--1921)
Born in Paris, Colton trained at Lambeth School of Art, the Royal College of Art and the Royal Academy Schools. On his return to Paris in 1899, he exhibited at the Salon and won a silver medal at the Exposition Universelle in 1900. He later became a teacher at the Royal Academy Schools (1907--12). His work was very fashionable around the turn of the twentieth century, and ranged from public monuments (including the Royal Artillery Monument, St James’s Park, London, 1910) to portrait busts and classical statuettes. He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy from 1889 onwards, being elected Royal Academician in 1919. He was president of the Royal Society of British Sculptors at the time of his death. Heavily indebted to the French style of sculpture, female nudes, lovers and children dominated his output. Tate Britain owns two of his works, The Girdle (1898) and The Springtime of Life (1903), both purchased through the Chantrey Bequest.
Sources: Baldry, A.L., ‘Modern British Sculptors: W. Robert Colton A.R.A.’, Studio, vol.LXVI, November 1916, pp.93--9; Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983, p.241; Johnson, J. and Greutzner, A., Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976, p.117; Mackay, J., Dictionary of Western Sculptors in Bronze, Woodbridge, 1977, p.76; Underwood, E.G., A Short History of English Sculpture, London, 1933, p.126. [SBC2005]

Sir John Ninian Comper (1864--1960)
Architect, principally of churches, born 10 June 1864 at Aberdeen, the son of the Revd John Comper (High Church). Following his schooling in Scotland, Comper attended Ruskin’s School at Oxford before going on to London where he divided his time between studying at the South Kensington Schools and working at the stained glass works of C.E. Kempe. He was next articled to church architects Bodley and Garner. His independent work falls into two categories. Before c.1904 his work, like Bodley’s, was scrupulously based on the prevailing style of the fourteenth century and is typified by St Cyprian, Clarence Gate, London, 1903, which he designed in its entirety. After c.1904, following a trip to the Mediterranean which made him realise the debt owed by Christian art to the classical tradition derived from ancient Greece, he began to add classical, renaissance and baroque details, in a more eclectic style which he called ‘Unity by Inclusion’, a leading example of which is his church of St Mary, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, 1904--40. In 1924--8 he designed in a thoroughly Classical style the Welsh National War Memorial (sculpture by Bertram Pegram), Cathays Park, Cardiff. Two works in Rutland and Leicestershire not included in the present catalogue are the south-east window of the south transept, 1912, of St Peter and St Paul, Langham, Rutland, and the north-east chapel, 1917, of All Souls, Aylestone Road, Leicester.
Sources
: DNB 1951--1960; Gray, A.S., 1985; Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E., 1992; Service, A., 1977. [LR 2000]

Angela Conner
Born in London, she is a self-taught artist who served as an apprentice to Barbara Hepworth. She is a sculptor and painter in stone, bronze, water, light and wind. She has done many portrait sculptures, including General de Gaulle, Camilla Parker-Bowles and Dame Elizabeth Frink. Other commissions include a mobile water sculpture for outside the Heinz Hall, Pittsburgh (1981), a 3--metre tall water sculpture for the public gardens of the Count and Countess Oeynhausen, Bad Driburg, Germany, and the Yalta Memorial, Thurloe Square, London (1986). She has had one-woman exhibitions in London, New York and Istanbul as well as having work exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Victoria and Albert Museum, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and the Carnegie Museum of Modern Art.
Source: Courtney, C., ‘Sculpture by Angela Conner’, Architect (RIBA), vol.93, October 1986; WWA, 26th edition, Havant, 1994. [WCS2003]

Angela Conner
Born in London, a self-taught artist, she served as an apprentice to Barbara Hepworth and is a sculptor and painter in stone, bronze, water, light and wind. She has done many portrait sculptures, including General de Gaulle, Camilla Parker-Bowles and Dame Elizabeth Frink. Other commissions include: a large ‘tipper’ for the King of Saudi Arabia 1975; and a mobile water sculpture for outside the Heinz Hall, Pittsburgh USA 1981; 10--foot-tall water sculpture for the public gardens of the Count and Countess Oeynhausen, Bad Driburg, Germany; Yalta Memorial, Thurloe Square, London 1986. Solo shows include: Lincoln Centre, New York; Browse and Darby, Cork Street, London 1986 and Istanbul Biennale; and she has had work exhibited at the RA, V&A, Carnegie Museum of Modern Art, BMAG and others worldwide. Her works are in the collections of the Arts Council of Great Britain, House of Commons, Eton College and the National Portrait Gallery, among others. FRBS.
1
. C. Courtney, ‘Sculpture by Angela Conner’, Architect (RIBA), vol.93, October 1986, p.13; 2. WWA, 26th edition, Havant, 1994, p.99; 3. Letter from the artist, 23rd February 1996. [B1998]

Robert Conybear
After studying at Wolverhampton Art College (1969--72), Robert Conybear obtained a master’s degree from Birmingham School of Art. During his career, he has received a number of awards from the English Arts Council. He has had one-man exhibitions at the ICA and Serpentine art galleries, London (1975), and his works have been included in group exhibitions at a number of museums, including the ICA, London (1980), the Kulturzentrum, Mannheim (1982--3), Drumcroon Art Centre, Wigan (1994) and the Arts Workshop Gallery, Swansea (1995). He has also held part-time teaching posts in Salford and Swansea. He is currently in partnership with the sculptor Uta Molling. Many of their commissions have been from his home town of Swansea, including a lighthouse sculpture for the marina (1986), a wall mosaic for the sea cadets’ headquarters (1991), a figure weather vane for Swansea Observatory (1991), and mosaics for the city centre (1992) and Swansea Mumbles (1993). More recently, they have designed a series of 24 mosaic ceramic panels for Luton town centre (1997) and site-specific sculpture in London (1998) and Coventry (1999).
Source: information from the sculptor. [WCS2003]

Edward Cooke (1811--80)
Marine painter and garden designer. The outstanding British marine artist of his time, Edward Cooke was the son of the engraver George Cooke, under whom he studied. He exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy from 1835 until 1880. By the time of his first visit to Biddulph Grange in 1847, he had established a considerable reputation as a painter of marine subjects, and was a knowledgeable and enthusiastic gardener. When Cooke was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society, he was described as a landscape and marine painter, and a faithful delineator of geological features in nature.
Source: Hayden, P., ‘James Bateman: Plantsman and Garden Designer’, Staffordshire History, vol.1, Stafford, 1984, p.63ff. [SBC2005]

Dave Cooper
Between 1968 and 1982, Dave Cooper worked as a professional musician, a musical instrument maker, a gardener, a cabinet-maker and a theatre assistant at Walsgrave Hospital in Coventry. He studied art at Coventry University (1982--6), where he chose to specialise in sculpture. He is a founder member of both Arts Exchange (1987--9) and Coventry Artists’ Co-operative (1991--9). He has taught ceramics at Warwick University (1987--9) and Arts and Crafts Studies at Coventry University (1995--8). In 1990 he went on a 12--month cultural exchange to Perth, Western Australia, where he worked in studio ceramics and showed works in the Pommie Potters ceramic exhibition. Since 1987, he has also exhibited in London, Coventry, Glastonbury and Reading.
Source: information from the sculptor. [WCS2003]

Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903--73)
Born in South Africa, Copnall moved to England as a child, studying painting at Goldsmith’s College of Art and at the Royal Academy Schools until 1924. Turning to sculpture in 1929, he produced mainly architectural and figurative works in stone and wood. He was head of the Sir John Cass College (1945--53). His major commissions include figures for the Royal Institute of British Architects headquarters, Portland Place, London (1934); Progression, Marks & Spencer, Edgware Road, London (1959); and St Thomas à Becket for St Paul’s Cathedral churchyard (1973). Author of A Sculptor’s Manual, (Oxford, 1971), he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1925 until 1970, as well as at the Paris Salons, the Royal Scottish Academy and leading English galleries. He was represented in the British Sculpture of the Twentieth Century exhibition, Whitechapel Art Gallery (1980--1). Copnall was president of the Royal Society of British Sculptors (1961--6).
Sources: Johnson, J. and Greutzner, A., Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976, p.121; Nairne, S. and Serota, N., (eds), British Sculpture in the Twentieth Century, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1981, p.250; Read, B. and Skipwith, P., Sculpture in Britain between the Wars, London, 1988, pp.48--9; Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905--1970, vol.II, Wakefield, 1973, p.80; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, vol.6, Woodbridge, 1990, p.130; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984, p.254; Usherwood, P., Beech, J. and Morris, C., Public Sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool, 2000, p.320. [SBC2005]

Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903--1973)
Born in Capetown, South Africa, Copnall studied painting at Goldsmiths’ College in London, and at the Royal Academy Schools. He turned to sculpture in 1929, and enjoyed several prestigious architectural commissions in the 1930s. Perhaps the most conspicuous was the 5.5m high stone relief of Architectural Aspiration on Grey Wornum’s new headquarters of the Royal Institute of British Architects in Portland Place (1931--4). He also carved illustrational wooden reliefs for the main public spaces aboard the liners, the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth. After the Second World War, Copnall became one of the pioneers of fibreglass resin sculpture. His book, A Sculptor’s Manual (Oxford, 1971), tells the story of his investigation of this medium, with his assistant Jose de Alberdi. Surviving examples of Copnall’s work in fibreglass resin are The Swanupper at Riverside House, Putney, his first work in the material, and St Thomas à Becket in St Paul’s Cathedral Churchyard (1973). Copnall’s largest work, however, the Stag, erected c.1960, as the central feature of Stag Place, off Victoria Street in London, was made in aluminium. This is no longer in situ. Copnall was President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors from 1961--6.
Source: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Sculptors Since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903--1973)
Sculptor in stone and wood, Copnall was born in Cape Town and moved to England as a child. He studied painting at Goldsmith’s College of Art and at the RA schools, turning to sculpture in 1929. Head of the Sir John Cass College 1945--53, his most important commissions include: Figure, RIBA headquarters, London 1931--4; Progression, Marks and Spencer, Edgware Road, London 1959; Swan Man, ICI Building, Putney Bridge, London, and Thomas à Becket, St Paul’s Cathedral churchyard 1973. He exhibited regularly at RA 1925--70 and was represented in ‘British Sculpture of the Twentieth Century’, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1980--1. His Sculptor’s Manual appeared in 1971.
[
1] PSoB, p.188. [2] Buckman, p.294. [NE 2000]

Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903--73)
Born in Cape Town, South Africa, 29th August 1903, he died in Kent, 18th October 1973. He moved to England as a child and studied painting at Goldsmith’s College of Art and at the RA Schools until 1924. Turning to sculpture in 1929, he produced mainly architectural and figurative work in stone and wood. He was head of the Sir John Cass College 1945--53. Main commissions include: Figure, RIBA headquarters, London 1931--4; Progression, Marks & Spencer, Edgware Road, London 1959; Swan Man, ICI Building, Putney Bridge, London; Thomas à Becket, St. Paul’s Cathedral churchyard 1973. Author of A Sculptor’s Manual, Oxford, 1971. Exhibited at RA 1925--70; Paris Salons; Royal Scottish Academy and leading English galleries. He was represented in the British Sculpture of the Twentieth Century exhibition, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1980--1. MBE 1946; President RBS 1961--6.
1
. RAE, vol.I, Wakefield, 1973, p.80; 2. J. Johnson, and A. Greutzner, Dictionary of British artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1976, p.121; 3. Strachan, 1983, p.254; 4. S. Nairne, and N. Serota, British sculpture in the twentieth century, London, 1981, p.250; 5. B. Read, and P. Skipwith, Sculpture in Britain between the wars, London, 1988, pp.48--9. [B1998]

Hattie Coppard (b.1956)
Hattie Coppard is a community artist living in North London who has made temporary and permanent public art commissions all over the country, including The Maidstone Sheep, Whitechapel Threads and Hackney Clocktower. Although she began her career leading mosaic and sculpture workshops for schoolchildren, she is now the director of Snug & Outdoor, a company of artists whose work involves designing innovative play spaces in London. She wrote Artists and School Grounds, published by Hackney Public Art Programme in 1999. In 2003, she was working on play areas for schools and housing associations in Hackney, Lambeth and Camden.
Sources: Borough of East Staffordshire: Leisure Services, Public Art in Burton, c.1990, no.7; Coppard, H., Visual Arts: Hattie Coppard, accessed December 2002, www.learninglive.co.uk; Curriculum vitae provided by the artist, 25 November 2003. [SBC2005]

Sioban Coppinger (b.1955)
Born in Canada, Coppinger left Bath Academy in 1977 with a BA in Fine Art. Works include a portrait bust of Professor J.B. Kimmonth, St. Thomas’s Hospital, London, 1981; and Ewe and Man on a Park Bench, Rufford Country Park, 1983.
1
. Strachan, 1983, p.254. [B1998]

Trewin Copplestone (b.1921)
Born in Dartmouth in December 1921, he studied art at Nottingham College of Arts and Crafts and Goldsmith’s College of Art. He became a tutor of mural painting at Hammersmith College of Art and a visiting lecturer in Art History. He also worked as a consultant art advisor, subsequently becoming Editorial Director and later Director of Publishing for the Hamlyn Group. He now owns and manages his own publishing company. He has broadcast various programmes for television including ‘Art for All’ for London Weekend Television, and he has written and edited art books such as Architecture, an introduction for children, London, 1969 and history of art books for W.H. Smith & Son. Exhibitions include: New Burlington Gallery, London 1952 (with the London Group) and RBA Gallery, Pall Mall, London 1956. Solo shows include: Matthiesen’s, London 1957. Other work includes: theatre sets and costumes for the Mermaid Theatre and Margate Stage Theatre; his decorative work includes a mural at Carlisle Civic Centre, 1965 and paintings, murals and mosaics for apartments and offices in London and Birmingham.
1
. Letter from the artist, 12th August 1985; 2. ‘Trewin Copplestone: portrait of the artist’, Art News and Review annual year book, 13th April 1957; 3. CV from the artist, 7th April 1996. [B1998]

Xavier Corberó (b. 1935)
Corberó comes from a family of Barcelona goldsmiths and attended the Escuela Massana de Artes Suntuarias de Barcelona, of which his father had been a founder. He also studied at the Central School in London from 1955--9. To an inherited disposition for work with precious stones and metals, he brought a personal interest in the constructivist aesthetic. In New York in 1960 he established contact with latter-day surrealists, and began to sculpt under the influence of Hans Arp. In more recent times he has experimented with combinations of materials, such as marble with bronze, and steel with granite. Around 1979/80, Corberó was instrumental in introducing a sculptural component into Barcelona’s urban renewal schemes. His American artistic contacts were of some importance in the realisation of these schemes. His own contribution was Homage to the Islands in Plaça de Soller. This celebration of the Balearic Islands consists of 42 juxtaposed marble elements, emerging from a pool to evoke ships, the moon, sun and clouds.
Sources: Enciclopedia del Arte Español del Siglo XX, ed. Francisco Calvo Serraller, Madrid, 1991; G. Apger, ‘Public Art and the Remaking of Barcelona’, Art in America, February 1991, pp.108--20 and 159. [CL2003]

Corinthian Bronze Foundry (c.1925 -- c.1971)
Foundry based at Peckham, London, specialising in sand casting.
Sources
: James, D., 1970; Kelly’s Post Office London Directory (edns from 1970--2). [LR 2000]

Frank Cossell (fl.1965--7)
English sculptor about whom little is known other than that he lived at Herne Bay, Kent, and worked for the Architectural Department of British Rail. Recorded works by him include a statue of St Christopher at the railway station and a relief mural on the Tannery Buildings, Northampton.
Source: Johnstone. [G2002]

Jethro Anstice Cossins (1830--1917)
Born in Kingsdon, Somerset, Cossins was articled to Frederick William Fiddian of London in 1847 and came to Birmingham in 1850. He was in partnership with John George Bland in 1880, and with Peacock and Bewlay c.1900. A member of SPAB, he was also president of the Birmingham Architectural Association.
Source: Colvin, Howard, Dictionary of British Architects 1600--1840, London, 1993. [WCS2003]

William Couper (1853--1942)
Born in Virginia, he studied first under the sculptor Thomas Ball, whose daughter he later married, and then at the Cooper Institute in New York. After practising sculpture for a time in New York, he decided to move to Europe. In Munich, he studied anatomy and drawing, before settling down in Florence for a period of 20 years, only returning to America in 1897. While living in Florence, he sent works for exhibition at the Royal Academy in London. American observers noted a delicacy in the work of his Florentine period which contrasted with the more exhibitionist style of contemporary compatriots working in Paris. One of Couper’s specialities at this time was poetic low-relief marble sculpture. A typical full-length figure from this period is A Crown for the Victor (marble, 1896, Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey). After his return to the States, Couper produced commemorative statues in historical costume, of Captain John Smith (1907) for Jamestown, Virginia, and of John Witherspoon (1909) for Washington DC, and a figure of John D. Rockefeller, which stands in the Rockefeller Institute in New York. He also sculpted 13 over life-size busts of scientists for the Natural History Museum of New York. He ceased to sculpt in 1913.
Sources: L. Taft, The History of American Sculpture, New York, 1903; M. Fielding, Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers, New York, 1965; G.B. Opitz (ed), Dictionary of American Sculpture, Eighteenth Century to the Present, New York, 1984. [CL2003]

George Cowper
(see The Bromsgrove Guild) [L 1997]

Cox & Sons (see Thames Ditton Foundry) [L 1997]

George Harry Cox (active c.1903--c.1916)
Modeller based in Leicester.
Sources
: Kelly’s Directory of . . . Leicester and Rutland (edns from 1903--16). [LR 2000]

Stephen Cox (b. 1946)
Born in Bristol, Cox trained at the West of England College of Art (1964--5), Loughborough College of Art (1965--6) and the Central School of Art (1966--8). He then went on to teach at Coventry College of Art (1968--72). From 1974 to 1977 he worked on minimalist ‘surface works’, using paint finishes on steel panels and setting them up as installations. His aim was to reclaim flatness for sculpture. In the 1980s Cox turned his attention to stone, and sought inspiration from ancient traditions of carving. He worked in a vast variety of different stones and marbles, combining them occasionally with natural pigments. His first exhibition of stone works, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in 1983, consisted entirely of reliefs attached to the wall, but the following year he showed a large free-standing piece entitled Palanzano at the Liverpool International Garden Festival. This was named after the town in Italy where the peperino marble from which it was carved had been quarried. Italy was one of Cox’s inspirational places, but in 1986 he set up a stone-carving workshop at Mahabalipuram in Southern India, and he has also worked in Egypt on locally quarried granites. In 1991, one of Cox’s massive stone monoliths, entitled Hymn, was erected at the University of Kent, Canterbury. Although Cox has identified strongly with the religious and pantheistic qualities of Hindu temple sculpture, he has also contributed sculpture to Christian places of worship, notably the reredos, font and stations of the cross for St Peter’s Church, Haringey (1993).
Source: S. Bann and others, The Sculpture of Stephen Cox, London, 1995. [CL2003]

Stephen Cox (b. 1946)
Born in Bristol, he studied at Bristol, Loughborough and Central schools of art, 1964--68. His first one-man exhibition in London was in 1976 (Lisson Gallery), since when he has exhibited widely in Britain, Italy and elsewhere. In 1986 he had a one-man exhibition at the Tate Gallery, London. Since 1979 he has spent increasing amounts of time in Italy, pursuing his interest in the Italian tradition of marble and stone carving.
(sources: Tate Gallery 1986; Tate Gallery Liverpool 1988) [L 1997]

Tony Cragg (b.1949)
One of the ‘New British Sculptors’ represented by the Lisson Gallery, London, in the 1980s. Studied at Gloucester, Wimbledon, and the Royal College of Art 1969--77 and then moved to Germany in 1977 to teach at the Dusseldorf Academy where he began making the kind of work for which he is best known : floor- and wall-pieces made out of remnants of everday found objects such as the shards of plastic household objects and toys which he would arrange in the shapes of larger three-dimensional structures. Such work has been seen as wittily questioning the emotional and imaginative relationships we have with the world about us and acclaimed as reinvesting the forms of Conceptual Art with narrative and social meaning.
He has had numerous exhibitions in Britain and abroad. From the mid-1980s he has often produced large-scale objects, using carved or machine-cut stone, cast iron and bronze.
[
1] Celant, G., Tony Cragg, London, 1996, passim. [2] Turner (ed.), p.25. [3] Buckman, p.305. [NE 2000]

Tony Cragg (b. 1949)
Born in Liverpool, Cragg moved with his parents to the South of England, where he studied at Gloucester, Wimbledon, and the Royal College of Art, 1969--77. In 1977 he moved to Germany, returning to Liverpool in 1986 to make Raleigh. He usually works with discarded found objects and various ephemeral materials. Since 1970, he has had solo exhibitions in Hamburg, Berlin, London, Paris, Milan, Tokyo, New York etc.
(source: Tate Gallery Liverpool, 1986) [L 1997]

Sean Crampton (1918--99)
Sculptor. Born in Manchester. Studied at Vittoria School of Art and the Central School of Art in Birmingham. He went to Paris where he was apprenticed to Fernand Léger. He joined the London Irish Rifles in the war, was wounded and awarded the George Medal. After the war he became Professor of Sculpture at the Anglo-French Art Centre, London. Nudes, animals and birds were important subjects in his sculpture. His preferred medium was phosphor bronze. His Catholic faith influenced his art, most obviously in works such as the Stations of the Cross which he created for his local church, St Edmund, Calne, Wiltshire. Public commissions included a memorial for the London Irish Rifles, and The Three Judges (Churchill College, Cambridge, 1970). His work was shown in group and solo exhibitions, and he was particularly associated with the Alwin Gallery. Crampton became a member of the RSBS in 1953 and served as president from 1966--71. Following his death, the RSBS organised a memorial exhibition in 2000.
Sources: Who’s Who, 1999; Lloyd, 2000. [Man2004]

Sean Crampton (1918--99)
Crampton was born in Manchester, the son of the architect Joshua Crampton. Between the ages of 12 and 15, he took silversmithing classes at Vittoria School of Art, Birmingham, going on to develop this talent in the Sculpture Department of the Central School of Art, Birmingham, and then becoming apprenticed to Fernand Léger in Paris. During the war, he served in the Western Desert and in Italy. He was awarded the George Medal for his bravery during a reconnaissance mission in January 1944, in the course of which he lost a foot. After a long period of convalescence, he was appointed Professeur de Sculpture at the Anglo-French Art Centre in London (1946--50). His deep commitment to the Catholic faith resulted in his production of many works depicting religious themes. His preferred medium was welded phosphor bronze, and from this he constructed the 14 Stations of the Cross for the Church of St Edmund in Calne, Wiltshire. Other works include figure groups, nude male and female figures, birds and animals. He also created a memorial for his old regiment, the London Irish Rifles. President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors for five years (1966--71), he was also Master of the Art Workers Guild (1978), Chairman of the Governors of the Camberwell School of Art during the 1980s and a governor to the court of the newly-founded London Institute. He had 17 solo exhibitions in London, exhibiting regularly with the Alwin Gallery, and was included in the first RWA Open Sculpture Exhibition, 1993.
Source: Dictionary of National Biography, CD ROM version. [WCS2003]

 [Arthur Edward] Seán Crampton (1918--99)
Sculptor and printmaker born 15 March 1918 at Manchester. He first studied silversmithing at the Vittoria Junior School of Art, Birmingham, 1930--3, then attended Birmingham’s Central School of Art before going to Paris where he worked in Fernand Léger’s studio. Once back in England, Crampton enrolled in the Territorial Army and on the outbreak of the Second World War served in North Africa and in Italy. In July 1943, Crampton, by this time a Lieutenant, was awarded the Military Cross. Six months later, in January 1944, he stepped on a landmine. The official citation records that the moment Crampton felt his foot touch the igniter, he kept it pressed down, shouted to his men to take cover and, by virtue of allowing his foot to take the full force of the blast, prevented the mine from rising into the air, thereby undoubtedly saving the lives of his men, all of whom escaped without injury. Crampton, however, lost his foot. For this act of selfless bravery he was awarded the George Medal. After a long period of rehabilitation he resumed his career as an artist-craftsman and teacher. From 1946--50 he was Professeur de Sculpture at the Anglo-French Art Centre in St John’s Wood, London. Crampton exhibited (albeit infrequently) at the Royal Academy from 1955, had 17 one-man shows in various commercial galleries in the West End and was included in the first Royal West of England Academy Open Sculpture Exhibition in 1993. His commissions include a memorial for his old regiment, the London Irish Rifles, and The Three Judges, 1970, for Churchill College, Cambridge. He was a member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors from 1953, FRBS from 1965, President, 1966--71. In 1978 he was elected Master of the Art Workers’ Guild. He died at Calne, Wiltshire, 16 July 1999.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Independent, 23 July 1999 (obituary); Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Waters, G., 1975; Who’s Who 1999. [LR 2000]

Douglas Cranmer (b. 1927)
Carver and artist. Born in British Columbia, son of Dan Cranmer, famous First Nation activist. Worked in the fishing and logging industries. Cranmer’s grandmother was married to Kwakwaka’wakw carver, Mungo Martin, and in 1955 Cranmer was taught the fundamentals of carving totems by Martin. Cranmer worked with Martin on other projects before he joined Bill Reid on the construction of Haida Houses for the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. Cranmer has also worked in paint, creating a series of 48 works between 1974 and 1975. In 1994 he completed a residency at the UBC Museum of Anthropology.
Source: Jonaitis, 1988. [Man2004]

John Crawford (1830--61)
Taken as a boy apprentice into the Mossman firm after his precocious talents were noticed by William Mossman Junior (q.v.), he became the workshop’s ‘favourite pupil’. A frequent prizewinner at GSA, he received press attention in 1848 when the art patron A.S. Dalglish awarded him £5 for his copy of a statue of Niobe. In 1856, after completing his studies, he set up on his own at 28 Mason Street, producing work for John Thomas (q.v.) on the Houses of Parliament, London, and for John Honeyman on a monument in Bothwell (1856). He died with his wife and children in the typhus epidemic of 1861 and is buried in Sighthill Cemetery. A surviving son, John M. Crawford, became an architect.
Sources: GG, 8 July 1848, p.2; GH 13 December 1861(obit.); Eyre-Todd (1909), p.51. [G2002]

Tim Crawley
A stone-carver who, until 2002, was employed by the old-established Cambridge stonemasons firm of Rattee and Kett. He has worked on the restoration of historic buildings in Cambridge. He was chiefly responsible for the four figures of Virtues, and for the ten figures of Modern Martyrs, placed on the west front of Westminster Abbey between 1996 and 1998. Crawley made the models for these, but they were carried out with the assistance of other members of the Rattee and Kett team. Crawley is an Associate of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. [CL2003]

John Creed (b.1938)
Sculptor in iron and steel. Born Heswall, Cheshire, he studied at Liverpool College of Art, 1955--9, and Liverpool University, gaining an Art Teacher’s Diploma. He taught in the Department of Silversmithing and Jewellery at GSA, 1971--95, and became a professional blacksmith in 1988, establishing a forge at Milton of Campsie, East Dunbartonshire. Among his recent commissions are a set of sliding gates for the main entrance of Borders Regional Council Headquarters, Newton St Boswells (1990); internal double doors for the Royal Museum of Scotland (1995); Constellation (1997); and Benchmark, a series of sculptural seating units at Norrie Miller Park, Perth (1998). He exhibits widely and is represented in major public collections throughout the UK.
Source: information provided by the artist. [G2002]

Benjamin Creswick (1853--1946)
Although largely self-taught, Creswick was influenced by John Ruskin, under whose supervision he worked at Coniston and Oxford. By 1884, he had opened a studio in London. Working largely as an architectural decorator, Creswick was proficient in a variety of media, including metal, wood, plaster and terracotta. From 1889 until 1918, he taught modelling at Birmingham School of Art. His major works include the friezes for Cutlers’ Hall in London (1887--8) and Huddersfield’s Memorial to the Men of Huddersfield (1904--5). He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1888 onwards, and was closely associated with Mackmurdo’s Century Guild (founded 1882).
Source: Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.189. [SBC2005]

Benjamin Creswick (1853--1946)
Born in Sheffield, he was apprenticed to a knife-grinder. Health problems obliged him to relinquish this profession. He was inspired after a visit to John Ruskin’s Walkley Museum to emulate the drawn and modelled exhibits. He made contact with Ruskin and worked under his supervision at Coniston and Oxford. By 1884 Creswick had opened a London studio, and around this time began an association with A.H. Mackmurdo’s arts and crafts organisation, the Century Guild. The Guild’s Magazine, The Century Guild Hobby Horse, in 1887 advertised his services in ‘carving and modelling for terracotta or plasterwork’. In the same year, he completed his ambitious frieze of cutlers at work for Cutlers’ Hall in the City of London. Raffles Davison of the magazine British Architect, who had already praised Creswick’s work, found that the sculptor had reached new heights in this frieze. Creswick then worked briefly in Liverpool and Manchester, before taking up the post of Master of Modelling and Modelled Design at the Birmingham School of Art in 1889. Creswick produced a great deal of architectural sculpture for Birmingham buildings, and proved an inspiring teacher. He retired from his post in 1918, though he continued to accept private commissions.
Sources: ‘An English Sculptor’, British Architect, 22 April 1887, vol.27, p.303; S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; G.T. Noszlopy and J.Beach, Public Sculpture of Birmingham, Liverpool, 1998. [CL2003]

Benjamin Creswick (1853--1946)
Born 29th January 1853 in Sheffield, he died in Sutton Coldfield in February 1946. Originally apprenticed as a knife grinder, he began modelling in clay and was largely self-taught, though he was influenced by John Ruskin, under whose supervision he worked at Coniston and Oxford, and who gave him support both artistically and financially. During this time he made the first ever portrait of Ruskin from life and, sponsored by him, Creswick opened a studio in London by 1884. Ruskin introduced Creswick to A.H. Mackmurdo, and was associated with Mackmurdo’s Century Guild, founded in 1882. Although not actually a member, Creswick produced plaster figures for fireplaces shown at the Century Guild’s display at the Inventions Exhibition, London 1885. Working largely as an architectural decorator, like many Arts and Crafts artists Creswick was proficient in a variety of media, working in metal, wood, plaster and terracotta as well as printing. He worked for a period in Liverpool and Manchester before coming to the Birmingham School of Art as Master of Modelling and Modelled Design 1889--1918. From as early as 1890 the number of students attending his classes increased, testifying to his skill and enthusiasm, and Walter Crane remarked that the quality of modelling at the school had noticeably improved. After his retirement he continued to work, making sculpture for private commissions. Major works include friezes for Cutler’s Hall, City of London 1887--8; a frieze for Henry Heath’s showroom, Oxford Street, London (destroyed); a huge figure of Humanity for the Positivist church, London and Memorial to the Men of Huddersfield, Greenhead Park, Huddersfield 1904--5. Exhibited at the Sheffield Society of Artists 1877--1909; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool 1886; Royal Academy 1888 onwards; Birmingham Arts and Crafts Guild and Birmingham Society of Art Spring Exhibition 1895; and the Royal Birmingham Society of Arts 1914.
1
. Birmingham Museum and School of Art Committee, Annual report, 1890, pp.8--9; 2. Birmingham magazine of arts and industries, vol.III, 1901--3, pp.171--5; 3. F. Brangwyn, Obituary, Post, 13th February 1946; 4. Beattie, 1983; 5. S. Evans, Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo, 1851--1942 and the Century Guild of Artists (unpublished thesis), University of Manchester, School of Architecture and Town Planning, 1986. [B1998]

Richard Criddle (b.1955)
Educated at the Central School of Art and Design (1974--7) and the Royal College of Art (1977--8), Criddle was twice winner of the Landseer prize for sculpture. After teaching for several years in South Wales, he returned to London to complete a postgraduate diploma at the Royal Academy Schools with the help of a scholarship from the Henry Moore Foundation (1982--5). Criddle specialises in cast bronze and metal sculptures, and regularly holds workshops in bronze casting and mould making. Since 1982, he has worked in partnership with the stained glass artist Debora Coombs, first in London and then, since 1997, in southern Vermont, offering art and design services to colleges, museums and architects. He is currently Director of Fabrication and Art Installation at the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art. His own work is on a massive scale, and includes a major public sculpture for New Jersey Transit sited outside Penn Station, Newark, New Jersey (2000) and Rigours of the Heart (2002), exhibited in Troy, New York, as part of a show bringing together the visual arts and the industrial world.
Sources: Coombs Criddle Associates, accessed 23 April 2002, www.zetat.demon.co.uk/cca; Purdie, D., Public Art on the Black Country Route, 1997, http://wavespace.waverider.co.uk/~scotdave; Wolverhampton City Council, Black Country Route Sculptures, CD-ROM, Wolverhampton, 2001. [SBC2005]

William Croggan (fl.1814--40)
Croggan ran the manufactory Coade and Sealy of Lambeth in the early years of the nineteenth century. During his period in sole control of the manufactory, he supplied a number of works for Buckingham Palace. These included six vases for the terrace and the statues Neptune, Commerce and Navigation for the Grand Entrance (1827), statues from designs by Flaxman representing Sculpture, Architecture, Painting and Geography (1828), and reliefs of King Alfred Expelling the Danes and King Alfred Delivering the Laws for the west front of the palace (also 1828). Croggan was succeeded by his son Thomas in 1835, but by this time there was no longer such a demand for artificial stone, and the moulds were finally sold off in 1843.
Sources: Bennett, J., Public Art Guide, Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council, 1990, p.9; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964, pp.116--17; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.188. [SBC2005]

Cruikshank & Co. Ltd (1863--1985)
Decorative cast iron manufacturers and general ironfounders, based at the Denny Works, Stirlingshire. Very little is known about the company, and the fact that its products are rarely referred to in recent literature on ornamental ironwork suggests that it was much smaller than many of its contemporary rivals, such as Walter Macfarlane & Co. (q.v.). Nevertheless, examples of its ornate drinking fountains can be found in many Scottish towns, including Dundee and Newcraighall, Midlothian. Most of the company’s records were destroyed in a fire in the 1980s, though some surviving documentation is now in Falkirk Museum Archive.
Source: Falkirk Museum. [G2002]

Robert H. Crutchley (b. 1943)
A senior lecturer at Bournville College of Art, Crutchley studied at the Birmingham College of Art. In 1990, he sculpted the statue of St Michael for St Michael’s Church, Manor Park. Crutchley’s exhibitions include Portfolio, RBSA (1988); Ikon Gallery, Birmingham (1991); 1st RWA Open Sculpture Exhibition (1993). He has exhibited most recently at the Royal West of England Academy in Bristol and the Hochschule für Graphik and Buchkunst in Leipzig.
Source: information from the sculptor. [WCS2003]

Edward Cullinan (b.1931)
Architect. Cullinan was educated at Cambridge University (BA, 1951) and University of California at Berkeley (George VI Memorial Fellow, 1956). He has taught architecture at University College, London (1978--9), the University of Sheffield (1985--7) and the University of Edinburgh (from 1987). He designed and built Horder House, Hampshire (1959--60), Marvin House, California (1959--60), Minster Lovell Mill (1969--72), the parish church of St Mary, Barnes (1978--84), Lambeth Community Care Centre (1979--84), and the Fountains Abbey visitor centre and landscape (1987--92). All have received awards. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Architects.
Source: information from the architect. [WCS2003]

John Cundall (1830--89)
One of Leamington Spa’s leading 19th-century architects. He was responsible for the west wing of the Warneford Hospital in 1868, the main building of Warwick School, various churches in Leamington, the extension to Honington Hall, and the School and School House at Sherbourne.
Sources: Leamington Spa Museum Service, Leamington Spa Museum and Art Gallery Information Files; Pevsner, N., Buildings of England: Warwickshire, Harmondsworth, 1966. [WCS2003]

Mitzi Solomon Cunliffe (b. 1918)
Sculptor. Born in New York City. Trained with the Art Students’ League in New York before studying at Columbia University (1935--40). She married the academic, Marcus Cunliffe (1922--90) and came to live in Manchester where she resided 1949--64. She later lived in Brighton and London. She contributed decorative sculptural work, including the door handles, to the Regatta Restaurant at the Festival of Britain, 1951. A bird sculpture, The Quickening, and Loosestrife (1951) were purchased by the University of Liverpool for their Civic Design Building. During the 1950s she designed ceramics for Pilkington’s and textiles for David Whitehead Fabrics. The mural for Heaton Park Reservoir Valve House was one of her largest works. The well-known BAFTA award is based on the design she made for the Guild of Television Producers and Directors, first presented in 1955. In later years she suffered from dementia but continued to work. A sculpture prize for undergraduates at Oxford University is named after her.
Sources: Strachan, 1984; Buckman, 1998; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

Mitzi Solomon Cunliffe (b. 1918)
Born in New York, she trained with the Art Students League in New York (1930--3), at Columbia University (1935--40), and in the Académie Colarossi in Paris. In 1949 she married the British academic Marcus Cunliffe, and went to live in England. She lived in Manchester from 1949 to 1964, and then in Brighton until 1971 when she moved to London. For the Festival of Britain in 1951 she contributed decorative work to the Regatta Restaurant, as well as exhibiting a group in red sandstone, entitled Root Bodied Forth. In the same year, her bird sculpture, Quickening (Portland stone) was purchased by Liverpool University. During the 1950s she designed ceramics for Pilkington’s and textiles for David Whitehead Fabrics. In 1955 she created a mural decoration for the Heaton Park Reservoir Valve House in Manchester. Cunliffe is perhaps best remembered as the designer of the BAFTA award trophy, a classical mask, first presented in 1955. Between 1971 and 1976 she lived in London. In her later years she has suffered from dementia. Works produced by her in this condition were shown in the exhibition ‘Look Closer -- see me’, at Brookes University, Oxford, in 2001. In 1999, a Mitzi Cunliffe Sculpture Prize Fund was donated to the Ruskin School of Art in Oxford by Joseph Solomon.
Sources: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists Since 1945, Bristol, 1998; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997; Saur (pub.), Allgemeines Künstler Lexikon, Munich/Leipzig, 1999. [CL2003]

Mitzi Solomon Cunliffe (b.1918)
Born in New York City, she graduated in Science and Arts at Columbia University, 1939--40. In the late 1960s she had a number of one-woman exhibitions in Britain. From 1971--76 she lived in London. Commissions in Britain (outside Liverpool) include a mural for Heaton Park Reservoir Valve House, Manchester. The BAFTA award is based on her design for the Guild of Television Producers and Directors, first presented in 1955.
(sources: Strachan, 1984; various) [L 1997]

Liam Curtin (b. 1951)
Sculptor. Born in Liverpool. Trained as a teacher at Christ College, Liverpool. Self-taught artist and potter. First public artworks produced in early 1990s. His public art includes both permanent and temporary installations, often using water. Curtin played a leading part in the public art programme in Manchester’s Northern Quarter as one of the principal figures in Majollica Works. He is now one of the directors of The Art Department. His works include the High Tide Organ (with John Gooding), a sculpture on Blackpool promenade. It uses the power of the waves at high tide to make music. The organ was influenced by an earlier temporary work, a musical fountain, located in the canal near the Bridgewater Hall, Manchester. It received a £65,000 award from the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (Nesta).
Source: artist. [Man2004]

Thompson Dagnall (b. 1956)
Sculptor. Born in Liverpool. Educated at Liverpool Polytechnic (1974--5), Brighton Polytechnic (1975--8), and at Chelsea Art College (MA, 1978--9). Tom Dagnall contributed a number of works to the Ribble Valley Sculpture Trail between 1988 and 1991. Public commissions include Mining Monument (St Helens, 1996), Altar and St. Chad (Chadkirk Chapel, Stockport, 1996), Spruced Up Heron and Orme Sight (Beacon Fell Country Park, 1996), sculpture (Lower Eccleshill Link Road, Blackburn, 1998) and Tolpuddle Martyrs Memorial (Tolpuddle, 2001). Exhibitions include The Orangery, London, Manchester City Art Gallery (1991, 1993) and successive Manchester Academy Annual Exhibitions.
Source: artist. [Man2004]

Aimé-Jules Dalou (1838--1902)
Son of a Parisian glove-maker, Dalou’s youthful talents in modelling were discovered by the sculptor J.-B. Carpeaux. He studied at the École Gratuite de Dessin, known as the Petite École. He was accepted at the École des Beaux Arts in 1854, but failed in his four attempts to win the Prix de Rome. During the 1860s, Dalou worked on a number of prestigious commissions for architectural and decorative sculpture, notably at the Hotel Païva in the Champs-Élysées. He also exhibited at the Salon, where, in 1869, his group of Daphnis and Chloë was seen and admired by the writer, Théophile Gautier. As a staunch republican, Dalou participated in the Paris Commune of 1871, and was appointed adjunct curator of the Louvre. When the Commune was suppressed, Dalou was obliged to flee to London, where he remained until the general amnesty permitted him to return to France in 1880. In England, Dalou’s poeticised modern realism, in works like the Boulonnaise allaitante of 1873 (terracotta version in the Victoria and Albert Museum), made a profound impression. He found many patrons, particularly amongst the landed aristocracy, and even worked for Queen Victoria. He was employed to teach modelling in the South Kensington School and briefly also at the City and Guilds School in Kennington. His teaching was one of the catalysts for the emergence of the English ‘New Sculpture’ in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. Dalou’s first task on his return to Paris was the completion of a competition model for a Monument to the Republic for the Place de la République. He did not win this competition, but his model made such an impression that the jury decided it should be erected in Place de la Nation. The bronze version of this was inaugurated only in 1899. In the meantime, Dalou had completed other commemorative monuments for Paris, Bordeaux and Quiberon. He had also, since 1889, been working towards an ambitious Monument to Labour, for which he amassed large numbers of small models and more completed figures, many of which are in the Musée du Petit Palais in Paris. The definitive monument was never completed.
Sources: M. Dreyfous, Dalou, sa vie et son œuvre, Paris, 1903; J. Hunisak, The Sculpture of Jules Dalou: Studies in His Style and Imagery, New York and London, 1977. [CL2003]

Hubert Dalwood (1924--76)
Dalwood trained at Bath Academy of Art under Kenneth Armitage and William Scott (1946--9). After his first solo show of sculpture at the Gimpel Fils gallery in London (1954), he was offered the Gregory Fellowship in sculpture at Leeds University (1955--8). Between 1954 and 1976, he taught at art colleges in Leeds, Hornsey, Maidstone and central London, travelling to the University of Illinois in 1964 as a visiting professor. He won the Churchill Fellowship in 1972, which gave him the opportunity to visit Japan and the Far East. From the late 1950s, Dalwood’s sculptures became increasingly abstract and hieratic in their forms, with such titles as Throne (1960) and High Judge (1962). Nevertheless, his humanity showed through in his exploration of the relationship between the viewer, the sculpture and the landscape in which it was set. Many of his sculptures were commissioned by universities and colleges, including Liverpool (1959); Leeds (1961); Nuffield College, Oxford (1962); Wolverhampton (1972); and the University of Central England (1974). He exhibited not only at the Tate Gallery (1966) and the Royal Academy (1972) in London, but also at the Venice Biennale (1962) and the Toronto International Sculpture Symposium (1967). His sculpture is in the collections of the Tate Gallery, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Museum of Modern Art and the Guggenheim Museum in New York and the Albright-Knox Museum, Buffalo, USA.
Sources: Arts Council of Great Britain, Hubert Dalwood, Sculptures and Reliefs, London, 1979; Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.326; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.326; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.362; Dalwood, H., Hubert Dalwood, exhib. cat., Gimpel Fils, London, 1970; Maillard, R., New Dictionary of Modern Sculpture, New York, 1971, p.77; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, pp.51, 189; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, vol.6, Woodbridge, 1990, p.130. [SBC2005]

Hubert Cyril Dalwood (1924--76)
Sculptor, born 2 June 1924 at Bristol. He was an apprentice engineer to the British Aeroplane Company, 1940--4, and served in the Royal Navy, 1944--6. He studied at Bath Academy, 1946--9, under Kenneth Armitage and William Scott. He had his first solo exhibition at Gimpel Fils, London, 1954, and was Gregory Fellow of Sculpture at Leeds University, 1955--8. Between 1956 and 1964 he taught at Leeds, Hornsey, and Maidstone colleges of art and was Head of the Sculpture Department at Hornsey, 1966--73, and Central School of Art, 1974--6. In 1959 Dalwood won the Liverpool John Moores Exhibition sculpture prize and in 1962 was awarded the David E. Bright Prize for younger sculptors at the Venice Biennale. In 1976 he was elected ARA. Many of his sculptures were commissioned by universities including Liverpool (1960), Leeds (1961), Nuffield College, Oxford (1962), Manchester (early 1960s), and Nottingham (1974). He died 2 November 1976. Retrospective memorial exhibitions of his work were mounted at the Hayward Gallery, 1979, and Hebden Bridge Arts Festival, 1996. Examples of his work are held in the collections of the Arts Council and British Council, in the Tate Gallery, London, and in the Museum of Modern Art and Guggenheim Museum, New York.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Who Was Who 1971--1980. [LR 2000]

Hubert Dalwood (1924--1976)
Born in Bristol in 1924, he died in London, 2nd November 1976. Apprentice designer at Bristol Aeroplane Company 1939--45, he studied at Bath Academy of Art under Kenneth Armitage 1946--9. He won an Italian Government scholarship to study in Italy, 1951 and took up a teaching post at Newport School of Art, Monmouth 1951--70. After his first show of sculpture at Gimpel Fils gallery, London in 1954, he was offered the Gregory Fellowship in sculpture at Leeds University 1955--8. Taught at Leeds College of Art, Royal College of Art, London and Maidstone College of Art 1954--64. In 1964 he was appointed Visiting Professor at the University of Illinois, Urbana, USA. He was Head of Sculpture at Hornsey College of Fine Art 1966--73; he won the Churchill Fellowship in 1972, travelling to Japan and the Far East; and was made Head of Sculpture at the Central School, London 1974--6. Works include: Abstract, Liverpool University 1959; Screen, University of Manchester; Echelon with Concrete Pillars, Wolverhampton Polytechnic 1972; Untitled, outside the Business Statistics Office, Tredegar Park, Newport, Gwent 1978. His sculpture is in the collections of the Tate Gallery; Victoria and Albert Museum; MOMA, New York; Guggenheim Museum, New York; Albright-Knox Museum, Buffalo, USA. Member of RBS 1963. Exhibited at Gimpel Fils gallery, London 1954--70; Venice Biennale 1962; British Sculpture in the 60s, Tate Gallery 1966; the Toronto International Sculpture Symposium 1967; British Sculpture, RA 1972; retrospective at the Haywood Gallery, toured in 1979.
1
. Hubert Dalwood, sculptures and reliefs, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, exh.cat., 1979; 2. Hubert Dalwood, Gimpel Fils, London, exh.cat., 1970. [B1998]

Hubert Cyril Dalwood (1924--76)
Born in Bristol, he was an apprentice engineer to the British Aeroplane Company, 1940--44, and served in the Royal Navy, 1944--46. He studied at Bath Academy, 1946--49, under Kenneth Armitage and William Scott. In 1955--59 he was awarded the Gregory Fellowship in Sculpture at Leeds University. Between 1956 and ‘64 he taught at Leeds, Hornsey, and Maidstone colleges of art and was Head of the Sculpture Department at Hornsey, 1966--73, and Central School of Art, 1974--76. In 1959 he won the Liverpool John Moores Exhibition and in 1962 was awarded the David E. Bright Prize for younger sculptors at the Venice Biennale. In 1976 he was elected ARA. He was commissioned to make sculpture by various universities (in addition to Liverpool), including Leeds (1961), Nuffield College, Oxford (1962), Manchester (early 1960s), and Nottingham (1974). Other public sculpture outside Liverpool includes Untitled (1974, Haymarket, Leicester). A retrospective memorial exhibition was devoted to him at the Hayward Gallery, 1979.
(sources: Nairne & Serota, 1981; Spalding, 1990; Strachan, 1984; Tate Gallery Liverpool, 1988). [L 1997]

Clemence Dane (1888--1965)
Clemence Dane was the pseudonym of Winifred Ashton, a playwright and novelist who had originally intended to make painting her career, studying at Dresden and the Slade. She continued painting and sculpting throughout her life. Her early plays were strongly criticised for the weakness of their central male characters, but she later gained a reputation as a writer of novels and film scripts. She was awarded the CBE in 1953.
Source: Stephens, L. and Lee, S. (eds), Dictionary of National Biography, London, 1990. [WCS2003]

Alfred Darbyshire (1839--1908)
Architect. Born in Salford. Educated at Friends’ School, Ackworth, and at Alderley Edge. Articled to Peter Bradshaw Alley. Began practice in Manchester from 1862 at the age of 23. He made his reputation building theatres, including the Comedy Theatre and the Palace in Manchester. He also made extensive alterations to the Theatre Royal and the Prince’s in Manchester, and renovated the Lyceum in the Strand. He designed the Manchester city abattoirs in Water Street and the lodges of Alexandra Park. Worked on the model of Old Manchester and Salford for the 1887 Manchester Exhibition. Elected FRIBA and President of Manchester Society of Architects, 1901--2. As president he helped set up a chair of Architecture at Owens College. He published an autobiography in 1887 entitled An Architect’s Experiences, Professional, Artistic and Theatrical.
Sources: Lockett, 1968; Felstead, 1993. [Man2004]

Allen David (b. 1926)
Painter, sculptor, photographer and gallery director. He was born in Bombay, but arrived in Melbourne, Australia, in 1948. After studying drawing and architecture at the University of Melbourne, he went on to direct the Gallery of Contemporary Art in Dalgety Street, St Kilda, Melbourne, from 1958--60. In 1955 he had a one-man exhibition at the Melbourne Tourist Bureau, and in 1962 contributed photographs of Central Australian landscape to Sir Russell Drysdale’s book entitled Form, Colour, Grandeur. By the end of the 1960s David was in England, where he exhibited work at the Camden Art Centre and at the church of All Hallows, London Wall. In 1969 he was given the commission for the Glass Fountain for the Guildhall Piazza in the City of London. At some time in the following decades he moved to Israel, where he received commissions for public sculpture in Tel Aviv. At present he is a member of the faculty of the New School in New York.
Source: M. Germaine, Artists and Galleries of Australia, Roseville, 1990. [CL2003]

Eric Davies (b.1910)
Architect. Born in Chadderton, Lancashire, Davies studied architecture at the University of Manchester, graduating in 1933, and becoming a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1960. During his working life, he worked for the architect’s department of the City of Manchester, Derbyshire, Lancashire and East Yorkshire, and later for 14 years as County Architect for Warwickshire. Other appointments include Chairman of the Coventry Society of Architects and Architect for the Central Area Redevelopment of Warwickshire Borough Council.
Source: information from the architect. [WCS2003]

Miles Davies (b.1959)
Davies was trained at Leamington Spa School of Art and Brighton Polytechnic (1978--81). With their large scale and hard-edged geometry, his works are influenced by American sculptors such as Calder, Judd and Serra. However, some of his pieces, including Open Door, exhibited at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park in 1991, also contain echoes of Dada and Surrealism. Public commissions include pieces for sculpture trails in the Forest of Dean (1988) and for Millfield School (1991). During the 1990s, he exhibited his work in many British cities, including Bath, Bristol, Wakefield and Birmingham as well as in Hanover (1991). He has works in public and private collections in England, France and Germany.
Sources: Garlake, M., ‘Round-up’, Art Monthly, October 1989, p.21; Hopper, R., Miles Davies, exhib. cat., Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Wakefield, 1991; Letter and curriculum vitae from the artist, 7 February 1996; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.189f.; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.252; Purdie, D., Public Art on the Black Country Route, 1997, http://wavespace.waverider.co.uk/~scotdave [SBC2005]

Miles Davies (b.1959)
Davies was educated at Leamington Spa School of Art and and studied Fine Art at Brighton Polytechnic (1978--81). Public commissions include pieces for sculpture trails in the Forest of Dean (1988) and Open Door, Ashton Court, Bristol (1989); Millfield Sculpture Commission, Millfield School (1991). Solo exhibitions include: Artiste Sculpture Garden, Bath (1990); Arnolfini, Bristol (1990); Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Wakefield (1991). Recent group exhibitions include: Eisfabrik, Hannover; New Meanings for City Sites, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, Birmingham (1991); Road Works II, Bilston Art Gallery, Bilston (1994). He has works in public and private collections in England, France and Germany including, from 1995, the Peterborough Sculpture Trust.
Sources: Information from the artist, 7 February 1996; Art Monthly, October 1989; http://wavespace.waverider.co.uk/~scotdave; Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Miles Davies: sculptor, Wakefield, 1991. [WCS2003]

Miles Davies (b.1959)
Born 2nd April 1959 in Leigh, Lancashire, Davies was educated at Leamington Spa School of Art and studied Fine Art at Brighton Polytechnic 1978--81. Public commissions outside Birmingham include pieces for sculpture trails in the Forest of Dean, 1988 and Open Door, Ashton Court, Bristol 1989; Millfield Sculpture Commission, Millfield School 1991 and High Street roundabout, Bilston, Wolverhampton. Solo exhibitions include: Artiste Sculpture Garden, Bath 1990; Arnolfini, Bristol 1990; Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Wakefield 1991. Recent group exhibitions include: Eisfabrik, Hannover; New Meanings for City Sites, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, Birmingham 1991; Road Works II, Bilston Art Gallery, Bilston 1994. He has works in public and private collections in England, France and Germany including, from 1995, the Peterborough Sculpture Trust.
1
. Letter and CV from the artist, 7th February 1996; 2. M. Garlake, ‘Round-up’, Art Monthly, October 1989, p.21; R. Hopper, Miles Davies sculpture catalogue, 1991. [B1998]

Richard George Davies (c.1790--after 1857)
Sculptor of statues and monuments in stone. Possibly the son of R.Davies (fl.1777--1800), R.G. Davies was born and lived in Newcastle. His major monuments include Grace Darling, Farne Islands (1844); Luke Clennell in St Andrew’s Church, Newcastle; Margaret Clavering (1821) and Francis Johnston (1822), both in Newcastle Cathedral. Exhibited Actaeon Devoured by his Hounds at Westminster Hall, 1844.
[
1] Gunnis, p.122. [2] Hall, M., A Dictionary of Northumberland and Durham Painters, Newcastle, 1973, p.51. [NE 2000]

Arthur Joseph Davis (1878--1951)
Architect, born in London, educated firstly in Brussels and then in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts and in the ateliers of J. Godefroy and J.-L. Pascal. In 1900 he entered into junior partnership with Charles Mewés. Working in a French classical style, the two moved to England, the most notable fruits of their partnership being the Ritz Hotel, Piccadilly, London (1906--09), Inveresk House, Aldwych, WC2 (1907), and the RAC Club, Pall Mall, SW1 (1908--11). Mewés died in 1914 and Davis, after serving in the First World War, went into partnership with C.H. Gage. In addition to his consultancy work with Willink and Thicknesse on the Cunard Building (1913--18) and his design of the war memorial outside, Davis was responsible for the decorations of the Aquitania, Laconia and Franconia, as well as some of the rooms on the Queen Mary, all for Cunard White Star. Throughout the ‘20s and ‘30s he designed a number of acclaimed buildings, including what is now the National Westminster Bank building in Threadneedle Street, London (1922--31), a design which earned him the London Street Architecture Medal in 1930. He also designed the Armenian Church of S. Sarkis at Iverna Gardens, W8 (1928) and Cunard House, Leadenhall Street, EC3 (1930). Davis was a member of the Royal Fine Art Commission, and was elected ARA in 1933 and RA in 1942. Also, he was Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (France) and was decorated with the Ordre de la Couronne avec Palmes (Belgium).
(sources: Builder [obit.], 27 May 1951; Gray, 1985; RIBA Journal [obit.], November 1951). [L 1997]

Edward Davis (1813--78)
Davis trained in the studio of Edward Hodges Baily and attended the Royal Academy Schools in 1833, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1834 until 1877. He specialised in portrait statues and busts: his statues include Duke of Rutland (1850), Sir William Nott (1851) and Josiah Wedgwood (Stoke-on-Trent, 1863), and his busts Duchess of Kent (1843) in the Royal Collection, and the painters, Daniel Maclise (1870) and John Constable (1874), both commissioned by the Royal Academy. His figure group, The Power of Law, was exhibited at Westminster Hall in 1844. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 he exhibited both Leicester’s Duke of Rutland statue and a marble group Venus and Cupid (now in Salford Art Gallery).
Sources: Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.327; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, pp.362--3; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964, p.122. [SBC2005]

Edward Davis (1813--78)
Born in Camarthen, he trained in the studio of E.H. Baily and attended the RA Schools in 1833, exhibiting at the RA, 1834--77. He specialised in portrait statues and busts, including a Statue of the Duke of Rutland for the Corn Exchange, Leicester (1851), and a Bust of William Rathbone for St George’s Hall, Liverpool (1857). He exhibited at the Liverpool Academy in 1837 (Bust of William Tooke) and 1838 (Bust of F. Raincock). At the Great Exhibition of 1851 he exhibited a marble group, Venus and Cupid (now Salford Art Gallery), and at the International Exhibition of 1862, a figure of Rebecca. The RA commissioned from him a Bust of Daniel Maclise in 1870 and a Bust of John Constable in 1874.
(source: Gunnis, 1951) [L 1997]

Edward Davis (1813--78)
Sculptor born in Carmarthen, Wales. He trained in the studio of Edward Hodges Baily and attended the Royal Academy Schools in 1833, exhibiting at the RA, 1834--77. He specialised in portrait statues and busts, his statues including those of Sir William Nott, 1851, Carmarthen, and Josiah Wedgwood, 1863, Stoke-on-Trent, and his busts, those of the Duchess of Kent, 1843, Royal Collection, William Rathbone, 1857, for St George’s Hall, Liverpool, and the painters Daniel Maclise, 1870, and John Constable, 1874, both commissioned by the RA. He also executed a number of church monuments, including those to Joseph Walley, 1851, St Luke’s Church, Lancaster, and to Colonel J. Bugle Delap, 1853, Church of the Assumption, Lillingstone Lovell, Buckinghamshire. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 he exhibited, in addition to Leicester’s Duke of Rutland Statue (see p.141--5), a marble group, Venus and Cupid (now Salford Art Gallery). At the International Exhibition of 1862, he exhibited a figure of Rebecca. He died 14 August 1878.
Sources
: Good, M. (comp.), 1995; Gunnis, R., [1964]. [LR 2000]

Alan Dawson (b.1947)
Artist blacksmith, specialising in architectural metalwork, site specific street furniture and monumental free-standing sculptures. He was born in Whitehaven, Cumbria, and initially studied woodwork at Loughborough College of Art. After teaching metalwork for three years in a secondary school, he moved to a craft village near Cape Wrath, in the far north of Scotland, where he ran a candlemaking business. After participating in the inaugural conference of the British Artist Blacksmiths Association in 1978, he began to specialise in hand-forged work, later establishing Alan Dawson Associates Ltd in Workington, Cumbria. In addition to his numerous public commissions in Britain, including an activated sculpture based on a typewriter mechanism in the Daily Express building in London (1990) and Delius Leaf in Bradford, he has also executed a pair of Peacock Gates for the Sultan of Brunei and the entrance gates to Disneyworld in Paris.
Sources: Chatwin, pp.92--103; information provided by the artist. [G2002]

Archibald C. Dawson (1892--1938)
Born in Hamilton, the son of an architectural carver, Mathew Dawson, with whom he initially trained. He studied at GSA, winning Haldane Trust awards between 1911--13. After war service in the Highland Light Infantry he returned to GSA, succeeding William Vickers (q.v.) as teacher of stone carving, 1920--38, with Alexander Proudfoot (q.v.) and James Gray as colleagues. He became Head of Modelling and Sculpture in 1929, and taught design, decorative art and figure pottery at the School of Architecture. He worked for the architectural carvers James Young & Son (q.v.) (later Dawson & Young), specialising in commercial and ecclesiastical buildings, among which were the early churches of Jack Coia. For the Russell Institute, Paisley (1924--7), he provided bronze groups using his wife and sons as models. He exhibited at the RGIFA, 1914--38, showing genre pieces and portrait busts, including J.M. Groundwater (1931) and Jack Coia (1933). A member of the Glasgow Art Club, he executed their War Memorial in 1922. He died at a friend’s house at 81 Nithsdale Drive, and is buried in an unmarked grave in the Necropolis. Elected ARSA in 1936, his work is represented in private and public collections, including HAG and GAGM.
Sources: GH, 18 April 1938, p.13 (obit.); Dawson. [G2002]

Bob Dawson (fl. 1900--48)
Dawson was a decorative designer and craftsman who was born in Bingley, Yorkshire. After studying at the Royal College of Art, he taught there for two years. Later, he was headmaster of Belfast Municipal School of Art (1901--18) and then became principal of Manchester’s equivalent school (1919--39). He had exhibitions at the RHA, the RA and the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool.
Source: Buckman, David, Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [WCS2003]

J. Daymond
Architectural and ornamental sculptor. The earliest recorded work by Daymond seems to be the elaborate foliage carving on the Union Club (originally Thatched House Club), St James’s Street, London (architect Knowles, 1862). A fireplace by ‘Daymond of London’ is at Thoresby, Lincs., built 1865--75 by Anthony Salvin. From around 1880, the name occurs frequently in connection with architectural projects in London. The architects with whom Daymond’s firm chiefly worked were John Norton, Davis and Emmanuel, Treadwell and Martin, Sir H. Tanner, G. Sherrin, and F.W. Marks. Already in 1881, in connection with their largest endeavour, the figurative sculpture on Davis and Emmanuel’s City of London School, it is referred to as J. Daymond and Son. The firm continued active under this name up to 1935 at its address in Edward Street, Vincent Square, Westminster. Advertisements for its products between 1901 and 1907, in the magazine Academy Architecture, include photographic illustrations of the workshop, with stone-carvers at work.
Sources: Buildings of England; the Post Office London Directory; and other sources referred to in the text of this book. [CL2003]

Michelle de Bruin (b.1967)
An art and design graduate from Lincoln College of Art, she also studied sculpture at GSA, 1986--9. In 1988, she showed work at student exhibitions in GSA and the Christmas Show, Compass Gallery, and participated in the Sandstone Sculpture Project, College Lands, Glasgow. She is a frequent collaborator with Callum Sinclair (q.v.).
Source: Scott, p.30. [G2002]

Fiore De Henriques (b.1921?)
Very few biographical details are known about this half-Italian and half-Spanish sculptor. She exhibited bronze portrait heads at the RA in 1950 and 1955 and took part in the Festival of Britain touring exhibition, Skill of the British People, 1951. She exhibited at the Hanover Gallery, London 1957. Probably moving to America in the late 1950s, her work was shown at the Hutton Gallery, New York 1959. She was described in the Birmingham local press as ‘an unconventional cheroot-smoking Italian who lived in America’. Works include portrait busts of Princess Margaret, Adlai Stevenson, John Kennedy, Lord Olivier, Lady Egremont and Augustus John, many of which were exhibited in a garden in Cheyne Walk, London in 1975, her first exhibition in London for 25 years.
1
. Art News, vol.58, no.50, March 1959, p.60; 2. RAE, London, vol.II, 1973, p.145; 3. N. Banks-Smith, ‘Fiore de Henriquez’, Guardian, 24th July 1978, p.8; 4. T. Mullaly, ‘Magical setting for portrait sculpture’, Daily Telegraph, 25th September 1975. [B1998]

Paul De Monchaux (b.1934)
De Monchaux studied at the Art Students’ League, New York from 1952 to 1954, then at the Slade School of Fine Art from 1955 to 1958. His first works were exhibited at the Institute of Contemporary Art in 1961. He has received an Arts Council Major Award (1980) and the Northern Electric Environment Award (1990). Before retiring in 1986 to work full time as a sculptor he taught at Goldsmith’s College between 1960 and 1965, and was Head of Sculpture and Fine Art at Camberwell.
Sources: [i] press release, 3 June 1999 [ii] letter, colour images and copies of designs for his works from the artist, 3 June 1999. [WCS2003]

Josefina de Vasconcellos (b.1904)
The daughter of the Brazilian Consul-General to Great Britain, she studied at Regent Street Polytechnic under Brownsward, the RA schools, the French Academy under Andreotti and Bourdelle’s studio in Paris. She has exhibited at the Royal Academy, and has a studio in Ambleside. She is a founder member of the Society of Portrait Sculptors.
Source: Buckman, David, Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [WCS2003]

Richard Deacon (b.1949)
Deacon studied at Somerset College of Art (1968--9), St Martin’s School of Art (1969--72), the Royal College of Art (1974--7) and Chelsea School of Art (1977--8). Whilst a student Deacon became interested in the modernist ideas of William Tucker who was teaching at St Martin’s. Tucker conceived of sculpture as an autonomous object with a poetic dimension. Deacon was also influenced by the writings of Donald Judd, an American artist, who proposed a new category to replace sculpture, the ‘specific object’ grounded in reality. This relationship between the literal and the metaphoric in sculpture has dominated Deacon’s work. He uses simple armatures to allude to poetic and lyrical ideas, normally drawn from literature. Deacon’s works tend to incorporate unlikely non-art materials such as linoleum, leather and laminated wood that he glues, rivets or bends in an elegant and craftsmanlike manner. His many one-man exhibitions include the Royal College of Art (1975--6), the Tate Gallery (1985), the Whitechapel Gallery (1989) and the ‘New World Order’ at the Tate Gallery, Liverpool (1999). He won the Turner prize in 1997.
Sources: Whitechapel Art Gallery, Richard Deacon, London, 1988; Ades, D. and Amor, M., Richard Deacon: Esculturas y dibujos 1984--95, London, 1996; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, VI, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1990; Deacon, Richard, For those who have eyes: Richard Deacon sculpture 1980--86: a touring exhibition, Aberystwyth, 1986. [WCS2003]

Richard Deacon (b.1949)
One of the ‘New British Sculptors’ represented by the Lisson Gallery in the 1980s. Deacon’s works tend to incorporate unlikely non-art materials such as linoleum, leather and laminated wood which he glues, rivets or bends in an elegant and craftsmanlike manner. Their forms seem to be derived from those of 1960s Modernist sculpture but at the same time, disconcertingly, to make metaphorical reference to the body and its methods of gathering information.
Trained at Somerset College of Art, St Martin’s and the Royal College of Art 1968--77, Deacon went on to teach at Chelsea and Winchester in the 1980s. His many one-man exhibitions include: Royal College of Art, 1975--6; Tate Gallery, 1985; Madrid and Antwerp, 1987--8; Whitechapel Gallery, 1989--90; Marian Goodman Gallery, New York, 1990 and ‘New World Order’ at the Tate Gallery, Liverpool, 1999. Deacon won the Turner Prize in 1997.
[
1] Turner (ed.), vol.8, p.584. [2] Thompson, J., Richard Deacon, London, 1995. [3] Tate Gallery, New World Order -- Richard Deacon, (exhib. cat.), Liverpool, 1999. [4] Buckman, p.340. [NE 2000]

Andy DeComyn (b.1966)
Andy DeComyn has worked as a sculptor since 1985, when he left Bournville College of Art with a BTec Diploma in Three-Dimensional Design. Following his training in life sculpture under Stuart Osborne RA during 1987, he has received a number of major commissions, including the life-size figure of a child for Acorns Children’s Hospice, Birmingham (1998), Shot at Dawn (2000) and the Berlin Airlift Memorial (2001) for the National Memorial Arboretum, Alrewas, Staffordshire, and the WWI Pipers Memorial at Longeuval on the Somme (2002).
Sources: Artist’s website, accessed 24 November 2003, www.publicart.co.uk; Information provided by the artist, 2001. [SBC2005]

Mark Delf (b.1959)
A graduate of fine art, Mark Delf studied figurative sculpture at the Sir Henry Doulton School of Sculpture at Stoke-on-Trent. In 1988 he received a scholarship from the Italian Cultural Institute to work for a year at the Brera Academy in Milan. His work was first shown at Keele University alongside an important exhibition by Elisabeth Frink.
Source: Information provided by the sculptor’s father, 2001. [SBC2005]

Helen Denerley (b.1956)
Born in Roslin, Midlothian, she studied at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, 1973--7, becoming a sculptor utilising farming implements, industrial machinery and scrap metal. Her early commissions include Musical Play Sculpture, for Aberdeen City Council (1977), Sundial in Steel and Granite, Sheltered Housing Complex, Inverurie (1991) and sculpture for the Princess Royal Trust Carers’ Centre, Aberdeen (1994). A founder member of Aberdeen Community Arts Association, 1982, she was Director of Upper Donside Community Trust and Strathfest, 1989--94. She has exhibited regularly since the late 1970s, and her recent work, Millie (1999), modelled on her own horse and symbolising the working relationship between humans and animals over the past 1,000 years, was shown at the West of England Art Fair, Bath, 1999.
Sources: Scotsman, 12 May 1999, p.26; information provided by the artist. [G2002]

John Macduff Derick (1805--59)
Irish-born architect who became an exponent of the Gothic Revival style in the early days of its development. A pupil of Sir John Soane, Derick’s busy architectural practice was concentrated chiefly upon ecclesiastical works. At one time, he was working simultaneously upon buildings in Oxford, London and Dublin. One of his more significant works was the design of the church of St Saviour, Leeds (1842--5). Derick was one of the original promoters of the Architectural Society of Oxford, and restored several of the colleges there. He was also a member of the Royal Hibernian Academy, and a personal friend of both Chantrey and Pugin. In 1858, he moved to the United States to renew his architectural practice following a period of illness, but died of poor health the following year.
Source: Mottram, P., ‘John Macduff Derick: A Biographical Sketch’ in Ecclesiology Today, issue 32, January 2004, pp.40--52. [SBC2005]

Avtarjeet Dhanjal (b.1940)
Dhanjal trained at the Government College of Arts in Chandigarh, India. He taught at the University of Nairobi in East Africa during the early 1970s before coming to the UK to study at St Martin’s School of Art in London. It was after he returned to the Punjab in 1978 that he came to develop a form of sculpture that drew upon the cultural life of the village in which he was brought up. He has since worked on a number of regional and international projects which take as their starting points environmental or community concerns. In 1980, he organised the First International Sculpture Symposium in India, where he has many works sited outdoors. These include his first site-specific work, Technology and Nature (1980, Punjabi University, Patiala), in which the shape is based on the ground plan of an Indian temple with its processional entry. This structure can be seen in many of Dhanjal’s public artworks, notably Dunstall Henge (1986). Dhanjal shares a concern to use natural objects in his work with artists such as Richard Long and Andrew Goldsworthy. His more recent sculptures in slate during the 1990s relate to his memories of childhood in a rural Punjabi village. He has exhibited widely throughout the UK as well as in India, Brazil, Italy, Germany and the United States. His public commissions include Along the Trail, National Garden Festival, Stoke-on-Trent (1986); Dunstall Henge, Peace Green, Wolverhampton (1986); Eroded Pyramid, Seneley’s Park, Birmingham (1989); and Interpreting the I-Ching, Maltings Park, Cardiff (1996).
Sources: AXIS, The Axis Database Online, 1999, www.axisartists.org.uk/; Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery Records; Dhanjal, A., Fire, Water, Stone and Silence, Border Press, 1989; McAvera, B., Avtarjeet Dhanjal, exhib. cat., Institute of International Visual Arts, London, 1997; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.190; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.252f.; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984, p.267; Welsh Sculpture Trust, Sculpture in a Country Park, Margam (Wales), 1983, pp.84--7. [SBC2005]

Avtarjeet Dhanjal (b.1939)
Dhanjal first trained as a signwriter before studying sculpture at the Government College of Arts in Chandigarh. He taught in East Africa before coming to the United Kingdom to study at St Martin’s School of Art in London. He now lives and works in Ironbridge, Shropshire. He organised the First International Sculpture Symposium in India, where he has many works sited outdoors. He has worked on a number of regional and international projects that take as their starting points environmental or community concerns. His work is in collections in the United Kingdom, Brazil, Sloveneja, and India. Works include: Grown in the Field, Warwick University Arts Centre (1978); Untitled, Bodicote House, Cherwell District Council, Oxfordshire (1981); Along the Trail, slate and rope, National Garden Festival, Stoke-on-Trent (1986).
Sources: Welsh Sculpture Trust, Sculpture in a Country Park, Margam (Wales), 1983; AXIS, The Axis Database Online, www.axisartists.org.uk/, 1999; Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery Records; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984; CWN Coventry and Warwickshire Network, Coventry Canal Basin. [WCS2003]

Avterjeet Dhanjal (b.1939)
Born in Dalla, in the Punjab region of India, Dhanjal studied sculpture at Chandigarh Art School and now lives and works in Ironbridge, Shropshire. He organised the First International Sculpture Symposium in India, where he has many works sited outdoors. He has worked on a number of regional and international projects which take as their starting points environmental or community concerns. Works include: Grown in the Field, Warwick University Arts Centre 1978; Untitled, Bodicote House, Cherwell District Council, Oxon. 1981; Along the Trail, slate and rope, National Garden Festival, Stoke-on-Trent 1986.
1
. BMAG records; 2. Welsh Sculpture Trust, Sculpture in a country park, Margam, Wales, 1983, pp.84--7; 3. Strachan, 1984, p.267. [B1998]

Mark Di Suvero (b.1933)
Born in Shanghai to Italian parents, Di Suvero’s family emigrated to the USA when he was seven. He studied philosophy at the University of California and moved to New York in 1957 where he started to make sculptures out of raw blocks of wood at the same time as he became interested in the work of the Abstract Expressionist painters and the sculptor David Smith. After an accident in 1960 which left him wheelchair-bound for two years, he developed a more monumental scale of sculpture, using steel I-beams and cables, which he often painted in bright colours. He campaigned actively against the Vietnam War (his Tower of Peace, 1966, was removed from its site in Los Angeles) and left America in 1971 for self-imposed exile in Europe. He returned in 1975, establishing a gallery in Soho, New York and promoting the creation of the Socrates Sculpture Park; later he set up a studio for visiting artists in Chalon-sur-Saône in France. In 1975 he was the first living artist to have a solo exhibition in the Jardin des Tuileries in Paris, and his works can now be found in many major collections in both the USA and Europe.
[
1] Turner (ed.), vol.9, pp.39--40. [2] Osterwold, T., Mark Di Suvero (exhib. cat.), Stuttgart, 1988. [NE 2000]

Shirley Diamond
Sculptor. Studied at art school in Kingston upon Hull and Manchester Metropolitan University. Residencies in universities at Perth and Newcastle, Australia. Exhibitions at Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester and Yorkshire Sculpture Park. Awarded Henry Moore Foundation Bursary, 1996.
Source: artist. [Man2004]

Sir William Reid Dick (1879--1961)
Sculptor. Born in Glasgow. Served apprenticeship as a stonemason before studying at Glasgow School of Art (1906--7). Established studio in London and began exhibiting at the RA in 1908. Works before 1914 included The Catapult (RA, 1911). After the war contributed to a number of war memorials, notably the gigantic lion on the Menin Gate (Ypres, 1927). He worked with leading architects including Lutyens and Blomfield. At Port Sunlight he contributed to the memorial to Lord Leverhulme, architect James Lomax Simpson. He executed the sculpture for the Kitchener Memorial Chapel (St Paul’s Cathedral, 1922--5). He became ARA in 1921, RA in 1928, and served as President of the RSBS 1933--8. He was knighted in 1935. As the King’s Sculptor in Ordinary in Scotland from 1938, and then the Queen’s Sculptor, he produced many statues and busts of the royal family, including George V in Old Palace Yard, Westminster. Franklin D. Roosevelt in Grosvenor Square and Sir John Soane at the Bank of England are among his other London statues. Regent’s Park is the location of his Boy with Frog Fountain (1936). His bronze Lady Godiva was unveiled in Coventry in 1949. His other works include a bust of Sir Edward Lutyens and a statue of Our Lady of Liverpool, both of 1933, and statues of Lord Duveen and the Countess of Jersey.
Sources: DNB; Fell, 1945; McKenzie, 2002; Ward-Jackson, 2003. [Man2004]

Sir William Reid Dick (1878--1961)
Born in Glasgow, he served a five-year apprenticeship in a stonemason’s yard, and trained in the Glasgow School of Art (1906--7). In 1907 he came to London, and started exhibiting at the RA in the following year. In his pre-war statuettes, such as The Catapult (RA 1911) and The Kelpie (RA 1914), he showed remarkable skill in figure composition in the round. From 1916 to 1918 he performed military service in France and Palestine. As a sculptor of First World War memorials, Dick’s most impressive contribution was the gigantic lion crowning the Menin Gate at Ypres, erected in 1927. Between the wars, he distinguished himself with monumental architectural sculptures, many of them for City buildings. His magnum opus, the sculpture for the Kitchener Memorial Chapel in St Paul’s (1922--5), is also in the City, though not within the scope of this volume. He collaborated with the architects Edwin Lutyens, Sir John Burnet, James Lomax Simpson and Reginald Blomfield. He was President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors from 1933 to 1938. In 1938 he became the King’s (later the Queen’s) Sculptor in Ordinary for Scotland. He executed effigies of George V and Queen Mary for St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and later, in 1947, the standing figure of George V for Old Palace Yard, Westminster. His public sculpture from the post-war years also includes the equestrian Lady Godiva for Coventry (c.1950) and Franklin D. Roosevelt for Grosvenor Square, London (1950).
Source, DNB (S.C. Hutchison). [CL2003]

Sir William Reid Dick (1879--1961)
Glasgow-born sculptor of figures, portraits and public monuments who lived for most of his working life in London. He served an apprenticeship with James C. Young and James Harrison Mackinnon (qq.v.) before receiving formal training at GSA and the City and Guilds School of Art, London. A regular exhibitor at the RGIFA, the RSA and the RA from 1912, he was elected RA in 1928 and president of the RBS in 1915. Major works include the equestrian group Controlled Energy on Unilever House, London and Godiva in Coventry, as well as studio pieces such as Androdus (1919) and Dawn (1921) in the Tate Britain Gallery. He was knighted in 1935, was King’s Sculptor in Ordinary from 1938 and Queen’s Sculptor from 1952.
Source: Buckman [G2002]

Roger Dickinson (b.1960)
Studied at Sunderland Polytechnic (1979--82) and Newcastle Polytechnic (1989--91). He was an assistant to Raf Fulcher and George Carter from 1983 to 1988. Subsequently he has worked on a number of exhibitions and public art projects in the Northern region both as an artist and as an administrator.
[
1] Information provided by artist, 1998. [NE 2000]

Michael Disley (b.1962)
Sculptor in stone. Studied at Sunderland Polytechnic and Trent Polytechnic 1981--6. He has worked in Britain and in Japan, but most of his major commissions and residencies have been in Northern England.
[
1] Information provided by Cleveland Arts and by artist, 1999. [NE 2000]

Frank Dobson (1887--1963)
Sculptor and painter. The son of a painter, Dobson trained at the Leyton School of Art, the Hospitalfields Art Institute (Arbroath), and the City and Guilds School in Kennington. He worked as a studio assistant to William Reynolds-Stephens, but also made contact with members of the Newlyn School on painting trips to Cornwall. His first exhibition at the Chenil Gallery in 1914 consisted entirely of paintings and drawings. Dobson’s early works in sculpture date from around this time. His first carvings and modelled works indicate familiarity with the sculpture of Gauguin and the Nabis, though his knowledge appears to have been derived entirely from art periodicals. Dobson also met Wyndham Lewis at this point, and during the 1920s he was to exhibit with the Vorticists, and to figure in their literature. Vorticist clarity and formal dynamism are present in such works as Two Heads of 1921 (stone, Courtauld Institute Galleries, London). In the mid-twenties Dobson returned to the simple classical monumentalism, which was to define his art for the rest of his life. This monumentalism can be found even in his small statuettes and sketches, mostly of the female figure. A late example of Dobson’s ‘Mediterranean’ classicism is the group named London Pride, which he modelled for the Festival of Britain in 1951. A later bronze cast of this is now outside the National Theatre, London. Dobson was Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art from 1946 to 1953.
Source: N. Jason and L. Thompson-Pharoah, The Sculpture of Frank Dobson, Much Hadham, 1994. [CL2003]

John Dobson (1787--1865)
Prolific Newcastle architect, mainly in the classical style. He was a pupil of the architect David Stephenson in Newcastle and also studied drawing with John Varley in London. The region’s prosperity in the early nineteenth century saw him establish an extensive North-East practice with many country houses, public buildings and churches to his name. In Newcastle he designed the original Eldon Square 1825--31, the Grainger Market 1835--6 and part of Grey Street 1836--9.
[
1] Faulkner, T. and Greg, A., John Dobson, Newcastle Architect 1787--1865, Newcastle, 1987. [2] Colvin, pp.263--8. [3] DBArch, pp.253--4. [NE 2000]

Julienne Dolphin-Wilding (b.1960)
Wilding is an applied artist and designer who studied furniture production at the London College of Furniture (1984) and three-dimensional design at Middlesex University (1985--8). She has taught furniture design at Kingston University since 1998, and is well known for her large-scale one-off chairs made from a wide selection of materials, including yew and recycled wood, metal and stone. Her concerns are environmental, and work within an ecological framework is evident in her diverse portfolio. Her work includes garden design and construction, water features and site-specific sculptures as well as furniture of all types. As well as working on public art commissions including large-scale chairs and a bed for the National Garden Festival in Gateshead (1990), an Outdoor Room for the Black Country Route near Bilston (1996) and a quartz crystal flood wall for the Loch Lomond National Park (2001), she has also undertaken a variety of high profile retail projects, notably for shops in Covent Garden. Since 1988, she has exhibited extensively in the UK, Spain and Japan.
Sources: Curriculum vitae from the artist, 2001; Purdie, D., Public Art on the Black Country Route, 1997, http://wavespace.waverider.co.uk/~scotdave; Wolverhampton City Council, Black Country Route Sculptures, CD ROM, Wolverhampton, 2001. [SBC2005]

Charles Leighfield J. Doman (1884--1944)
He studied at the Nottingham School of Art, winning the 1st National Scholarship in sculpture in 1906, and moving on to the Royal College of Art. In 1908 he won two further scholarships, including the Royal College’s travelling scholarship. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1909 to 1944. A number of his exhibits were imaginary subject pieces, taking the form of garden sculptures or statuettes. In 1910 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. Doman worked as an assistant to the architectural sculptor Albert Hemstock Hodge, and after the older sculptor’s death in 1919, executed work which Hodge had conceived for the architect Edwin Cooper’s Port of London Authority Building. This led on to further work for Cooper, mostly in the City of London. However Doman’s most ambitious work as an architectural sculptor was the frieze representing Britannia with the Wealth of East and West, carried out in collaboration with T.J. Clapperton for the attic parapet of Liberty’s shop in Regent Street (1924), for the architects E.T. and E.S. Hall.
Sources: G.M.Waters, Dictionary of British Artists Working 1900--1950, Eastbourne, 1975; J. Johnson and A. Greutzner, The Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976. [CL2003]

Arthur Dooley (1929--94)
Liverpool-born sculptor of mainly religious subjects. Before studying sculpture he was an apprentice welder at Birkenhead Shipyards, a heavyweight boxing champion in the Irish Guards, a factory worker and a cleaner at St Martin’s School of Art, London. He trained at the School from 1953, and began exhibiting in 1962 with a solo show at St Martin’s Gallery. He worked mostly in bronze or scrap metal, receiving commissions from churches in England, Spain and Latin America. He was a Roman Catholic and a Communist, but also a passionate admirer of the Beatles, whom he commemorated with Four Lads Who Shook the World in Mathew Street, Liverpool (1974).
Source: Cavanagh, p.327. [G2002]

Arthur Dooley (1929--94)
Born in Liverpool, he was at various times an apprentice welder at the Birkenhead shipyards, heavyweight boxing champion of the Irish Guards, worker at Dunlop’s Speke factory, and a cleaner at St Martin’s School of Art, London. It was while working at this last job (from 1953) that he started studying art. He had his first one-man show at St Martin’s Gallery, London, in 1962, but generally eschewed the London art world. He was born a Protestant, but converted to Catholicism in 1945 (remarkably joining the Communist Party at the same time). Much of his best work has been executed for churches, the most accomplished of which is generally considered to be the Stations of the Cross for St Mary’s Church, Leyland, Lancashire. He also executed work for churches in Latin America and Spain. His apprenticeship as a welder gave him experience in working with metals and his most characteristic work is usually in bronze or scrap metal. One of his latest works was a bronze sculpture of St Mary of the Key, 1993, for Liverpool Parish Church. His work is represented in the collections of the University of Liverpool and the WAG. He also executed the sculpture of Christ outside the Methodist Church, Princes Avenue.
(sources: Echo [obit.] 8 January 1994; Guardian [obit.] 17 January 1994.) [L 1997]

John Doubleday (b. 1947)
Sculptor, born in Essex. Following a period of several months in Paris where he sketched at the Musée Bourdelle, he attended first Carlisle School of Art and then Goldsmith’s College of Art. He has exhibited regularly since 1967 in Britain, Holland, and Germany. He had his first one-man exhibition at Wolverhampton Art Gallery in 1975, and is represented in the British Museum, the V&A, the National Museum of Wales and elsewhere. His bronze Statue of Sir Charles Chaplin was erected in Leicester Square, London, in 1981.
(sources: Byron, 1981; Spalding, 1990) [L1997]

Doulton & Co. (1815--)
Established as a pottery by John Doulton in 1815 at Vauxhall, London, the firm became Henry Doulton & Co., of Lambeth, in 1858. They patented improvements in the production of stoneware, earthenware and china, and won medals for their work at major international exhibitions. The firm flourished when terracotta was adopted by architects as a durable and easily produced building material, showcase examples being Alfred Waterhouse’s Natural History Museum, London (1873--81) and the firm’s own Lambeth headquarters. They produced statues, medallions, busts and other ornamental work from studios staffed by male and female crafts workers and students from the London art schools, all of whom were supervised by the chief designer A.E. Pearce and chief modeller George Tinwoth (qq.v.). Their work in Scotland includes a series of tiles of Famous Inventors in the Café Royal, Edinburgh (1901). The Lambeth works closed in 1956, but the company continues today at Burslem, Staffordshire (est. 1882).
Sources: Atterbury and Irvine, passim; Godden, pp.192--6. [G2002]

Abigail Downer
London-based sculptor and part-time lecturer in Southwark. She received a number of travel bursaries in the 1980s and went on to have solo shows in Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery, 1988; Newcastle Polytechnic, 1990; and in Huddersfield, 1995. Works by Downer can be found in Denby Dale, Derbyshire, 1995; and Kirklees, 1996.
[
1] AXIS, Artists Register, 1999. [NE 2000]

Francis William Doyle-Jones (1873--1938)
Born in West Hartlepool, he was trained at the South Kensington School, under Edouard Lanteri. He made his début at the Royal Academy in 1903, with subjects relating to the recent Boer War. He created Boer War memorials for Middlesbrough (1904), West Hartlepool (1905), Llanelli (1905), Gateshead (1905), and Penrith (1906). He later made at least four Second World War memorials, including that at Gravesend, Kent, with a figure of Victory, and that at Sutton Coldfield (1922), with a figure of a typical private soldier. A large proportion of Doyle-Jones’s RA exhibits were portraits. His public monuments, apart from those put up in memory of journalists in Fleet Street, include Captain Webb (1910) at Dover, and Robert Burns (1914) at Galashiels. In 1936, his portrait bust of Edward VIII as Prince of Wales was presented to the Stationers’ Company. Doyle-Jones exhibited with the International Society, the Royal Hibernian Society, the Glasgow Institute, and the Walker Art Gallery.
Sources: J. Johnson and A. Greutzner, Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976; G.T. Noszlopy and J. Beach, Public Monuments of Birmingham, Liverpool, 1998. [CL2003]

Francis William Doyle-Jones (1873--1938)
Born in West Hartlepool, 11th November 1873, he died in London, 10th May 1938. Pupil of Edouard Lanteri (1848--1917), who succeeded Jules Dalou as master of sculpture at the National Art Training School (now the Royal College of Art). Doyle-Jones, who had studios in Chelsea, specialised in war memorials and portrait sculpture. His South African War Memorials include those for Middlesborough 1904; West Hartlepool 1905; Llanelly 1905; Gateshead 1905 and Penrith 1906. He designed and sculpted at least four World War I memorials, including Gravesend War Memorial, in the form of a figure of Victory. Models of two memorial statuettes were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1921. Portrait busts and medallions include: Captain Webb Memorial, Dover 1910; Robert Burns, bust, Galashiels 1914; T.P. O’Conner, Fleet Street 1934; Edgar Wallace, Ludgate Circus 1934. Exhibited at the RA 1903--36 as well as the International Society, the Royal Hibernian Society, the Glasgow Institute and the Walker Art Gallery.
1
. ‘Captain Webb Memorial at Dover’, Building News, vol.98, no.2893, 17th June 1910, p.825; 2. RAE, vol.IV, Wakefield, 1979, p.153; 3. J. Johnson, and A. Greutzner, Dictionary of British artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1976, p.154. [B1998]

Kenneth Draper (b. 1944)
Sculptor and painter born at Killamarsh, near Sheffield, Yorkshire. He studied at Chesterfield College of Art, 1959--62, Kingston School of Art, 1962--5 (painting until 1964, then sculpture), and the Royal College of Art, 1965--8. In 1965 he was awarded the Young Contemporaries Prize for Sculpture and in 1971 the Mark Rothko Memorial Award (travel bursary to the USA). He had his first solo exhibition at the Redfern Gallery, London, 1969, a retrospective was held at the Warwick Arts Trust in 1981, and he had a solo exhibition in the USA in 1991, at the Glen Green Gallery, Santa Fe. Among the group exhibitions in which his work was featured are ‘British Sculptors ’72’, Royal Academy, 1972, and the ‘Silver Jubilee Contemporary British Sculpture’ exhibition, Battersea Park, 1977. From 1976 he taught at Goldsmiths’ School of Art and, from 1977, at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts. His public commissions include sculpture, 1972--3, for the John Dalton Building, Manchester Polytechnic, and Oriental Gateway, 1977--8, Bradford University. He was elected ARA in 1990 and RA in 1991. Examples of his work are in the Arts Council collection, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, the Cartwright Museum and Art Gallery, Bradford, and the Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; The Minories, 1982; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

Conrad Dressler (1856--1940)
Sculptor and potter. He was born in London of German descent and studied at the National Art Training School under Edward Lanteri during the early 1880s. He exhibited at the RA from 1883. In 1886 he stayed at Coniston with Ruskin, receiving encouragement which influenced his future stylistic development. From 1891 he was a member of the Art Workers Guild. In December 1893 he set up the Della Robbia Pottery at Birkenhead with Harold Rathbone and, in 1897, joined Medmenham Pottery at Marlow. He was elected FRBS in 1905.
(sources: Beattie, 1983; Johnson & Greutzner, 1976; Waters, 1975) [L 1997]

Judith Holmes Drewry
Leicestershire-based sculptor, principally of portraits. She studied at Norwich Art School before attending San Francisco Art Institute on an English Speaking Union exchange scholarship to the USA. Apart from her work in Leicestershire, Drewry’s public commissions include a sculpture, 1989, for the Woolwich Building Society head offices, London; a Memorial to the Home Guard, 1996, Lyndhurst, Surrey; and sculpture features for the Hampton Court Flower Show, 1997, and Chelsea Flower Show, 1998. She casts all her own sculptures at Le Blanc Fine Art, the foundry she runs in collaboration with her husband and fellow sculptor, Lloyd Le Blanc.
Sources
: information from Le Blanc Fine Art; L. Mercury, 22 April 1994, p.18. [LR 2000]

Driver and Webber
Architects. Charles Henry Driver (1832--1900), worked with Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (1819--91). ARIBA 1867, FRIBA 1872. Exhibited at the RA. With Bazalgette he designed pumping stations at Crossness and Abbey Mills and also worked on the Victoria Embankment. Also designed many of the stations on the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. Worked for the Metropolitan Board of Works on drainage covers and ornamental lamps. Designed Buenos Aires station with Edward Wood, along with the pier at Nice. Designed memorial to Sir Tatton Sykes and many private houses. Was an active Freemason and designed the Mark Masons Hall in St James’s Street, London.
Source: Felstead, 1993. [Man2004]

Gary Drostle -- see ‘Wallscapes’ [LR 2000]

Alfred Drury (1856--1944)
Born in London, Drury studied sculpture at the South Kensington School under the French instructors, Jules Dalou and Edouard Lanteri. Between 1881 and 1885, he worked in Dalou’s Paris studio as an assistant, and, on returning to London, showed a Triumph of Silenus at the Royal Academy, which was strongly marked by the French sculptor’s influence. Work with J.E. Boehm and emulation of his contemporaries, such as Alfred Gilbert and George Frampton, helped him to form his own style. For his poetic pieces and allegories, Drury invented a characteristic female type. This proved most popular in the fanciful and dreamy busts of young girls, entitled Griselda and The Age of Innocence, both of which were frequently reproduced in bronze. Drury’s many architectural commissions include the colossal allegorical groups on the War Office in Whitehall (1904). After the First World War he executed a number of war memorials. His most successful public statues were of historical figures, Richard Hooker for Exeter (1907), Elizabeth Fry for the Old Bailey (1913), and Joshua Reynolds for the forecourt of Burlington House.
Source: S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983. [CL2003]

[Edward] Alfred Briscoe Drury (1856--1944)
Born in London, 1856 and died there in 1944. He studied at Oxford School of Art and the National Art Training School. An outstanding student, he was awarded the gold medal for his sculpture in 1879, 1880 and 1881, and then became assistant to Dalou in Paris 1881--5. On his return to London, he worked as an assistant to Boehm. Taught briefly at Wimbledon School of Art 1892--3. Public commissions include figures of Morning and Evening for City Square, Leeds 1898; Peace, Truth and Justice for the War Office, Whitehall, London 1904--5; architectural sculpture for the Victoria and Albert Museum 1908; statue of Joshua Reynolds, Burlington House (Royal Academy) courtyard, London 1932. He produced numerous portrait busts, statuettes and memorials, including Queen Victoria, Bradford 1902. Exhibited at the RA 1885--1945. Awarded a gold medal at the Paris International Exhibition 1900; ARA 1900; RA 1913; Associate of Royal Belgian Academy 1923; RBS silver medal 1932.
1
. A.L. Baldry, ‘A notable sculptor: Alfred Drury, ARA’, The Studio, vol.37, February 1906, pp.3--18; 2. M.H. Spielmann, British sculpture and sculptors today, London, 1901, pp.109--15; 3. Beattie, 1983, p.242; 4. E.G. Underwood, A short history of English sculpture, London, 1933. [B1998]

Chris Drury (b. 1948)
Sculptor. Born in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Educated at Camberwell School of Art (1966--70). Began as a figurative and animal sculptor, but after 1974, influenced by Hamish Fulton, became interested in landscape art. Solo exhibitions include ‘Silent Spaces’, Janus Avivson Gallery, New York (1998) and ‘Shelter’ at Fabrica in Brighton (1999). Site-specific works include Vortex (Lewes Castle, Sussex, 1994), Wave Chamber (Kielder Reservoir, Northumberland, 1996), Shimanto River Spheres (Kochi Province, Japan, 1997), Coming Full Circle (Stacksteads, Irwell Sculpture Trail, 2001, and Eden Cloud Chamber (Eden Project, Cornwall, 2001). Awards include the Pollock-Krasner Award, 1995.
Sources: artist; Drury, 1998. [Man2004]

Chris Drury (b.1948)
Sculptor who uses natural materials to create baskets, cairns and shelter forms. Trained at the Camberwell School of Art 1966--70, Drury has exhibited in Europe, America and Japan since the early 1980s. His works include: Cedar Log Sky Chamber, Kochi, Japan (1996); Copice Cloud Chamber, Kings Wood, Kent (1997); Hut of the Shadow, Lochmaddy North Uist (1997); Tree Vortex, Odsherred Denmark (1998).
[
1] Information supplied by the artist, 1998. [2] Buckman, p.371. [NE 2000]

Dryad Metal Works (active c.1925--1970s)
Firm of art metalworkers owned by Harry Hardy Peach, based originally at St Nicholas Street, Leicester.
Sources
: Kelly’s Directory of . . . Leicester and Rutland (edns from 1925--71). [LR 2000]

Wilfred Dudeney (b. 1911)
Born in Leicester, son of Leonard Dudeney, journalist, he was educated at St Paul’s School. He studied at the Central School under the sculptor Alfred Turner. He occupied a number of teaching posts. He was Assistant Professor at the National College of Art in Dublin in 1938--9, and his last teaching job was at Isleworth Polytechnic. He exhibited with the New English Art Club and at the RA. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1952. He lived in London.
Source: D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists Since 1945, Bristol, 1998; Who’s Who in Art, 7th edn, London, 1954. [CL2003]

Wilfred Dudeney (b.1911)
He was born in Leicester and educated at St Paul’s School. From 1928 to 1933, he studied with Alfred Turner at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. Living in London, he held a number of teaching positions, including one at Isleworth Polytechnic, Middlesex. He has exhibited at the RA, NEAC, RHA, and elsewhere. In 1952 he was elected a Fellow of the RBS. His works include Boy and Ram, Derby (1963). His Falcon is illustrated in Eric Newton’s British Sculpture 1944--1946.
Source: Buckman, David, Dictionary of Artist in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [WCS2003]

Samuel Dunckley (d. 1714)
Mason based in Warwick, where he was employed in the rebuilding of St Mary’s Church following the fire of 1694. He is solely credited with the design, building and carving of the portal of the church’s Beauchamp Chapel in what Colvin has described as ‘an elaborate and remarkably convincing Gothic style’.
Source
: Colvin, H., 1978. [LR 2000]

Alfred Dunn (b. 1927)
Sculptor, printmaker and teacher born in Wombwell, Yorkshire. He studied at Barnsley and Leeds schools of art and then, 1959--61, at the Royal College of Art, later becoming senior tutor there. He had his first solo exhibition at the Redfern Gallery, 1965, since which time he has shown both in England and on the continent (Germany and Italy). His Together, 1974, painted mild steel, was purchased for the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

Chris Dunseath (b.1949)
Dunseath trained at Gloucestershire College of Art and Design (1968--71) and the Slade School of Fine Art (1971--3). From 1974 until 1999, he taught sculpture at Coventry School of Art and Design, becoming Head of Sculpture in 1986. Since 1974, he has exhibited widely throughout England and Wales. Over the years, his sculpture has been made from a wide variety of materials, including wood, stone and bronze. Although the majority of his work is abstract, his public sculptures tend to be figurative and cast in bronze. These include Hand and Cross (1989, West Bromwich) and Spirit of the Waterfront (1992, Brierley Hill). His most recent work reflects his interest in certain aspects of theoretical physics, and includes Light Trap (1998), Black Loop (1998) and Double Wormhole (2000). In 1993 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Society of British Sculptors, later becoming a member of the Society of Portrait Sculptors (1997).
Sources: AXIS, The Axis Database Online, 1999, www.axisartists.org.uk/; Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.378; Information from records held at Dudley Public Art Resource Unit, Himley Hall, Dudley, 2001. [SBC2005]

Susan Durant (d. 1873)
She was born in Devon. After taking lessons in studios in Rome, and studying in Paris with the romantic sculptor, Henri de Triqueti, she set up her own studio in London in 1847. Thereafter Durant exhibited a number of ideal and imaginary subjects at the Royal Academy. The only work of this type by her known today is her Faithful Shepherdess (1863) commissioned for the Egyptian Hall of the Mansion House, but she exhibited The Chief Mourner and Belisarius at the Great Exhibition in 1851, and lent a statue of Robin Hood to the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition in 1857. After Prince Albert’s death she was introduced, probably by Triqueti, to Queen Victoria, and became sculpture instructor to the young Princess Louise. She contributed a series of high-relief portrait medallions of members of the Royal Family to Triqueti’s mural decorations in the Albert Memorial Chapel at Windsor (1866--9). In 1867 she was commissioned to sculpt a memorial to King Leopold of the Belgians for St George’s Chapel, Windsor. Queen Victoria finally took against Durant and her work, and the memorial to King Leopold was removed to the parish church at Esher. Durant also produced portrait busts, including one to the novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe (marble, c.1863, Harriet Beecher Stowe Center, Hartford, Conn.). Her last known work is a high-relief portrait of Nina Lehmann (marble and inlay, 1871, private collection), in which she followed the example of Triqueti in using coloured marbles to frame the white marble image of the young woman.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; Dictionary of Women Artists, London and Chicago, 1997 (entry by S. Hunter Hurtado). [CL2003]

Joseph Durham (1814--77)
Following his apprenticeship with John Francis, Durham worked for a while in the studio of Edward Hodges Baily. In 1858 his model of Britannia Presiding over the Four Quarters of the Globe won first prize in a competition to select a memorial for the Great Exhibition of 1851. This eventually took the form of a statue of Prince Albert, first erected in the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1863, but later placed at the rear of the Albert Hall. Other well-known works include his group Santa Filomena, which included a figure of Florence Nightingale (1864), a statue of Euclid for the University Museum, Oxford (1867), statues of Newton, Bentham, Milton and Harvey for the University of London (1869), and a bust of Hogarth for London’s Leicester Square Gardens (1875). He also made a number of fountains, including those at Somerleyton Hall, Suffolk (1868) and Gloucester Gate, Regent’s Park (1878). He exhibited 128 works at the Royal Academy between 1835 and 1878, the last being shown posthumously.
Sources: Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1964, p.135f.; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.253; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.123, 171, 226; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.459. [SBC2005]

Joseph Durham (1814--77)
Born in London, he was apprenticed to the sculptor John Francis, and, after becoming free, worked in the studio of E.H. Baily. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1835. Twenty years later, the Art Journal claimed that Durham had not yet achieved celebrity. However, in 1856 his bust of Queen Victoria was presented to the Guildhall, and he received the first of two commissions for statues for the Mansion House. Durham was the sculptor chosen in 1858 to create the Memorial to the Great Exhibition. This eventually took the form of a statue of Prince Albert, erected in the Gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1863. It still stands close to its original site, behind the Royal Albert Hall. Durham chiefly distinguished himself with his single figures and groups of children. Some of these were of purely imaginary or literary inspiration. Others, like Waiting his Innings (marble, 1866, Guildhall Art Gallery, London), functioned both as genre subject and as a portrait. Durham was also noted for the sculpture he provided for another distinctively Victorian monument type, the drinking fountain. He had received no formal training, and though elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1868, never became a full RA.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968. [CL2003]

Joseph Durham (1814--77)
Joseph Durham was born in London and, following his apprenticeship with J. Francis, worked in the studio of Edward Hodge Bailey, first exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1835. 128 of his works were exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1835 and (posthumously) 1878, and he was elected an Associate of the Academy in 1868. His major works include Britannia Presiding Over the Four Quarters of the Globe (1858) (winning first prize in a competition for a memorial for the Great Exhibition); a statue of the Prince Consort, Royal Horticultural Society Gardens, later erected in front of the Albert Hall (1863); Santa Filomena, a group sculpture which included a figure of Florence Nightingale (1864); a memorial for the Building Committee of Freemasons’ Hall (1871); Sunshine (1857). Other works include The First Dip; At the Spring; The Sirens and the Drowned Leander; Go to Sleep; Master Tom and Miss Ellie. He executed many statues, including Caxton, Westminster Palace Hotel (1859), Prince Albert, Guernsey (1863), and Agricultural College, Framlington (1865), Stephenson and Euclid, University Museum, Oxford (1867); ideal figures, including Hermione (1858) and Alastor (1865) for the Mansion House, Perdita and Florizel, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (1870); busts, including Jenny Lind (1848), Queen Victoria, Guildhall, destroyed 1940 (1856), and Hogarth, Leicester Square (1875). His fountains include those located at St Lawrence Jewry (1866), Somerleyton Hall (1868), Gloucester Gate, Regent’s Park (1878); his monuments include that to Thomas Dealtry, Bishop of Madras, Madras Cathedral (1861).
Sources: Dictionary of National Biography, CD ROM version; Art Journal; Builder; Athenaeum, 3 November, 1877. [WCS2003]

Alan [Lydiat] Durst (1883--1970)
Sculptor born 27 June 1883 at Alverstoke, Hampshire. He served in the Royal Marines, 1902--13. In 1913 he enrolled at Central School of Art and Design, but at the outbreak of the First World War he returned to the Royal Marines, 1914--18, resuming his studies at the end of the war. On leaving art school, Durst became Curator of the G.F. Watts Museum, Compton, 1919--20. He left to take up sculpture full time, later teaching wood carving at the Royal College of Art, 1925--40 and 1945--8. He exhibited with the Seven and Five Society, 1923--4, and had his first solo exhibition at the Leicester Galleries, London, in 1930. In 1938 he published his book, Wood Carving. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1938--70. Durst’s public commissions include Masks of Comedy and of Tragedy, 1931, for the frontage of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, Christ in Majesty, gilded wood, 1960, for St Mary the Great, Cambridge, and statues for the west front of Peterborough Cathedral. He was elected ARA in 1953.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Good, M. (comp.), 1995; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Popp, G. and Valentine, H. (comps), 1996; Spalding, F., 1990; Waters, G., 1975; Who Was Who 1961--1970. [LR 2000]

Andrew Dwyer (b.1967)
Since studying Three Dimensional Design at Carlisle and Exeter Art Colleges, Andrew Dwyer has worked in industrial design, journalism, furniture making and exhibition installation. He took a short course in Public Art run by Free Form Arts Trust in 1997. It was at this time that he designed the Blue Ribbon Sculpture in Coventry. Since then, he has continued working in this field.
Source: information from the sculptor. [WCS2003]

Earp, Hobbs and Miller
Architectural sculptors. Thomas Earp (1828--93) studied at Nottingham School of Art and Design before working for George Myers. He moved to London where his stone-carving skills, particularly on ecclesiastical buildings, saw him undertaking work for George Gilbert Scott, Pugin and Teulon. A close working relationship developed between Earp and G.E. Street. The Eleanor Cross (Charing Cross, 1863) was one of Earp’s many successful works. Earp’s already considerable business, based in Lambeth, South London, expanded further in 1864 through a partnership with Edwin Hobbs. The firm opened premises in Manchester on Lower Mosley Street. Edwin Hobbs oversaw the Manchester business, residing in Chorlton-upon-Medlock and, later, Moss Side. Their reputation as ecclesiastical architectural carvers was of the highest, but they also undertook extensive work on public and private buildings throughout the country. The firm operated under the name of Earp, Son and Hobbs from the early 1890s, the founder dying in 1893. By 1910 they had become Earp, Hobbs and Miller, continuing under that name in Manchester until the early 1940s.
Sources: Manchester Directories; Read, 1982; Mitchell, 2002. [Man2004]

Thomas Earp (1828--93)
London-based stone-carver specialising in ecclesiastical sculpture, whose works can be seen throughout England. They include the pulpit at St James the Less, Westminster (1860--1), the carving on the Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross (1863) and the reredos at Exeter Cathedral (1870--7). He received an Honourable Mention at the International Exhibition, London (1862) for his work in the church of St John the Baptist, Huntley, Gloucestershire.
Source: Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.246--7, 250; Saunders, M., ‘Samuel Sanders Teulon’, The Grove Dictionary of Art Online, ed. L. Macy, accessed 30 June 2003, http://www.groveart.com [SBC2005]

Bertram Eaton (1912--77)
Self-taught sculptor born 15 April 1912 in Northampton. After school he worked in a succession of office jobs before being taken on, at the age of 21, by a leather manufacturer on the outskirts of Northampton, in the Nene Valley. He stayed with the firm until his retirement in 1977. By the late 1930s he had become interested in modern sculpture. At the outbreak of the Second World War he registered as a conscientious objector and it was during this period that he carved his first sculpture, a female torso in oak in the style of Maillol, using his wife, whom he had married in 1938, as a model. He persevered in the difficult job of teaching himself to carve and in the late 1940s became friends with Robert Adams. In 1948, Eaton’s wife took some of his pieces to the Leicester Galleries in London and had a couple of them accepted. By the time of his first (and only) solo exhibition in London, at the Galerie Apollinaire, in 1950, his work was almost completely abstract. In 1952 and 1954 he showed with the London Group, and in the latter year he showed one sculpture, Space Form Composition, with the short-lived Groupe Espace in its exhibition in the foyer of the Royal Festival Hall. He thereafter showed at the Royal Scottish Academy, at various London galleries and annually in the exhibitions of the Northampton Town and County Art Society (President 1968--9). In 1975 he had his second solo exhibition, at the Central Art Gallery, Northampton. By this time his work had reached its final phase, consisting of severely rectilinear sculptures in a variety of woods, the importance of the distinctive characteristics of each wood being conveyed in the titles, e.g., Applewood sculpture, Mahogany and ebony sculpture, etc. In 1980 a touring exhibition of Eaton’s work was organised by East Midlands Arts.
Source
: Bertram Eaton. A Northamptonshire sculptor (exhib. cat.), 1980. [LR 2000]

Robert Easton (d. 1722)
Apprenticed to Charles Cotton. In 1708 he had a yard in Bow Street, Covent Garden. He was mason to the Fishmongers’ Company, for whom he executed in 1721 a statue of James Hulbert for the Company’s almshouses in Newington Butts. This statue now stands at the back of Fishmongers’ Hall in the City of London. Easton’s widow appears to have carried on her husband’s business after his death.
Sources: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660--1851, London, 1968; Minutes of the Fishmongers’ Company in the Guildhall Library, London. [CL2003]

John Eaton
Architect. Pupil of Richard Moffat Smith of Manchester from 1856. Educated at Manchester School of Art 1857--60. In office of father at Ashton-under-Lyne. Travelled on the continent. At his death was senior partner in John Eaton, Sons and Cantreel of Ashton-under-Lyne. Elected FRIBA 1882 and Vice-President of Manchester Society of Architects 1904--5. Designed public and commercial buildings in Ashton-under-Lyne and surrounding area, including Heginbotham Technical School, School of Art and Free Library in Ashton.
Source: Newspaper cuttings, Tameside Local Studies. [Man2004]

Robert Edgar (c.1837--73)
Edgar was a London-based architect who studied under Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811--78), and was probably influenced by Scott’s neo-Gothic style. His works include Compton School in Leek, Staffordshire (1863) and the Wedgwood Institute in Burslem (1869). Edgar died the day after the Wedgwood Institute was offically completed.
Sources: Dawson, J., The Wedgwood Memorial Institute, Burslem, 1894; Dobraszczyc, A., A Walk Around the Wedgwood Institute, Burslem, WEA Social History Walks, University of Keele, undated; Pevsner, N., The Buildings of England: Staffordshire, Harmondsworth, 1974, pp.37, 100n, 170, 254; Swale, A., ‘The Terracotta of the Wedgwood Institute, Burslem’, Journal of the Tiles and Architectural Ceramics Society, vol.2, 1987, p.22; Illustrated London News, 11 October 1873. [SBC2005]

Arthur Sherwood Edwards (1897--1960)
Artist and sculptor. Born in Leicester in 1897 and educated at Grimsby Art School. Lived in London and Grimsby before settling in Ashton upon Mersey in early 1920s. Most of his working life was spent as an architect with Manchester City Council. Exhibited at the RA, Royal Glasgow Institute and Royal Cambrian Academy. His paintings, including one of Sale’s Town Clerk, J.W.I. Fowkes, were exhibited at the RA, and at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Many of his works were of local scenes in Ashton, Altrincham and Sale, and of group studies in the style of the Manchester School. He also completed the ‘Battle of Peterloo’ painting for the Manchester Free Trade Hall.
Source: Newspaper cuttings, Trafford Local Studies. [Man2004]

Julie Edwards (b. 1965)
Sculptor. Born in Birmingham. Studied at Walsall College of Art, 1981--3 and Nottingham Trent University, 1983--6. Awarded Margaret Bryan Travel Scholarship, 1986--7. Solo exhibitions include Bonnington Gallery, Nottingham, 1986--7, Leicester City Art Gallery, 1989 and Gallery Joux Massif, 1998. Artist-in-residence at Abbey Park, 1990 and Grimsby Fishing Heritage Centre, 1994. Public commissions include Stainless Arc (G.E.N. Electricity Plant, Killinghome, 1993).
Source: artist. [Man2004]

David Edwick (b.1954)
Edwick was a stonemason at St Paul’s Cathedral and Chichester Cathedral from 1975 to 1979. For the next eight years he worked as a stone-carver and conservator at English Heritage Sculpture Studio, Vauxhall, London, and since then he has been a self-employed sculptor and architectural carver with a workshop in Hexham.
[
1] Newcastle Yearbook. A Local History, Guide and Annual Review, Newcastle 1905. [NE 2000]

George Ehrlich (1897--1966)
Ehrlich studied ornamental art with Franz Cisek at the Vienna Kunstgewerbeschule. In the years immediately after the First World War he worked as a graphic artist. In 1919 he moved to Munich, and then to Berlin in 1921, where, under contract to Paul Cassirer, he exhibited alongside Oscar Kokoschka, Ernst Barlach and Wilhelm Lehmbruck. In 1923 he returned to Vienna, and in 1926 took up sculpture, exhibiting in Vienna, Prague, Zurich, and at the pre-war Venice Biennales. Ehrlich came to England in 1937, and was naturalised in 1947. The etiolated forms and suffering air of his juvenile figures came to be seen as a reflection of the tragedy of war, though his style had developed under the influence of German and Austrian expressionism. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, in 1945, his figure of Pax was inaugurated in the Coventry Garden of Rest. In May 1947, Hertfordshire County Council acquired the bronze group, Two Sisters, for Essendon School. In 1950 Ehrlich had his first British one-man show, at the Leicester Galleries. He showed work at the Festival of Britain in 1951, and at the LCC’s open-air sculpture exhibitions. Ehrlich was diagnosed with a heart condition long before his death, and took to spending his summers in Grado in Italy for the good of his health. It was observed that his art grew more robust under the influence of these Mediterranean sojourns. Ehrlich became an animalier of great ability. His Nibbling Goat was acquired by the Arts Council. As a portraitist he was particularly successful in his depiction of other artistic personalities, such as Benjamin Britten (plaster, 1951, National Portrait Gallery, London) and Peter Pears (plaster, 1963, National Portrait Gallery, London). Ehrlich’s wife, Bettina, was an illustrator of children’s books.
Sources: Obituary in The Times, 5 July 1966, and ‘Tribute’ by Philip James in The Times, 29 July 1966; E. Tietze-Conrat (foreword by E. Newton), Georg Ehrlich, London, 1956; D. Buckman, The Dictionary of British Artists Since 1945, Bristol, 1998. [CL2003]

Georg Ehrlich (1897--1966)
Erlich trained at the School of Applied Arts in Vienna between 1912--15. He lived in Munich (1919--22), Berlin (1921--3) and Vienna (1923--37). After the Second World War he came to England as a refugee and took British nationality. He began to sculpt in 1926 and is known for his symbolic figures and animals in bronze. He exhibited in several European countries and at the Royal Academy. He won the gold medal at the 1937 Paris Exposition Internationale. In 1961 he was awarded the Sculpture Prize of the City of Vienna, and in 1962 he was elected ARA.
Sources: Turner, J., Dictionary of Art, vol.10, London, 1996; Tietze-Conrat, Erica, Georg Ehrlich, London, 1956; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, VI, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1990; MacKay, J., Dictionary of Western Sculptors in Bronze, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1977; Arts Council Exhibition, 1964; Scottish Arts Council exhibition, 1973. [WCS2003]

Georg Ehrlich (1897--1966)
Sculptor, painter and etcher born 22 February 1897 in Vienna. He studied art at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Vienna, 1912--15, after which he served in the Austrian Army until the end of the First World War. From 1919--21 he lived in Munich, having an exhibition of his prints there in 1920 at the Hans Goltz Gallery. He began to exhibit widely, moving next to Berlin and then in 1923 back to Vienna where, in about 1926 he began to sculpt. The rise of Nazism meant that Ehrlich, a Jew, could no longer safely remain in Austria, and in 1937 he moved to England, in the same year winning a Gold Medal at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques in Paris. From the year after he arrived until 1960 he had numerous solo exhibitions in London. In 1948 he was artist-in-residence at the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Ohio. From 1950--1 he taught at Hammersmith School of Art. In 1951 two of his sculptures were included in the Festival of Britain and in 1958 he showed at the Venice Biennale. In 1960 his Head of a Horse was purchased by the Chantrey Bequest, in 1961 he was awarded the Sculpture Prize of the City of Vienna, and in the following year, 1962, he was elected ARA. He showed at the RA from 1940--67. His public sculptures include his ‘Pax’ Memorial, Coventry; The Young Lovers, 1973, St Paul’s Cathedral churchyard, London, and The Bombed Child, Rathaus, Lünen, Germany. He died 1 July 1966. Examples of his work are in the Tate Gallery, the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, Wakefield City Art Gallery; Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Israel; and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984; Waters, G., 1975; Who Was Who 1961--1970. [LR 2000]

Matthew Elden (act.1860s)
Elden studied at Stoke School of Art in Staffordshire. He then became a member of the Department of Science and Art at the South Kensington Museum (now the Victoria and Albert). He is best known for designing the Wedgwood Institute in Burslem, Staffordshire.
Sources: Swale, A., ‘The Terracotta of the Wedgwood Institute, Burslem’, Journal of the Tiles and Architectural Ceramics Society, vol.2, 1987, p.22; Wedgwood Institute (Burslem Library), Files. [SBC2005]

Herbert Ellis (c.1877-- c.1910)
An artist and modeller in stoneware and terracotta employed by Doulton & Co., of Lambeth (q.v.). In 1889 he won a prize in the Art Workmanship competition of the Society of Arts for a modelled ewer in silicon with a Bacchanalian subject.
Source: Bergesen, p.99. [G2002]

Penelope Ellis (b.1935)
Sculptor born in London. She studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1953--6, and was awarded a British Institute in Paris Scholarship,1956--7, to continue her studies in art. From 1957--8 she was at the Institute of Education, London University, and went on to teach art and design at secondary school level in Bristol, 1958--97. In 1958 she exhibited with the ‘Young Contemporaries’, and in 1962, 1963 and 1964 with the Women’s International Art Club. In 1963 Ellis was the sculptor-member of the British team in the Manifestation Biennale et Internationale des Jeune Artistes at the Troisième Biennale de Paris. The team’s entry in the ‘Travaux d’Equipe’ section won first prize for foreign entries and in 1964 was exhibited at the Institute of Contemporary Art, London, and the Bristol Building and Design Centre. In about 1969 Ellis showed a kinetic piece, Spinning Colour, at a mixed exhibition on the theme of colour at the Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield.
Source
: information from the sculptor. [LR 2000]

John Ely
Architect. Articled to Henry John Paull (d. 1888) and Oliver Aycliffe (d. 1897), from 1864--9. Architectural assistant to the Salford Corporation 1872. Chief assistant to Edward Salomons, 1873--4. Partnership with Salomons, 1875--86. Practised alone from 1887 onwards. Elected FRIBA 1888, and served as member of the Council. President of Manchester Society of Architects, 1897--8, and Vice President, 1903--4. Winning architect in the Salford Royal Hospital extension competition, 1907. Also worked on Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Manchester.
Source: Felstead, 1993. [Man2004]

Robert Jackson Emerson (1878--1944)
Emerson studied at Leicester College of Art, London and Paris. He lived and worked in Wolverhampton, being an art teacher at the Wolverhampton Municipal School of Art between 1910 and 1942. His exhibits at the Royal Academy included Love’s Unfolded Innocence (1906), Life’s Light and the Soul (1908), and The Awakening Soul (1899). His most successful sculpture is thought to be Golden Youth, now in Wolverhampton Art Gallery, which was awarded a gold medal in 1941 by the Royal Society of British Sculptors. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1913, and taught three sculptors who later went on to win the Prix de Rome -- Cecil Brown, T.B. Huxley Jones and Geoffrey Deeley.
Sources: Wolverhampton Chronicle, 12 April 1991; Walsall Archives, Carless Memorial, file 1/116/4 (includes letters from Emerson). [SBC2005]

Stanley Sydney Smith English (b. 1908)
Sculptor in wood, stone and bronze, born at Romford, Essex. He studied at Lambeth School of Art and the RA Schools and exhibited at the RA in 1939 and 1940. In 1946 he was appointed teacher of ceramics at Liverpool College of Art.
(sources: Spalding, 1990; Waters, 1975) [L 1997]

Sir Jacob Epstein (1880--1959)
Between 1902 and 1904, Epstein studied sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts and then at the Academie Julian, Paris, thereafter settling in London. In 1907, he received his first major commission, to carve 18 life-size figures for the façade of the new British Medical Association building in the Strand, London. These became the centre of the first of a number of public scandals caused by his work during his early career. Indeed, throughout his life he remained a controversial figure whose early direct carvings often outraged the public because their massive character and Expressionist deformations were taken for wilful brutality. In 1912, while in Paris engaged in the erection of his Tomb of Oscar Wilde in the Père Lachaise cemetery, he met Picasso, Brancusi and Modigliani, by whom he was introduced to African and Oceanic carving. Until about 1916 his work tended towards abstraction, but he was also well known for his portrait sculpture. His major works include Rock Drill (1913, destroyed); Joseph Conrad (1924, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery); Night and Day for St James’ Underground Station (1928--9); Albert Einstein (1933, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery); Ecce Homo, Coventry Cathedral (1935); Lucifer (1945, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery); Madonna and Child, Cavendish Square (1952); Christ in Majesty, Llandaff Cathedral (1953); and St Michael and the Devil, Coventry Cathedral (1958). He exhibited regularly at the Leicester Galleries, London, from 1917. There was a major retrospective exhibition of his work at Temple Newsam, Leeds (1942) and at the Tate Gallery, London (1952). He was knighted in 1954.
Sources: Buckle, R., Jacob Epstein, Sculptor, London, 1963; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.327f.; Cork, R., Vorticism and Its Allies, Haywood Gallery, London, 1974, p.30; Epstein, J., Epstein Centenary, London, 1980; Epstein, J., Epstein: An Autobiography, London, 1975; Gardiner, S., Epstein: Artist Against the Establishment, London, 1993; Maillard, R., New Dictionary of Modern Sculpture, New York, 1971, p.93; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, p.253f.; Silber, E., The Sculpture of Epstein: with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford, 1986; Silber, E., Rebel Angel, Sculpture and Watercolours by Sir Jacob Epstein 1880--1959, Birmingham, 1980; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, vol.6, Woodbridge, 1990, p.160. [SBC2005]

Sir Jacob Epstein (1880--1959)
Epstein studied drawing and painting c.1896 at the Art Students’ League in New York. He attended night classes in sculpture 1899--c.1901 under George Grey Bernard, and worked by day in a bronze foundry. Between 1902--4 he studied sculpture at the École des Beaux Arts, then at the Académie Julian, Paris, before settling in London. He became a British subject in 1907 and received his first major commission, to carve eighteen life-size figures for the façade of the new British Medical Association building in the Strand, London (1907--8). These became the centre of the first of a number of public scandals caused by the nudity in his early work. In 1912, while in Paris engaged in the erection of his tomb of Oscar Wilde (1908--12) for the Père La Chaise cemetery, he met Picasso, Brancusi and Modigliani. He became a member of the London Art Group and had his first one-man show at the Twenty One Gallery, Adelphi, London in 1913, briefly being associated with the Vorticist group. Until c.1916 his work tended towards abstraction, but he was also well known for his portrait sculpture. His main subjects were family members, friends, high society people and the famous men and women of the day, busts of whom include: Joseph Conrad (1924) and Albert Einstein (1933), both in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery; Princess Margaret (1933). Other major works include Rock Drill (1913--25), destroyed; bronze cast of Rock Drill torso (in Tate Gallery); Rima for the W.H. Hudson memorial, Hyde Park (1925); The Visitation, Tate Gallery (1926); Night and Day for St James’ underground station (1928--9); Ecce Homo, Epstein Estate (1935); Lucifer (1945), in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery; Christ in Majesty, Llandaff Cathedral (1953); St Michael, Coventry Cathedral (1959). Exhibitions include Leicester Galleries, London from 1917; Temple Newsam, Leeds (1942); Tate Gallery, London (1952); Memorial Exhibitions -- Edinburgh Festival (1961), Tate Gallery (1961). DCL degree (Oxford University) (1953); KBE (1954).
Sources: Epstein, J., Epstein Centenary, London, 1980; Gardiner, S., Epstein: Artist Against the Establishment, London, 1993; Silber, E.: [i] The Sculpture of Epstein: With a Complete Catalogue, Oxford, 1986 [ii] Rebel Angel, Sculpture and Watercolours by Sir Jacob Epstein 1880--1959, Birmingham, 1980; Cork, R., Vorticism and Its Allies, Haywood Gallery, London, 1974; Chamot, M., Modern British Painting, Drawing and Sculpture, vol.1, Tate Gallery, London, 1964; Buckle, R., Jacob Epstein, Sculptor, London, 1963; Epstein, Sir Jacob, Epstein An Autobiography, London, 1975. [WCS2003]

Sir Jacob Epstein (1880--1959)
Born in New York to wealthy Jewish immigrants from Poland, he showed an early interest in drawing from life around him. He was attracted to sculpture, learning bronze casting by working in a foundry and studying modelling at evening classes. Fees from book illustrations paid for his passage to Paris in 1902 where he studied firstly at the Beaux-Arts School, then at the Académie Julien. He moved to London in 1905 and was naturalised in 1911. He studied at the British Museum, especially the Greek, Egyptian, and ethnographic collections. His very unclassical nude figures for the British Medical Association Building in the Strand, commissioned by the building’s architect, outraged the British public when unveiled in 1908 and were virtually destroyed when the building transferred to the Southern Rhodesian Government in 1937. Others of his public works also met with prurient attacks. Both the RBS and the RA denied him membership in his early years and several major museums rejected his controversial works (e.g. the Fitzwilliam, V&A and Tate Gallery all refused Lucifer), though he had achieved acceptance with his portrait bronzes from at least the 1920s and was esteemed by artists such as Augustus John and Sickert. Apart from an honorary LL.D. from Aberdeen in 1938, he enjoyed little official recognition before the 1950s when he received a knighthood (1954) and numerous public commissions.
(sources: Buckle, 1963; DNB; Gardiner, 1992; Silber, 1986) [L 1997]

Charles Errington (1869--1935)
Newcastle architect, practising independently from 1896 and Diocesan Surveyor from the late nineteenth century until 1914. He was responsible for the design of a number of schools, memorial halls and housing developments in the city during that time, as well as Lloyds banks in Sunderland and Hartlepool. President Northern Architects’ Association 1919--20.
[
1] DBArch, p.293. [NE 2000]

Robert Erskine (b.1954)
Erskine trained at Kingston School of Fine Art (1973--6) and the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1976--8). From 1979 until 1983, he was involved in a series of international design projects, including the design of the Sultan of Brunei’s palace and that of the Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi (1983). Since 1984 he has been a full-time professional sculptor. His major commissions include Rhythm, Strength and Movement (1987, Basingstoke); Quintisection (1993, Sunderland), for which he won the Sir Otto Beit Bronze award; and Power Rhythm (2000, Peterborough). Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1998, he has exhibited in London and at Wakefield’s Yorkshire Sculpture Park as well as at the Hakone Open Air Museum in Japan (1992). He represented Britain at the International City of Culture Symposium, A Sea of Steel, held in the Netherlands, where he was awarded first prize for his sculpture White Rhythm (2002).
Sources: Artist’s curriculum vitae, PACA Archive, UCE, Birmingham, PA/PR/64/5; Erskine, R., Power Rhythm, accessed 24 November 2003, www.peterborough.net/lifestyles/articles [SBC2005]

David Evans (1893--1959)
Born in Manchester, he attended the Manchester School of Art, and won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art. After active service in the First World War, he resumed his studies at the Royal Academy, where he was instructed by Francis Derwent Wood. In 1922, he won the Landseer Prize, and later went to work in the British School in Rome. He had been exhibiting at the Royal Academy since 1921. His works from the 1920s are mainly highly stylised and decorative interpretations of religious and mythological themes. A group entitled Labour, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1929, now in the Newport Museum and Art Gallery, showing two quarrymen moving blocks of stone, strikes a harsher and more realistic note. In 1927, the critic Kineton Parkes had written of this work at an early stage, and had hailed Evans as one of the young sculptors whose talent might lead sculpture back to its true glyptic traditions. Evans became sculptor in residence at the Cranbrook Foundation, in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan in 1929. During his stay in the United States he executed some significant work for public buildings in New York. Towards the end of the Second World War, Evans left London for Welwyn Garden City. His traditional craftsmanly skills recommended him for some post-war reconstruction work, such as the replacement figures of Gog and Magog for the Guildhall, and the restoration of the wooden frieze of St James’s Piccadilly.
Sources: Kineton Parkes, ‘A Prix de Rome Sculptor: David Evans’, Studio, August 1927; G.S. Sandilands, ‘The Sculpture of David Evans’, Studio, September 1955. [CL2003]

Garth Evans (b.1934)
Sculptor and teacher born at Cheadle, Cheshire. He studied at Manchester School of Art, 1955--7, and Slade School of Fine Art, 1957--60. In 1960 (and 1965) he showed at the John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool, and in 1962 he had his first solo exhibition at the Rowan Gallery (and many thereafter). His work was included in the ‘British Sculpture ’72’ exhibition at the Royal Academy, 1972, and the ‘Silver Jubilee Contemporary British Sculpture’ exhibition at Battersea Park, 1977. He taught at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, and was visiting lecturer at St Martin’s School of Art, the Royal College of Art and Slade School of Fine Art. In 1973 he was visiting professor at Minneapolis College of Art and Design. Evans’s awards include a Gulbenkian Purchase Award, 1964; an Arts Council Sabbatical Award, 1966; a British Steel Corporation Fellowship, 1969; and a Bradford Print Biennale Prize, 1972. He lived and worked in the USA from the early 1980s. Examples of his work are in the Arts Council collection and in the Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum, Bristol City Art Gallery, Portsmouth City Art Gallery, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Power Gallery of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Nairne, S. and Serota, N. (eds), 1981; Royal Academy of Arts, 1972; Spalding, F., 1990; Strachan, W.J., 1984. [LR 2000]

John Evans
Chief modeller for Gibbs and Canning, John Evans was born in Liverpool and worked with his father, Samuel Evans who had his own practice in Liverpool. He later started to work intermittently for Gibbs and Canning whose works were near Glascote colliery, Tamworth, where he was eventually appointed modeller and head of the model and mould plaster department. Other works included modelling for the Technical Institute, coat of arms for the electricity power station, Birmingham and an Indian figure for a bootmakers in Northampton.
1
. Tamworth News and Four Shires Advertiser, January 1935. [B1998]

Simon Evans (b.1963)
Simon Evans studied at Blackburn School of Art and Design, and was a student of Coventry Polytechnic (now Coventry University) when he made Steel Horse (1986). He also created a 13--metre Minotaur, which was temporarily exhibited opposite Coventry Cathedral in 1988. His other works include steel sculptures of a horse in Blackburn, a crow in Tring, a goose in Worplesdon and another horse exhibited at Earls Court, London, in June 2000. He is currently based in Trawden, East Lancashire.
Source: Coventry Evening Telegraph, 18 June 1988. [WCS2003]

John Breedon Everard (1844--1923)
Architect, civil engineer and President of the Leicester and Leicestershire Society of Architects, born in Groby, Leicestershire. He was articled to John Brown, a mining engineer, for four years in 1862 and after completion, in 1866, became assistant to W.H. Barlow (MICE) of Westminster. He returned to Leicester and began in independent practice in 1868, later entering into partnership with S. Perkins Pick (see below). In 1888 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Everard’s principal architectural works, all in Leicestershire, include the Leicester Cattle Market, 1871; the Church of St John the Baptist, Hugglescote, 1878--9, 1887--8, which has been described as ‘easily the best C19 [Leicestershire] church outside Leicester’;1 St Peter, Bardon, 1898--9; and, for himself, ‘Woodville’, a large house in Knighton Park Road, Leicester, 1883. He retired in 1911 and died at ‘Woodville’ on 12 September 1923.
Sources
: Builder, vol. 125, no. 4207, 21 September 1923, p.436 (obituary); Felstead, A., et al, 1993; Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E, 1992; RIBA Journal, vol. 30, no. 20, 20 October 1923, p.653 (obituary).
Note: [1] Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E., 1992, p.181. [LR 2000]

Everard and Pick (active from c.1891)
John Breedon Everard (see above) and Samuel Perkins Pick (1859--1919) established their Leicester-based architectural and civil engineering practice, Everard and Pick, in 1888. In 1905, Everard’s son Bernard joined and the practice became Everard, Son and Pick . By 1918 J.B. Everard had retired and William Keay (d. 1952) became a partner, the practice being re-designated Pick Everard and Keay. This in turn became Pick Everard Keay and Gimson in 1923, a name it retained until 1991, from which date it has operated as Pick Everard. The practice exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1901, 1904, 1915, 1916 and 1917. Everard and Pick built the original Leicester College of Art and Technology (now the Hawthorn Building, De Montfort University), 1896--7 (additions 1909, 1928 and 1937), and also Pares’s Bank, Leicester, 1900--1.
Sources
: information from Pick Everard; Beaumont, L. de, 1987; Kelly’s Directory of ... Leicester and Rutland (various edns); L. Chronicle, 31 May 1919, p.2 (obituary of Pick). [LR 2000]

George Edwin Ewing (1828--84)
Born in Birmingham, he worked as a sculptor in Liverpool and London, and briefly studied with John Gibson (q.v.) in Rome. In 1859 he established a successful practice in Glasgow as a portrait sculptor, producing busts of prominent Scots and the royal family, with Lord Clyde and the painter Thomas Faed among his sitters. His architectural and public work is rare, and his monuments to James Jamieson (1861) and David Miller (c.1862) in the Necropolis are at risk. Joined by his brother James Alexander Ewing (q.v.) in 1875, he lived and worked at various addresses in the city before he moved to the USA, c.1882, working in Philadelphia and New York, where he died. He exhibited at the RA, 1862--79.
Sources: Bailie, 1 April 1874; POD, 1859--82. [G2002]

James Alexander Ewing (1843--1900)
Born in Carlisle, he received art training in England, but moved to Glasgow in 1875, where he remained for his entire career. He worked at first in collaboration with his brother George Edwin Ewing (q.v.), then independently with John Tweed as his assistant. Though chiefly a portraitist working in marble and bronze, he produced architectural sculpture for the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the figure of Justice on Dunbeth Municipal Buildings (1894). Among the many busts he produced are Alexander Duff Robertson (1880), Alexander Smollet (1882), Ellen Terry (1885, from a sketch by G.E. Ewing, lent by Sir Henry Irving) and Sir Michael Connal (1894). He also exhibited genre pieces at the RGIFA, including Comin’ thro’ the Rye (1878) and Bonny Meg (1879). His work is represented in GAGM and other public collections.
Sources: Woodward, pp.114--17; Billcliffe. [G2002]

Aristide Fabbrucci (fl.1880--1903)
An architectural sculptor, born in Florence, but resident in London. He is an elusive figure, who may be identical with the sculptor known as Fabruzzi who introduced G.F Watts to the technique known as ‘gesso grosso’. He is listed in Grant as a regular exhibitor at the RA from 1880 to 1903, showing portrait busts and imaginitive pieces such as Federica Cockerell (1882), The ball player (1883) and First love (1885), and with an address at 14a Hollywood Road, London. Walkley, however, cites ‘?Aristide Louis Fabbrucci’ as the proprietor of a now demolished suite of studios at 454a Fulham Road, where his tenants included J.A.M. Whistler, Walter Sickert, Alfred Drury, Paul Raphael Montford and Henri Gaudier-Brzeska.
Sources: Grant; Read, p.285; Mackay; Giles Walkley, Artists’ Houses in London 1764--1914, Aldershot, 1994, p.238. [G2002]

Paul Fairclough
Stonemason and sculptor. Leonard Fairclough established a successful business as a stonemason and builder in Adlington, Lancashire in 1883. Civil engineering projects began to be undertaken by the early twentieth century and this became the principal business of the firm which expanded to become one of the town’s largest employers. Fairclough’s four sons went into the business, Paul continuing his father’s original trade as a stonemason and carver. A sandstone statue of Queen Victoria unveiled in Adlington in 1887 was the work of Leonard Fairclough.
Source: Smith, 1991. [Man2004]

Harry Smith Fairhurst (1868?--1945)
Architect. Born in Blackburn. Articled to James Wolstenhome, 1883--8. Improver with Maxwell and Tuke and William Charles Tuke, 1888--91 and assistant to J.H. Stones and A.R. Gradwell. Experience with William Frame in Cardiff. Travelled in Italy. Passed Qualifying Exam 1891. Started independent practice 1895 in Blackburn. Moved to Manchester 1901 and entered into partnership with J.H. France. Partnership dissolved 1905. In partnership with son Philip Garland Fairhurst from 1929. Succeeded by son in 1941. His first major commission was for India House, Whitworth Street, followed by Lancaster House  (1906) and Bridgewater House (1913). Also designed model housing in Gorton as well as the offices of Manchester Liners and headquarters of the Manchester Ship Canal (exhibited RA, 1926). Elected ARIBA in 1926.
Sources: Whittam, 1986; Felstead, 1993. [Man2004]

Farmer & Brindley (fl.1850--1929)
Firm of architectural stone-carvers with premises on Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth. They undertook an extensive amount of ornamental work for Sir George Gilbert Scott, including that for the Albert Memorial, the capitals on Scott’s Government Offices, Whitehall, and much of the ornamental carving for his major ecclesiastical restorations at Exeter, Gloucester and Lichfield. In 1863--9 they made the statues Science and Art for the Holborn Viaduct, London. Under the surviving partner, Brindley, the firm served almost every English architect of repute until the First World War. Other work by them includes the historical sculpture on Alfred Waterhouse’s Manchester Town Hall (1868--77) and the terracotta animals and plants decorating the Natural History Museum in South Kensington; the carved stone pedestal of Thornycroft’s Monument to General Gordon (1885--8); and the reredos of St Paul’s Cathedral (since dismantled).
Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983, p.24f.; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997, p.328; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.365; Noszlopy, George T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield, Liverpool, 1998, p.191; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.265--9; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p.460. [SBC2005]

Farmer & Brindley
Architectural sculptors. One of the country’s leading firms of architectural sculptors from the 1860s onwards, occupying premises on Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth. William Brindley (1832--1919) was the executant under the direction of William Farmer (1823--79) who also handled the contracts. They worked for most of the major Victorian architects especially George Gilbert Scott, Alfred Waterhouse and Lockwood and Mawson. Brindley’s stone-carving contributed to a number of prestigious projects including the Albert Memorial, Natural History Museum and major ecclesiastical restorations at Exeter, Lichfield and Worcester. The firm carved the controversial reredos designed by Bodley and Garner for St Paul’s Cathedral. They employed and helped train a large number of British and Continental stone-carvers including Charles J. Allen and Harry Bates. The firm amalgamated with another in 1929, when all their records appear to have been lost.
Sources: Hardy, 1993; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

Farmer & Brindley
A firm, based in Westminster Bridge Road, producing architectural and memorial sculpture, church furniture and ornament, which operated also as a marble merchant. The firm’s directors, William Farmer (1823--79), and William Brindley (1832--1919), were both from Derbyshire. Initially Farmer went into business independently, employing Brindley as a stone-carver. In the late 1860s they became partners. Their first documented work was on George Gilbert Scott’s parish church at Woolland, Dorset, consecrated in 1856. They were to produce a huge amount of work for Scott, including the decorative sculpture on the Albert Memorial. Other architects with whom they enjoyed fertile collaborations were Lockwood and Mawson, Bodley and Garner, and Alfred Waterhouse. For the latter they produced stone figures and reliefs for Manchester Town Hall, and the models for the copious terracotta decoration on the Natural History Museum in South Kensington. In all, they collaborated with Waterhouse on over 100 buildings. After Farmer’s death, the firm increased its turnover of marble, an activity in which it benefited from Brindley’s extensive geological knowledge. Foreign sculptors known to have worked for the firm include L.-J. Chavalliaud, Guillemin, and the Piccirilli brothers. British employees include the distinguished sculptors C.J. Allen and H. Bates. The firm’s sculptural magnum opus, the reredos for St Paul’s, which it carried out to designs by Bodley and Garner, met with hostile criticism, and has since been dismantled. In the twentieth century, the firm provided marble and fireplaces for R. Knott’s County Hall, and although the business continued after Brindley’s death, Farmer & Brindley was amalgamated with another firm in 1929.
Sources: S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; E. Hardy, ‘Farmer and Brindley, Craftsmen and Sculptors, 1850--1930’, The Victorian Society Annual, 1993, pp.4--17. [CL2003]

Farmer & Brindley (fl.1860--1929)
London firm of architectural sculptors, decorators and church furnishers founded by William Farmer and William Brindley. Their work in Scotland includes a reredos in St Mary’s Episcopal Cathedral, Glasgow (c.1874), furnishings in St Mary’s Episcopal Cathedral, Edinburgh (1878) and a chimney-piece at 3 Rothsay Terrace, Edinburgh (1883). The firm amalgamated with another company after the partners’ deaths.
Sources: Gifford, et al., p.365; Cavanagh, p.328. [G2002]

Farmer and Brindley (fl. mid-1850s -- 1929)
A firm of decorative craftsmen and church furnishers providing architectural sculpture under contract, based at Westminster Bridge Road, London. William Farmer was the director of the firm and William Brindley the chief executant. Many of the workers for the firm, including Charles John Allen and Harry Bates, trained at the South London Technical Art School. The firm provided decorative sculpture for many of the most important architects up until the First World War, their major contracts including work on Sir George Gilbert Scott’s Albert Memorial, London, and Alfred Waterhouse’s Natural History Museum, London, and Town Hall, Manchester. Scott said of Brindley that he was ‘the best carver I have met and the one who best understands my views’. After Farmer’s death, the firm continued to flourish under Brindley, but was eventually amalgamated with another firm in 1929. No records appear to survive from the firm’s heyday.
Sources
: Beattie, S., 1983; Read, B., 1982. [LR 2000]

Farmer & Brindley (active mid 1850s--1929)
A firm of architectural stone carvers who carved under contract. They had premises on Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth, an area of London long associated with suppliers of architectural sculpture. William Brindley was the executant under the direction of William Farmer who also handled the contracts. Sir George Gilbert Scott, their most notable and prolific patron, said of Brindley that he was ‘the best carver I have met with and the one who best understands my views’. They produced the model of the Albert Memorial for Scott and later all of the ornamental work for it; the capitals, etc., on Scott’s Government Offices, Whitehall; and ornamental carving for the series of his major ecclesiastical restorations at Exeter, Gloucester, Lichfield (the choir and Lady chapel statues) and figures for the reredos at Worcester. In 1863--9 they made the statues of Science and Art for the Holborn Viaduct, London. Under the surviving partner, Brindley, the firm served almost every English architect of repute until World War I. Other work by them includes the historical sculpture on Alfred Waterhouse’s Manchester Town Hall (1868--77); the carved stone pedestal of Thornycroft’s Monument to General Gordon, 1885--8; all the subsidiary sculpture on Belcher and Pite’s Institute of Chartered Accountants Hall, City of London (1888--93); and the reredos of St. Paul’s Cathedral. A large number of their carvers attended the South London Technical Arts School, notably C.J. Allen and H. Bates. The firm amalgamated with another in 1929, when all of their records were destroyed.
1
. B. Read, Victorian sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982; 2. Beattie, 1983. [B1998]

Farmer & Brindley
A firm of decorative craftsmen and church furnishers providing architectural sculpture under contract, based at Westminster Bridge Road, London. William Farmer was the director of the firm, whilst William Brindley acted as chief executant. Many of the workers for the firm, including C.J. Allen and Harry Bates, trained at the South London Technical Art School. The firm provided decorative sculpture for many of the most important architects up until the First World War, their major contracts including work on Sir George Gilbert Scott’s Albert Memorial, London, and Alfred Waterhouse’s Natural History Museum, London, and Town Hall, Manchester. After Farmer’s death, the firm continued to flourish under Brindley, but was eventually amalgamated with another firm in 1929. No records appear to survive from their heyday.
(sources: Beattie, 1983; Read, 1982) [L1997]

Michael Farrell (b.1964)
Born in Paisley, Michael Farrell was educated at St Helens College of Art and Design and Birmingham Polytechnic, where he obtained a BA in Fine Art. He has held one-man exhibitions at Highcroft Hospital (1986) and the Midland Arts Centre, Cannon Hill Park (1987), both in Birmingham. He has also exhibited at group shows in Brentwood Co-op Hall (1985), Harborne and Perry Barr Baths, Birmingham (1986) and Rufford Art Centre (1987).
Sources: http://wavespace.waverider.co.uk/~scotdave; Timothy Emlyn Jones, Michael Farrell: The Vision, Birmingham, 1989. [WCS2003]

Michael Farrell
A sculptor, he graduated from Birmingham Polytechnic with a degree in fine art.
Source
: L. Mercury (NW Leics edn), 15 December 1992, p.5. [LR 2000]

Richard Farrington (b.1956)
Metalworker and sculptor. Studied sculpture and printmaking at Bath Academy of Art, 1975--9. His major commissions have been for public sculptures and decorative way-markers and seats which are often figurative and sometimes based on childrens’ drawings. He has been involved in a number of community artwork projects at sites across England.
[
1] Information provided by the artist, 1998. [NE 2000]

Henry Charles Fehr (1867--1940)
Fehr trained at the Royal Academy Schools from 1885, winning several prizes including the Armitage Scholarship. Between 1889 and 1893 he was studio assistant to the sculptor Thomas Brock (1847--1922). He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy from 1887. In 1904 he was a founding member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. His works include Perseus Rescuing Andromeda (1893, bought by the Chantrey Bequest in the following year); portrait statues James Watt (1898) and John Harrison (1903) for Leeds City Square; and the statue of Queen Victoria (1903) in Hull.
Sources: MacKay, J., Dictionary of Western Sculptors in Bronze, Woodbridge, 1977, p.131; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982, pp.294, 364. [SBC2005]

Brian Fell
Sculptor. Born in Liverpool. Studied sculpture at Manchester Polytechnic, awarded MA in  1979. Sculpture Fellow, Cheltenham College of Art,  1979--80; Henry Moore Fellow, Yorkshire Sculpture Park,  1989--90. Based in Glossop, Derbyshire, with strong interest in public art. Fell works in metal, especially steel. Public commissions include the Merchant Seafarers’ War Memorial and Cargoes (Cardiff Bay,  1998, 2000), Footplate (Flint Railway Station, 1999) and the Tern Project (Morecambe Bay, 1995--2000). Ajax Bow is at the Open Air Museum of Steel Sculpture, Ironbridge.
Sources: Groundwork Trust; artist. [Man2004]

Richard Ferris (fl.1886--1915)
The son of a plasterer, he attended GSA, 1879--87, training under John Mossman and Francis Leslie (qq.v.). In 1886 his work was noticed by Robert A. McGilvray (1849--1914), who awarded him a cash prize for ornamental design and offered him a partnership in his firm. With their studio at 129 West Regent Street, they were responsible for the decorative carving on many Glasgow Style buildings and the plasterwork in several others, including Norwich Union Chambers (1898) and the plaster panels in the Willow Tea Rooms (1903) by C.R. Mackintosh (q.v.). For Honeyman & Keppie they executed carving on the Canal Boatmen’s Institute (1891, demolished 1966), Queen Margaret College (1894) and a memorial tablet at Bellahouston Dispensary (1900). Ferris operated independently as a sculptor, exhibiting portraits at the RGIFA from 1885. He later taught modelling to evening students at the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. The firm amalgamated with George Rome & Co. after McGilvray’s death in 1914.
Sources: HAG, Honeyman & Keppie Job Books, 1890--1909; GSA Reports, 1879--87; GAPC, 1898--1903; GH 2 October 1914, p.4 (obit., McGilvray); Billcliffe. [G2002]

Steve Field (b.1954)
Graduating with a BA (Hons) in Architecture from Sheffield University (1975) and later completing an MPhil in Fine Art at Wolverhampton University in 1984, Steve Field was a member of the West Midlands Public Art Collective (1985--8). Artist-in-residence at Dudley Metropolitan Borough’s Public Art Resource Unit since 1989, he has designed a large number of sculptural works in the West Midlands area, predominantly in and around Dudley. His major works include Lone Rider, Wolverhampton (1996), Sleipnir, Wednesbury (1998), the Lunar Society Monument, Great Barr (1998), and Salamander Obelisk, Dudley (2001). He defines his work as falling into two categories, ‘organic work, based on archetypal forms found in nature’ and ‘figurative work derived from a kind of British version of futurism and cubism’. His mentors for the former approach include Gaudi, Bruce Goff and Henry Moore; for the latter, Edward Wadsworth and Wyndham Lewis.
Sources: AXIS, The Axis Database Online, 1999, www.axisartists.org.uk/; Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.422; Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.365; Information provided by the artist, 2002. [SBC2005]

Steve Field (b.1954)
Artist working in a variety of media, born in Saltash, Cornwall. He studied at Sheffield University and then Wolverhampton Polytechnic where he was a joint research fellow and gained a master’s degree in fine art. He was a member of the West Midlands Public Art Collective, 1985--8, and won a Royal Society of Arts ‘Art for Architecture’ Award in 1992. He is a member of Art for Architecture (a4a), an informal collaborative association of artists, designers and craftsmen. He has made a number of designs for execution by sculptor John McKenna (founder of a4a), including the two relief roundels at Fosse Park, Leicestershire (see p.50), The Glassblower, 1995, Stourbridge Railway Station, Worcestershire, and four bronze relief panels for St John’s Retail Park, Wolverhampton.
Source
: Art for Architecture website: a4a.clara.net/a4a.htm; Buckman, D., 1998. [LR 2000]

James Fillans (1808--52)
Born in Wilsontown, a mining village in Lanarkshire. A self-taught sculptor and painter, he was apprenticed first as a handloom weaver in Paisley then as a stonemason with Hall McLatchie. He set up a studio in Paisley specialising in portrait busts, moving to Glasgow, c.1830, and finally settling at 8 High Holborn in London in 1835. His Scottish patrons remained faithful, commissioning wax portraits of William Motherwell (1835) and James Ewing of Strathleven (1845), a marble bust of architect John Burnet (1840) and the statue of Sir James Shaw, Kilmarnock (1848). Among his public monuments are James Dick, Old Kirkyard, Ayr (1840), Jacobus Brown, Necropolis (1846) and the model for Grief, or Rachel Weeping For Her Lost Children (1852). Originally intended for his father’s grave in Woodside Cemetery, Paisley, Grief was completed in marble by John Mossman (q.v.) and placed over Fillans’ own grave in Woodside in 1854. His work was exhibited at the RA, 1837--50, and posthumously at the RSA, 1916 and 1926.
Sources: Paterson; Gunnis. [G2002]

Margaret Cross Primrose Findlay (1902--68)
A Glasgow-born sculptor, she was a pupil of Archibald Dawson (q.v.) at GSA, where she won the Guthrie Award enabling her to study in Italy. She exhibited at the RGIFA, 1925--35, and the RSA, 1928--34, showing mainly genre pieces including Blind (1925), The Bathers (1926), Dorothy (1928) and Morning Song (1935). She was an expressive modeller of small animals and also produced lead garden ornaments. Her career, however, was principally as an art teacher at Sir John Maxwell School, Hillhead High School, and King’s Park Primary School. She lived at 30 Falkland Mansions, Hyndland, and retired in 1966.
Sources: GH, 1 February 1968, p.10 (obit.); Billcliffe. [G2002]

John Firn (active c.1861 -- c.1877)
Leicester-based monumental mason, stonemason and builder. In addition to items covered in the present volume, he rebuilt the tower, spire and north aisle of St Mary’s, Stoughton, Leicestershire, 1861--2, and executed the tomb of John Biggs (died 1871) in Welford Road Cemetery (signed).
Sources
: Pevsner, N. and Williamson, E., 1992; various Leicester trade directories; personal information. [LR 2000]

Mark Firth (b.1952)
He trained as an engineer before studying fine art at Camberwell School of Art and sculpture at the Slade School of Art. His interest in engineering remains evident in many of his public commissions, including work for Marconi Radar Systems, the Chicago Research and Trading Company, as well as collaborative projects with British Airports Authority at Heathrow, IBM and British Rail Freight.
Source: Art in Partnership information sheet. [G2002]

Derek Fisher
Having graduated from Manchester University with a degree in Geography (1961), Derek Fisher began a career as a town planner and urban designer. He gained a postgraduate diploma in Town and Country Planning in 1963 and has since worked for a large number of local authorities, choosing to specialise in urban design from 1982 onwards. He gained a postgraduate diploma in Urban Design from Oxford Polytechnic in 1982 and took a course in technical illustration at Bournville College, Birmingham (1985--6). His projects include the Lye Community Regeneration Project (1986--8), the design of the Binley Business Park in Coventry (1990), decorative brick finishes to walls and a canal bridge in Coventry (1992), and the design of spatial forms with a reference to local history and culture in Longford Square, Coventry (1993). When implementing the last of these, he aimed to encourage public involvement as far as possible. From 1990 onwards, he has managed various other public art projects in Coventry.
Source: information from the artist. [WCS2003]

Karl Fisher
Sunderland-based sculptor in iron and stone. Fisher trained under Colin Wilbourn as an artist-in-residence at St Peter’s Riverside, Sunderland, before moving on to create his own work. [NE 2000]

Percy Hetherington Fitzgerald (1834--1925)
Irish sculptor and writer. Fitzgerald trained as a lawyer at Trinity College, Dublin, but later forsook law and Ireland to become a writer in London. He was a personal friend of Charles Dickens and a prolific author of fiction, biography, histories and plays. As a sculptor, Fitzgerald executed busts of Carlyle and Dickens, as well as bronze statues of Johnson and Boswell.
Source: Merriam, G. and Webster, C., Webster’s Biographical Dictionary, Springfield, Mass., USA, 1960, p.528. [SBC2005]

Janet Fitzsimons (b. 1963)
Educated at Tuson FE College, Preston and University of Wolverhampton (BA Three-Dimensional Design, 1981--4). In 1985 began work at Salford City Council, taking up the post of landscape technician in 1988, working with multi-disciplinary design teams on the Trinity and Ordsall Projects.
Source: artist. [Man2004]

Barry Flanagan (b. 1941)
Sculptor, draughtsman, print, film and furniture maker. He was born in Prestatyn in North Wales. He studied at Birmingham College of Arts and Crafts (1957--8) and at St Martin’s School of Art (1964--6), where his sculpture tutor was Phillip King. At St Martin’s he acquired an anarchic mental habit through contact with the sculptor John Latham, and from reading the work of the French author Alfred Jarry. His first exhibition in 1966 at the Rowan Gallery consisted of a pile of sand. Flanagan went on to contain his sand in sacks and to introduce lengths of rope and supports into his installations. Between 1967 and 1971 he taught at St Martin’s. After a trip to Italy in 1973, traditional sculptural materials reappear in Flanagan’s work, but he has been inclined to make stone take on the forms of more malleable materials and to allow it to announce its own fossil origins. In 1978 he had a one-man exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery. In 1980 he produced two public sculptures in cut-out sheet metal. One of these, Camdonian (Lincolns Inn Fields, London), was the result of a competition funded by Camden Council. Around this time his work became more obviously figurative, with a wide variety of animals, and later primitive renderings of the human figure, taking the stage. Foremost among Flanagan’s animals is the hare, which he presents alone or in combination with supports in the form of symmetrical artefacts, such as bells, helmets or cricket stumps. In 1987 Flanagan took up residence in Ibiza, but in 1996 he moved to Dublin.
Source: The Grove Dictionary of Art, Macmillan, London, 1996 (Catherine Lampert). [CL2003]

John Flaxman (1755--1826)
Born in York, he was the son of a caster and model maker who worked for the leading sculptors of the mid-eighteenth century. By 1767 Flaxman began to exhibit plaster models of classical figures at the Society of Arts, and in 1769 entered the RA Schools, where he befriended William Blake. Working with his father for Matthew Boulton in Birmingham and the Wedgwood factory, he designed cameos and made wax models of classical friezes and portrait medallions, which helped develop his linear style. In 1787 he visited Rome, where he remained for seven years, making monuments and producing his first book of illustrations, while also working as the Director of Josiah Wedgwood’s pottery. His funerary works, such as the Monument to Lord Nelson, St Paul’s Cathedral (1808--18), are considered his finest achievements. Public sculptures by Flaxman are rare in Scotland, but among them are Christ Blessing Little Children, St Cuthbert’s Parish Church, Edinburgh (1802), and the statue of Robert Burns, SNPG (1822). He is also reputed to have modelled plaster reliefs for the Assembly Rooms, Glasgow (1796, demolished 1890).
Sources: Gunnis; Irwin; Noszlopy, p.191. [G2002]

John Flaxman (1755--1826)
Born in York in 1755, he died in London, 7th December 1826. Son of a caster and model maker who worked for the leading sculptors of the mid-18th century. By 1767 Flaxman began to exhibit plaster models of classical figures at the Society of Artists and in 1769 entered the RA Schools where he befriended William Blake. Working with his father for Matthew Boulton in Birmingham and the Wedgwood factory, he designed cameos and made wax models of classical friezes and portrait medallions, which helped develop his linear style. Visiting Rome in 1787 he remained there for seven years making monuments and producing his first book of illustrations. On return to England in 1794 he built up a good practice specialising chiefly in monuments and portrait busts. Considered one of the foremost Romantic-Classicists in England his works include: statue of Sir Joshua Reynolds, St. Paul’s Cathedral 1813; busts of Josiah Wedgwood, Stoke-on-Trent parish church 1803 and Pasquale di Paoli, Westminster Abbey 1807; Monument to Lady Fitzharris, Christchurch Priory, Hampshire 1817. He exhibited at the Royal Academy 1770--1827. Became Professor of Sculpture at the RA in 1810 and a member of the Painting and Sculpture Academy in Rome in 1816. ARA 1797; RA 1800.
1
. A. Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts 1769--1904, vol.III, London, 1905, pp.123--5; 2. Gunnis, 1964, pp.147--9; 3. D. Irwin, John Flaxman 1755--1826, London, 1979; 4. E.G. Underwood, A short history of English sculpture, London, 1933; 5. E.B. Chancellor, The lives of the British sculptors, London, 1911; 6. M. Whinney, English sculpture 1720--1830, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1971; 7. D. Bindman, (ed.), John Flaxman, London, exh.cat., 1979. [B1998]

Carl Fleischer (b.1968)
Since graduating with an MA in Fine Art from the University of Sussex, Brighton, Carl Fleischer has undertaken a number of urban public commissions including the Foleshill Blue Ribbon Sculpture (1998) and the Watford Memory Wall (2000). His video installations have been shown in London, Brighton, Amsterdam, Arnheim, Leipzig and Mainz as well as being broadcast on Liquid TV as part of the Brighton International Arts Festival.
Source: information from the artist. [WCS2003]

Arthur John Fleischmann (1896--1990)
Fleischmann was born in Bratislava, Slovakia (at that time a part of Hungary) and studied medicine at Prague Academy. He became interested in art and won a scholarship to the Master School of Sculpture in Vienna. He also studied in France and Italy. His work was originally figurative, but became more abstract during the 1960s. He worked in many media, including Perspex. Between 1935 and 1937, he taught art in Vienna, moving on to South Africa, Bali and Australia, before eventually settling in London in 1948. He exhibited with the RA, the NS and the RBA, and became a Fellow of the RBS. His portraits include those of Kathleen Ferrier, Trevor Howard, and the industrialist Lord Robens. A devout Roman Catholic, his notable achievement is having sculpted four Popes from life. His work is contained in churches and other buildings in Britain and abroad, including galleries in Blackburn, Sydney and Bratislava.
Sources: Barnes, Joanna, Arthur Fleischmann 1896--1970: A Centennial Celebration, Fine Art, 1996; Voak, Jonathan, Sculpture and Light: an exhibition of sculptures by Arthur Fleischmann (1896--1990), Westminster Cathedral, 12--27 October 1991, Manchester, 1991. [WCS2003]

Arthur Fleischmann (1896--1990)
Sculptor born in Bratislava, Slovakia (then part of Hungary). He studied medicine in Budapest and Prague, eventually qualifying as a doctor. However, he became interested in art and won a scholarship to the Master School of Sculpture at Vienna, also studying in France and Italy. He taught art in Vienna, 1935--7, and also held classes for the Czech army. He lived for a number of years in successive countries (South Africa, Bali and Australia) before settling in London in 1948. He exhibited from this date at the Royal Academy, the National Society of Painters, Sculptors and Gravers, and the Royal Society of British Artists. Fleischmann did many portrait busts including four successive popes from life, a record accomplished by no other artist. His work, though originally figurative, became increasingly abstract from the 1960s and he became a pioneer in the use of perspex for sculpture. A devout Roman Catholic, he has work in many churches. Examples of his work are also in public galleries in Leeds and Blackburn in the UK as well as in Bratislava and Sydney.
Sources
: Buckman, D., 1998; Spalding, F., 1990. [LR 2000]

Benjamin John Fletcher (1868--1951)
Artist, craftsman and teacher. He worked for the Coalbrookdale Company, Shropshire, from the age of about eleven and from 1885--8 attended part-time classes at Coalbrookdale School of Art. Here he was influenced by the principal Augustus Spencer’s ideas about linking art to manufacturing. When in 1888 Spencer left to become Principal of Leicester School of Art, he employed Fletcher as a teacher and as his deputy. Fletcher succeeded Spencer as Principal (1900--20), his ideas during his principalship strongly influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement. He and his students produced much work for Dryad Metal Works, his friend Harry Peach’s firm (formed in partnership with William Pick in 1912). In 1920 Fletcher left Leicester to take up the post of Principal at Birmingham School of Art.
Sources
: L. Advertiser, 2 May 1914, p.[?]; L. Mercury, 3 August 1922, p.1; L. Daily Post, 25 September 1920, pp.2, 3. [LR 2000]

Ron Florenz
Sculptor based in Nottingham. In summer 1980 he had a solo exhibition and held a public demonstration of portraiture at Hinckley Public Library. [LR 2000]

John Ashton Floyd
Sculptor. Based in Manchester in the interwar years with addresses in Daisy Bank Road and Plymouth Grove. His works include war memorials and architectural carving (Midland Bank, Manchester). ARCA.
Source: Manchester Directories. [Man2004]

Fogg, Son & Holt
Firm of architects, based in Liverpool. [LR 2000]

John Henry Foley (1818--74)
Sculptor. Born in Dublin. Followed his brother Edward in training as a sculptor, first at the Royal Dublin Society’s School and from 1835 at the RA Schools. His The Death of Abel and Innocence were well received when exhibited at the RA in 1839. In the following year he carved the marble group, Ino and Bacchus, for Lord Ellesmere. Such works helped to build his reputation. Foley executed a considerable number of public portrait statues including John Hampden (St Stephen’s Hall, London, 1847) and John Fielden (Todmorden, 1863). Statues of the temperance advocate, Father Matthew (Cork, 1864), Daniel O’Connell (Dublin, 1866) and Edmund Burke (Dublin, 1868) were among commissions received from Ireland. An impressive equestrian statue of Viscount Hardinge (Calcutta, 1858), was one of a number of public commissions he received from that city. Foley also produced several statues of Prince Albert, including the gilt bronze one for the Albert Memorial in London (completed after his death by his pupils). Elected ARA in 1849 and RA in 1858.
Sources: Gunnis, 1968; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

John Henry Foley (1818--74)
Born in Dublin. His elder brother, Henry, preceded him in the sculptor’s profession. J.H. Foley entered the Royal Dublin Society’s School in 1831. He became a student at the Royal Academy in London in 1835. In 1839, his Death of Abel and Innocence were favourably received at the Royal Academy exhibition, and in the following year the Earl of Ellesmere commissioned a group of Ino and Bacchus. Following the exhibition of Youth at the Stream at the Westminster Hall Exhibition of 1844, Foley received commissions for statues of Hampden (1847) and Selden (1853), for the Houses of Parliament. During the 1850s he produced two of the most highly praised statues in the series commissioned for the Egyptian Hall of the Mansion House. After the death of Prince Albert, Foley created for Cambridge University a memorial statue of Albert (1866), now in the village of Madingley, Cambs. When the sculptor Marochetti, who had been given the commission for the statue of the Prince for the Albert Memorial, died in 1867, the commission was given to Foley. The colossal gilt bronze statue was completed after Foley’s death by his pupil, G.F. Tenniswood. Foley also sculpted the allegorical group of Asia for the memorial. For his birthplace, Dublin, Foley produced the ambitious monument to Daniel O’Connell (1866). His equestrian statue of Viscount Hardinge (1858) for Calcutta, was described by the Art Journal as ‘a masterpiece of art’. A later equestrian statue, also for Calcutta, of Sir James Outram (1864) was more complex and dynamic in its movement. Foley introduced a degree of naturalistic sensuality into the sculptural idiom of the day, without relaxing compositional control. He became a full RA in 1858.
Sources: J.T. Turpin, ‘The Career and Achievement of John Henry Foley, Sculptor (1818--1874)’, Dublin Historical Record, March and June 1979; B. Read, ‘John Henry Foley’, Connoisseur, August 1974. [CL2003]

John Henry Foley (1818--74)
Foley studied at the Royal Dublin Society’s School between 1831--4 and entered the RA Schools in 1835, later winning the Silver Medal. In the front rank of British sculptors, he produced statues, busts and monuments in England, Ireland and India. His works include his masterpiece, the equestrian statue of Viscount Hardinge, Calcutta (1859), his most prestigious commission, Prince Albert, and the group of Asia on the Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens (1864--72), and Prince Consort, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1876). He exhibited at the RA between 1839 and 1861, being elected RA in 1858. He was a member of the Royal Hibernian Society (1861) and of the Belgian Academy of Arts (1863) as well as of the British Institution (1840--54).
Sources: Cosmo, W., The Works of J.H. Foley, London, 1875; Underwood, E.G., A Short History of English Sculpture, London, 1933; Read, B., Victorian Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982; MacKay, James, Dictionary of Western Sculptors in Bronze, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1977. [WCS2003]

John Henry Foley (1818--74)
Born in Dublin, he was educated at the Royal Dublin Society Schools, 1833, and was admitted to the RA Schools in 1835. He exhibited there from 1839, and in 1844 received the first of many commissions for statues of historical and contemporary political figures, including John Hampden, Palace of Westminster (1844), and the equestrian Monument to Viscount Hardinge, Calcutta (1858). His most famous work is the seated figure of the Prince Consort in the Albert Memorial, London, for which he also produced the representative group Asia. The commission was awarded to him after the death of Marochetti (q.v.), but Foley himself died before it was finished, and the statue was completed by his studio assistant Thomas Brock. He executed numerous portrait busts of society figures and monuments in churches throughout Britain, Ireland and India; he also designed the Great Seal of the Confederate States of America and the Stonewall Jackson Monument, Virginia (1874). He was elected ARA in 1849, and RA in 1858.
Sources: BN, 4 September 1874, p.283; Gunnis; Cavanagh, p.328; Brooks, pp.189--97. [G2002]

John Henry Foley (1818--1874)
Studied at the Royal Dublin Society Schools from the age of thirteen. He then moved to London in 1834 and was admitted to the RA Schools in 1835. In 1844 his entry for the Westminster Hall competition brought him a commission to execute a statue of John Hampden, and thereafter he was one of the most sought-after sculptors in Britain and elected RA in 1858. His equestrian statue of Viscount Hardinge for Calcutta was regarded as his masterpiece. His most prestigious commissions were Prince Albert and Asia for the Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens. It was claimed that it was while working in the open on the cold wet clay of Asia that he contracted the pleurisy which eventually killed him. Many of his works were unfinished at his death, though several of them were completed by his leading assistant Thomas Brock, including the O’Connell Monument in Dublin, Viscount Gough and Canning in Calcutta and the Prince Consort for the Albert Memorial.
[
1] PSoL, p.328. [2] Spielmann, p.26. [3] Sankey, J., ‘Thomas Brock and the Albert Memorial’, Sculpture Journal, vol.3, 1999, pp.87--92. [NE 2000]

John Henry Foley (1818--1874)
Born in Dublin, 24th May 1818, he died in London, 27th August 1874. After studying at the Royal Dublin Society’s School 1831---4, he entered the RA Schools in 1835, later winning the silver medal. In the front rank of British sculptors he produced statues, busts and monuments in England, Ireland and India. Works include: Equestrian Statue of Viscount Hardinge, Calcutta 1859; Prince Albert and group of Asia on the Albert Memorial, 1864--72; Prince Consort, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 1876. Exhibited at the RA 1839--61. ARA 1849; RA 1858; Member of Royal Hibernian Society 1861; Member of Belgian Academy of Arts 1863; and British Institution 1840--54.
1
. W. Cosmo, The works of J.H. Foley, London, 1875; 2. J. Mackay, Dictionary of western sculptors in bronze, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1977, p.137; 3. B. Read, Victorian sculpture, New Haven and London, 1982; 4. E.G. Underwood, A short history of English sculpture, London, 1933. [B1998]

John Henry Foley (1818--74)
Born in Dublin, he entered the Royal Dublin Society Schools at the age of thirteen, gaining first prizes for human form, ornamental design, animals, and architecture. He moved to London in 1834 and was admitted to the RA Schools the following year. In 1840 his group, Ino and Bacchus, was purchased by Lord Ellesmere and in 1844 his entry for the competition at Westminster Hall secured him a commission to execute a Statue of John Hampden for the Houses of Parliament. Henceforward, Foley was one of the most sought after sculptors in Britain. He was elected ARA in 1849 and RA in 1858. In 1861 he was elected full member of the Royal Hibernian Academy and, in 1863, the Belgian Academy of Arts. His equestrian Viscount Hardinge (for Calcutta, now private collection) was acclaimed as his masterpiece, but his Prince Albert and Asia for the Albert Memorial were perhaps his most prestigious commissions. It was while working in the open air on the cold wet clay of Asia that Foley is believed to have contracted the pleurisy that killed him, leaving unfinished numerous works including the Sefton Park William Rathbone, which his pupil, Brock, completed.
(sources: DNB; Gunnis, 1951) [L 1997]

Giovanni Giuseppe Fontana (1821--1893)
Sculptor and watercolourist, born at Carrara. He gained a gold medal at Carrara Academy and later was awarded a scholarship to Rome. He aligned himself politically with Garibaldi and came to England as an exile in 1848. Subsequently he became a naturalised British citizen and remained here for the rest of his life. He exhibited in London from 1852 to 1886, notably at the RA and the New Watercolour Society. In addition to the Corporation of Liverpool, he received commissions from the Governments of Sydney and New South Wales. A number of his works are in the collection of the WAG.
(sources: Art Journal [obit.], 1894; Bénézit, 1976) [L 1997]

Deborah Ford (b.1968)
She attended Coventry Polytechnic as an art student from 1987 until 1990, and subsequently moved into graphics design. She is currently based in London.
Source: information from the artist. [WCS2003]

Edward Onslow Ford (1852--1901)
Sculptor. Born in London. Ford studied first as a painter in Antwerp and Munich in the early 1870s before deciding to take up sculpture. Established studio in London. An important early commission, won in public competition, was the statue Rowland Hill (King Edward Street, London, originally outside the Royal Exchange, 1882). Other commissions followed including General Gordon Riding a Camel (Brompton Barracks, Chatham, 1890 and Khartoum, later Gordon’s Boys’ School, Woking) and Gladstone (National Liberal Club, 1894). The Shelley Memorial in University College, Oxford, was completed in 1893, a gift to the college that had expelled the poet when a student. A leading figure in the New Sculpture, Ford was recognised for his bronze studies of female figures including Folly (1886), Peace (1890) and Echo (1895). Exhibited at the RA from 1875 and was elected ARA in 1888 and RA in 1895. He died in 1901, the year in which his much criticised Victoria Memorial was unveiled in Manchester.
Sources: Read, 1982; Beattie, 1983; Usherwood, 2000. [Man2004]

Edward Onslow Ford (1852--1901)
Born in London, he trained as a painter in Antwerp (1870) and in Munich (1871--2), where he shared a studio with the sculptor Edwin Roscoe Mullins. It was the Munich sculptor Wagmüller who persuaded Ford to take up modelling. On his return to London, Ford began to exhibit sculpture at the Royal Academy. His first important commission was for the statue of Rowland Hill (1881) for the City of London. Many more commissions for public work followed, including one for a full-length marble figure of the actor Henry Irving as Hamlet (1883), commissioned by Irving himself, and later presented by him to the Guildhall Art Gallery. Ford’s statue of General Gordon Riding a Camel (bronze, 1890, the original statue, once in Khartoum, is now at the Gordon Boys School in Woking, and another cast is at the Royal Engineers Barracks in Chatham) is a novel variant on the usual equestrian type, remarkable for the finesse of its exotic detail. Ford’s Jubilee statue of Queen Victoria for Manchester, was inaugurated there in the year of the Queen’s death. His memorial to the poet Shelley in University College, Oxford, takes the form of a tomb, with the poet’s body laid, as if washed up by the sea, on an elaborate table-like plinth, guarded by a female muse. Ford also produced a number of bronze statuettes of pubescent nude figures: Folly (1885, Tate Britain, London), The Singer (1889), Peace (1890, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool), Echo (1895). Though he belonged to the circle known as the New Sculptors, Ford’s work is free of philosophical symbolism. He shared with the other members of the group only the desire to escape from the canons of ideal beauty adhered to by earlier Victorian sculptors. Ford was Master of the Art Workers’ Guild in 1895 and elected RA in the same year.
Sources: S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; B. Read and A. Kader, Leighton and his Sculptural Legacy 1875--1930, Exh. cat. Joanna Barnes Fine Art, London, 1996. [CL2003]

Edward Onslow Ford (1852--1901)
Born in Islington, London, he originally studied painting at Antwerp Academy, 1870, but turned to sculpture while studying in Munich, 1871--4. A close associate of Alfred Gilbert (1854--1934), and a contributor to the New Sculpture movement, his many public commissions include statues of General Gordon, Chatham (1890, repeated at Khartoum, 1904) and Queen Victoria, Manchester (1901). He exhibited busts, statuettes and genre pieces at the RA from 1875, many of them with exotic subject matter drawn from Egyptian archaeology, such as The Singer (1889) and Applause (1893). He was elected ARA in 1888, and RA in 1895.
Sources: Spielmann, pp.51--63; Waters; Beattie, p.242; Mackay. [G2002]

Edward Onslow Ford (1852--1901)
Studied at the academies in Antwerp and Munich (1870--2) and subsequently worked in Munich for five years. On his return to London he set up as a portrait sculptor and received his first public commission in 1881. In the mid-1880s his work became affected by what later came to be termed the New Sculpture, particularly the poetic symbolism of Alfred Gilbert. His later notable public commissions, for instance General Gordon on a Camel (1890) and the Shelley Memorial, Oxford, 1893, tend to be more conventional. He was elected ARA in 1888 and RA in 1895.
[
1] Turner (ed.), vol.11, pp.302--4. [2] Spielmann, pp.51--63. [3] Dixon, M., ‘Onslow Ford RA’, Art Journal, 1898, pp.294--7. [NE 2000]

George Henry Ford (1912--77)
Having studied sculpture at Hornsey School of Art under Harold Youngman, Ford exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, and elsewhere in Britain. Bradford City Art Gallery holds his carving Eve, executed in teak. He was elected a Fellow of the RBS in 1955.
Source: Gowing, L., A Biographical Dictionary of Artists, London, 1983. [WCS2003]

Jonathan Ford (b.1971)
After graduating from Coventry University with a degree in Fine Art in 1995, Jonathan Ford became a freelance artist specialising in public sculpture in steel and aluminium. His major works include Schlanke Meth (1997) and the Giant Vacuum Cleaner (1998), both in Coventry, and the kinetic sculpture Rotor-Relief (1998) for Wysing Arts in Cambridge. He is currently working on two pieces, a First and Second World War memorial sculpture commissioned by Llandudno Junction Memorial Hall, and Depth Charges at 500ft for Wednesfield Way, Wolverhampton.
Source: information from the artist. [WCS2003]

Ken Ford (b. 1930)
Sculptor born at Birstall, Leicestershire. He studied at Leicester College of Art, 1946--9, and the Royal College of Art, 1949--53, gaining a Rome Scholarship, 1955--7. He was Head of Sculpture at Leicester Polytechnic, 1967--88. From 1998 he has been a visiting lecturer at the Elizabeth Frink School of Sculpture, Stoke-on-Trent. His public commissions outside Leicestershire include Into our First World, 1993, Surrey Heath House, Camberley, Surrey.
Sources
: information from the sculptor; L. Mercury, 13 October 1992, p.4. [LR 2000]

Laura Ford (b.1961)
Ford trained at Bath Academy of Art (1978--82) and at Chelsea School of Art (1982--3). Her group shows include those at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester (1982); the Hayward Gallery, London (1983); the Tokyo Museum of Modern Art (1984); Wakefield’s Yorkshire Sculpture Park (1986) and the Third Eye Centre, Glasgow (1988) as well as the touring exhibitions The Deadly Grove (1988) and Ariadne (1989--90). These last two were collaborations with Annie Griffin, in which she aimed to sharpen the viewer’s awareness of internal conflicts within the female psyche. She has since held solo exhibitions in Nottingham (1991), New York (1994) and Exeter (1996). Her work is included in the collections of the Art Council, the Contemporary Arts Society, Unilever, Penguin Books and the Government Art Collection.
Sources: Buckman, D., Dictionary of Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol, 1998, p.436; Crichton, F., Laura Ford: Paintings and Sculpture, London, 1991; Goodwood Sculpture Park, Sculpture at Goodwood: British Contemporary Sculpture, accessed 2002, www.sculpture.org.uk; Nicola Jacobs Gallery, Laura Ford: Paintings and Sculpture, London, 1987; Spalding, F., 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Dictionary of British Art, vol.6, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1990, p.182. [SBC2005]

Robert Forrest (1791--1852)
A stonemason and self-taught sculptor, he was born in Carluke, Lanarkshire, near the Clydesdale quarries where he worked until being ‘discovered’ by an army officer named Colonel Gordon. His first commission was for a life-size Highland Chieftain, followed by William Wallace, for Lanark (1817). As a full-time sculptor he produced statues of literary and historical figures, and completed Chantrey’s (q.v.) Monument to Lord Melville, St Andrew Square, Edinburgh (1822). Despite his secure reputation as a sculptor, in 1823 he began attending classes in drawing, modelling and anatomy in various private studios and schools, including the Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh and Warren’s Academy in Glasgow. His education was continued in 1837 when he visited France and Italy. In 1832 he was given permission to set up a temporary exhibition hall beside the National Monument on Calton Hill, Edinburgh, to display four colossal equestrian statues of historical figures, including Robert the Bruce and Mary, Queen of Scots, each carved from a single block of sandstone weighing approximately twenty tons. The collection was subsequently extended to about thirty groups. Although the exhibition was well received, and did much to enhance his reputation as Scotland’s ‘national sculptor’, it was not a financial success, and eventually proved ruinous. His most ambitious project was the design for a statue of the Duke of Wellington, commissioned by Lord Elgin for the summit of Arthur’s Seat, Edinburgh. This was to be eighty feet tall, but remained unexecuted after Lord Elgin’s death in 1841.
Sources: Anon., ‘The Lanarkshire Sculptor’, Chambers Edinburgh Journal, no.1 (1832), pp.357--8; Descriptive Catalogue of Statuary from the Chisel of Mr Robert Forrest, Edinburgh, 1835; Scottish Reformers Gazette, 4 April 1840, p.2; Robert Forrest, Descriptive Account of Exhibition of Statues, National Monument, Calton Hill, Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 1846. [G2002]

James Forsyth (1827--1910)
Forsyth trained as a wood-carver and stonemason in Edinburgh. In 1882, he settled in Hampstead, where he practised as an architectural and ecclesiastical sculptor, working closely with James Nesfield, Norman Shaw, Ernest George, Salvin and Gilbert Scott. Between 1880 and 1889, he exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. His most notable architectural commissions are the Perseus and Andromeda Fountain at Witley Court in Worcestershire (c.1860), and the Market Place Fountain, Dudley (1867). He executed a number of monuments, including those to Bishop Parry (1881) and the Hon. James Beaney (1893), both in Canterbury Cathedral, and to Bishop Pelham (1896) in Norwich Cathedral. He also carried out work to others’ designs, including a font for William Slater at Lichfield Cathedral (c.1862).
Sources: Cavanagh, T. and Yarrington, A., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000, p.366; Grice, F., ‘Two Victorian Sculptors -- James and William Forsyth’, Transactions of the Worcestershire Archaeological Society, 3rd series, vol.9, 1984, Worcester, pp.101--6; Johnson, J. and Greutzner, A., Dictionary of British Artists 1880--1940, Woodbridge, 1976, p.182. [SBC2005]

James Forsyth (1826--1910)
London-based architectural and ecclesiastical sculptor. His most notable architectural commissions are the Perseus Fountain, c.1860, Witley Court, Great Witley, Worcestershire, and the Market Place Fountain, 1867, Dudley, Staffordshire. His ecclesiastical commissions include an Ascension relief, date unknown, for Trinity Hall Chapel, Cambridge, and an alabaster relief of Christ Appearing to his Disciples, 1860, for the pulpit of St Dionysius Parish Church, Market Harborough, Leicestershire (removed to Harborough Museum, 1975). He executed a number of monuments, including those to Bishop Parry, 1881, and to the Hon. James Beaney, 1893, both Canterbury Cathedral, to Bishop Fraser (died 1885), Manchester Cathedral, and to Bishop Pelham, 1896, Norwich Cathedral. He also carried out much work to others’ designs, especially the architect William Eden Nesfield, for whom he executed the stone reredos, organ case, table tomb, etc., 1868, at St Mary’s, Kings Walden, Hertfordshire, and the Village Cross, 1861--70, West Derby, Liverpool. For William Slater he executed a font, c.1862, at Lichfield Cathedral; for R.H. Carpenter relief figures for the reredos, 1884, in the choir at Sherborne Abbey; for B. Ingelow the pulpit, 1899, for the crossing, also at Sherborne Abbey; and for Oldrid Scott the recumbent marble effigy for the Monument to Bishop T. Leigh Claughton, 1895, St Alban’s Cathedral. Forsyth exhibited between 1880 and 1889 at the Royal Academy and at the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. He was the father of another sculptor, James Nesfield Forsyth.
Sources
: Good, M. (comp.), 1995; Johnson, J. and Greutzner, A., 1976; personal knowledge. [LR 2000]

James Forsyth
An architectural sculptor, he exhibited between 1880 and 1889 at the RA and the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. He was the father of sculptor, James Nesfield Forsyth.
(source: Johnson & Greutzner, 1976) [L 1997]

John Fortnum (b.1945)
After completing his studies in sculpture at Camberwell School of Art in 1964, John Fortnum became a sculptor’s assistant to a number of artists, including Philip King and Freda Brilliant. Based in London, he has exhibited in the UK since 1970 and, by 1980, was also exhibiting abroad, in Norway. He works in a variety of media, including ceramics, pastels, photography, stone, steel and found objects. His public art commissions include Medusa in stone for Portland Clifftop Sculpture Park (1985); Flying Figure, Flotta, Orkney (1988); a nine-metre figure of Robert de Brunne in Bourne Wood, Lincolnshire (1992); Jack the Treacle Eater, Yeovil (1994); William De Dalby, North Yorkshire Moors (1997) and Woodlands Tunnel, Rochester (1998).
Sources:  AXIS, The Axis Database Online, 1999, www.axisartists.org.uk/; Borough of East Staffordshire: Leisure Services, Public Art in Burton, 1990, no.11;  Information from records held at Dudley Public Art Resource Unit, Himley Hall, Dudley, 2001. [SBC2005]

Thomas Fradgley (fl.1830s)
Uttoxeter-based architect who designed several buildings in the town in addition to working at Alton Towers, Staffordshire.
Source: Pevsner, N., The Buildings of England: Staffordshire, Harmondsworth, 1974, pp.56ff., 77, 270, 290. [SBC2005]

Sir George James Frampton (1860--1928)
Sculptor. Born in London. Worked in an architect’s office and then for a firm of architectural stone-carvers, before training at the Lambeth School of Art under W.S. Frith and, in 1881--7, at the Royal Academy Schools. His group, An Act of Mercy, exhibited at the RA in 1887, won the Gold Medal and Travelling Scholarship. In 1888--90 he was in Paris, studying sculpture under Antonin Merci. Frampton’s Angel of Death gained a gold medal at the Salon of 1889. Frampton was an important figure in the New Sculpture movement. He was also a member of the Art Workers’ Guild from 1887 and Master in 1902. He was elected ARA in 1894 and RA in 1902. In 1908 he was knighted. In 1911--12 he was President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. He developed a large practice producing ideal works, monuments, busts and statues. His principal public commissions included statues of Queen Victoria in Calcutta, Winnipeg, St Helens and Leeds, and the memorial to Edith Cavell (St Martin’s Place, London, 1920). Best remembered for his bronze Peter Pan (Kensington Gardens, 1912), a replica of which for Sefton Park, Liverpool was completed shortly before his death.
Sources: DNB; Cavanagh, 1997. [Man2004]

Sir George James Frampton (1860--1928)
Frampton was born in London. He began his professional career in an architects’ office, but went on to train at the South London Technical Art School (1880--1), and at the Royal Academy Schools (1881--7). The next two years were spent in Paris, where Frampton studied with Antonin Mercié. On his return to London he developed his own distinctive version of the symbolist style, which combines dreamlike and suggestive qualities with a draughtsmanly perfection seemingly derived from the English tradition of Flaxman. His symbolism was most spectacularly embodied in the poetic busts, Mysteriarch (painted plaster) of 1892, now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool and the Lamia (ivory, bronze and opals) of 1900, in the collection of the Royal Academy. During the 1890s, Frampton wrote articles on woodwork, enamelling and polychromy, and he made a distinctive contribution to the movement for the integration of sculpture and architecture, contributing work to buildings by T.E. Collcutt, J. Belcher, Aston Webb and J.W. Simpson. Frampton’s 1897 statue of Queen Victoria for Calcutta launched his career as a public statuary. It was followed by several commissions for Liverpool, including those to William Rathbone (1899--1900) and Canon T. Major Lester (1904--7), both in St John’s Gardens. In London, his public statues include the small and atmospheric Peter Pan Memorial in Kensington Gardens (1912--15) and the towering national memorial to Edith Cavell in St Martin’s Place (1920). Frampton was Master of the Art Workers’ Guild in 1902. He was knighted in 1908, and in 1911--12 served as President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. As an eminence grise of the sculpture world, during and after the First World War, his influence was often crucial in the selection of sculptors as war artists and as creators of war memorials.
Sources: S. Beattie, The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983. [CL2003]

Sir George James Frampton (1860--1928)
Born in London, he trained as an architect, then studied sculpture at Lambeth School of Art, under W.S. Frith (q.v.), and at the RA Schools, winning the Gold Medal and a travelling scholarship to Paris in 1887. A central figure in the New Sculpture movement, he produced ideal work, busts in marble and bronze, and received many commissions for architectural and public sculpture throughout the UK. These include terracotta decoration on the Constitutional Club, London (1883--6), the Sailingship and Steamship bronzes on Lloyds Registry, London (1902), the lions at the Edward VII Galleries, British Museum, for J.J. Burnet’s London practice (1903--14) and sculpture on the façade of the V&A (1899--1908). His public monuments include statues of William Rathbone, Liverpool (1899), Queen Victoria, Newcastle (1901) and the W.S. Gilbert Memorial, Victoria Embankment, London (1915). Frampton’s most popular work, however, is Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, London (1912). After the First World War he executed the Pearl Insurance War Memorial, High Holborn, London (c.1918), and the Edith Cavell Memorial, St Martin’s Place, London (1920). He exhibited at the RA from 1884, was elected ARA in 1894, RA in 1902, and served as PRBS, 1911--12. He was knighted in 1908.
Sources: Waters; Beattie, pp.243--4; Gray. [G2002]

Sir George James Frampton (1860--1928)
Sculptor and craftsman, born 16 June 1860 in London. He worked first in an architect’s office, then for a firm of architectural stone carvers, before training at the Lambeth School of Art under William Silver Frith and, in 1881--7, at the Royal Academy Schools. His group, An Act of Mercy, exhibited at the RA in 1887, won the Gold Medal and Travelling Scholarship and in 1888--90 he was in Paris, studying sculpture under Antonin Mercié. Frampton’s Angel of Death gained a gold medal at the Salon of 1889. In the 1890s he became interested in the Arts and Crafts movement and wrote influential articles on enamelling, woodcarving, and polychromy, etc., as well as actually producing works in those media. His Mysteriarch of 1893, which shows the influence of French symbolism, was awarded the médaille d’honneur at the Paris International Exhibition 1900. Frampton was a member of the Art Workers’ Guild from 1887 and Master in 1902. He was elected ARA in 1894 and RA in 1902 (exhibiting there regularly 1884--1928). In 1908 he was knighted. From 1911--12 he was President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors, having been a founder member. Such recognition brought increasing numbers of public commissions, including many for monuments to Queen Victoria (firstly at Calcutta, 1897; then variants at Winnipeg; St Helens, Lancashire; Leeds, etc.). One of his most splendid private commissions is the set of silver-gilt figure panels of Arthurian heroines for the door of the Great Hall for Lord Astor’s London house, 1895--6. Perhaps his most famous work, however, is his bronze