Interactions of Marine Biogeochemical Cycles and Ocean Physics

 

Observations, Data Synthesis, and Modelling

 

Dorothee C.E. Bakker, Gianfranco Anastasi, Peter Brown*,

Gareth Lee, Ollie Legge, Neill MacKay, Siobhan Moran#,

Natalie Wager+ and Stephen Woodward

* also at the British Antarctic Survey,

# also at the University of Exeter,

+ in Jan Kaiser’s group.

 

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Research Interests and Highlights: Many of the complex interactions between the cycles of carbon, nutrients and iron, ocean circulation and global climate are not well understood. The diverse projects carried out by our research group address questions related to the ocean carbon cycle and the air-sea transfer of long-lived greenhouse gases, the interactions of ocean biogeochemistry and ocean circulation, and the possible effects of climate change and ocean acidification on biogeochemical cycles, using observations, data synthesis and modelling.


 

  Elizabeth Jones in the container   
Elizabeth Jones, Peter Brown and Gareth Lee during sea-going work.

 

 

Air-sea transfer of long-lived greenhouse gases: The air-sea fluxes of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by individual oceanic regions and its temporal variation remain poorly quantified (Lenton et al., 2013; Bakker et al., 2014a). Natalie Wager investigates the air-sea gas transfer of CO2, N2O and CH4 in North-western European shelf seas, in the Arctic Ocean and in the Atlantic Ocean. Peter Landschützer, a former group member, combines a neural network approach with the SOCAT gridded product for the quantification of the ocean carbon sink and its spatial, seasonal and year-to-year variation (Landschützer et al., 2013). A comparison of Peter’s flux values to other estimates using SOCAT, such as those based on an ocean mixed layer model (Rödenbeck et al., 2013), is in progress.

 

 

The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas: The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) provides quality controlled surface water carbon dioxide (CO2) data for the global oceans and coastal seas (Pfeil et al., 2013; Sabine et al., 2013). SOCAT version 2 has 10.1 million CO2 data from 2660 data sets over the period 1968 to 2011 (Bakker et al., 2014b). SOCAT is an effort by the international, seagoing marine carbon community. Dorothee Bakker chairs the global group of SOCAT. UEA work on SOCAT is funded as part of the EU funded CarboChange project and the UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme. We also contribute to the CARINA and GLODAP2 data synthesis projects for marine carbon data. A new data base brings together the data of iron enrichment experiments (Boyd et al., 2012). These synthesis projects will ensure public access to and long-term storage of these valuable ocean biogeochemical data.

 

 

Surface water fCO2 data in SOCAT version 2 (Bakker et al., 2014b).

SOCAT is an international collaboration of seagoing marine carbon scientists around the world.

Synthesis products such as SOCAT are important tools in marine carbon science.

 

 

Interactions between ocean circulation and carbon uptake: Transient tracers, such as chlorofluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride, are used as 'tracers' of ocean circulation, ocean mixing (e.g. as part of DIMES) and water mass formation. Siobhan Moran and colleagues at the University of Exeter are studying the role of diapycnal mixing in the uptake and transport of carbon in the Southern Ocean. Both carbonate chemistry and tracer measurements are used for studies of oceanic uptake of 'anthropogenic' carbon. Pete Brown and colleagues are using such measurements from deep vertical sections for quantifying anthropogenic carbon in newly formed Antarctic Bottom Water, as part of the ANDREX project (also see the UEA ANDREX site).

 

 

Processes driving the Southern Ocean carbon sink: Seasonal sea ice melt is accompanied by a rapid transition of CO2-rich waters below sea ice to a CO2 sink upon ice melt (Bakker et al., 2008; Jones et al., 2010). Ollie Legge studies seasonal changes in the marine carbon system at the Rothera Oceanographic and Biological Time Series (RaTS). Iron supply is an important control on biological carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean, as shown in the SOIREE and EisenEx experiments (Boyd et al., 2000; Watson et al., 2000) and studies of island blooms (Bakker et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2012). Former group member Nina Bednarsek has demonstrated dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean (Bednarsek et al., 2012). 

 


PhD studentships: The Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (COAS) at the University of East Anglia offers a vibrant research community with specialists in biological, chemical and physical, marine and atmospheric sciences. Highly motivated PhD candidates with strong scientific interests are encouraged to contact Dorothee Bakker.

 

 

         

The midnight sun in the Southern Ocean.

 

 

References:

Bakker D.C.E., Bange H., Gruber, G., Johannessen, T., Upstill-Goddard, R.C., Borges, A.V., Delille, B., Löscher, C.R., Naqvi, S.W.A., Omar, A.M.S., Santana-Casiano, J.M. (2014a) Air-sea interactions of natural long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) in a changing climate. In: Liss, P.S. and Johnson, M. T. (eds.) Ocean-atmosphere interactions of gases and particles. Springer Verlag. 315 pp. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25643-1.

 

Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Smith, K., Hankin, S., Olsen, A., Alin, S. R., Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Kozyr, A., Nojiri, Y., O’Brien, K. M., Schuster, U., Telszewski, M., Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Akl, J., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Cai, W.-J., Castle, R. D., Chavez, F. P., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., De Baar, H. J. W., Evans, W., Feely, R. A., Fransson, A., Gao, Z., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Hoppema, M., Huang, W.-J., Hunt, C. W., Huss, B., Ichikawa, T., Johannessen, T., Jones, E. M., Jones,  S., Jutterstrřm, S., Kitidis, V., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefčvre, N., Manke, A. B.,  Mathis, J. T., Merlivat, L., Metzl, N., Murata, A., Newberger, T., Omar, A. M., Ono, T., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Pierrot, D., Ríos, A. F., Sabine, C. L., Saito, S., Salisbury, J., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Sullivan, K. F., Sun, H., Sutton, A. J., Suzuki, T., Sweeney, C., Takahashi, T., Tjiputra, J., Tsurushima, N., Van Heuven, S. M. A. C., Vandemark, D., Vlahos, P., Wallace, D. W. R., Wanninkhof, R. and Watson, A. J. (2014b) An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2). Earth System Science Data, 6, 69-90. doi:10.5194/essd-6-69-2014.

 

Bakker, D.C.E., Hoppema, M., Schröder, M., Geibert, W., Baar H. J.W. de (2008) A rapid transition from ice covered CO2-rich waters to a biologically mediated CO2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre. Biogeosciences 5: 1373-1386. doi:10.5194/bg-5-1373-2008.

Bakker, D.C.E., M.C. Nielsdóttir, P.J. Morris, H.J. Venables, A.J. Watson (2007) The island mass effect and biological carbon uptake for the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago. Deep-Sea Research II 54: 2174-2190, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.06.009.

Bednaršek, N., Tarling, G.A., Bakker, D.C.E., Fielding, S., Jones, E.M., Venables, H.J., Ward, P., Kuzirian, A., Lézé, B., Feely, R.A., Murphy, E.J. (2012) Extensive dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean. Nature Geoscience 5:881-885. doi:10.1038/ngeo1635.


Boyd, P.W., A.J. Watson, C.S. Law, E.R. Abraham, T. Trull, R. Murdoch, D.C.E. Bakker, A.R. Bowie, K.O. Buesseler, H. Chang, M.A. Charette, P. Croot, K. Downing, R.D. Frew, M. Gall, M. Hadfield, J.A. Hall, M. Harvey, G. Jameson, J. LaRoche, M.I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, M. Maldonado, R.M. McKay, S.D. Nodder, S. Pickmere, R. Pridmore, S. Rintoul, K. Safi, P. Sutton, R. Strzepek, K. Tanneberger, S.M. Turner, A. Waite and J. Zeldis (2000) A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature 407: 695-702
. doi:10.1038/35037500.

 

Boyd, P.W., Bakker, D.C.E., Chandler, C. (2012) A new database to explore the findings from large-scale ocean iron enrichment experiments. Oceanography 25(4): 64-71. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2012.104.

 

Hennige, S.J., Wicks, L.C., Kamenos, N.A., Bakker, D.C.E., Findlay, H.S., Dumousseaud, C., Roberts, J.M. (2014) Short-term metabolic and growth responses of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to ocean acidification. Deep-Sea Research II 99:27-35, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.07.005.

 

Jones, E.M., Bakker, D.C.E., Venables, H.J., Watson, A.J. (2012) Dynamic seasonal cycling of inorganic carbon downstream of South Georgia, Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II 59-60: 25-35. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.08.001.

 

Jones, E.M., Bakker, D.C.E., Venables, H.J., Whitehouse, M.J., Korb, R.E., Watson, A.J. (2010) Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt. Tellus 62B (5): 621-635. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00496.x.

 

Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Bakker, D.C.E., Schuster, U., Nakaoka, S. Payne, M.R., Sasse, T., Zeng, J. (2013) A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Biogeosciences Discuss. 10: 8799-8849. doi:10.5194/bgd-10-8799-2013.

 

Lenton, A., Tilbrook, B., Law, R.M., Bakker, D.C.E., Doney, S.C., Gruber, N., Ishii, I., Hoppema, M., Lovenduski, N.S., Matear, R.J., McNeil, B.I., Metzl, N., Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E., Monteiro, P.M.S., Rödenbeck, C., Sweeney, C. and Takahashi, T. (2013) Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean for the period 1990-2009. Biogeosciences 10: 4037-4054, doi:10.5194/bg-10-4037-2013.

 

Pfeil, B., Olsen, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Hankin, S., Koyuk, H., Kozyr, A., Malczyk, J., Manke, A., Metzl, N., Sabine, C. L., Akl, J., Alin, S. R., Bates, N., Bellerby, R. G. J., Borges, A., Boutin, J., Brown, P. J., Cai, W.-J., Chavez, F. P., Chen, A., Cosca, C., Fassbender, A. J., Feely, R. A., González-Dávila, M., Goyet, C., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N., Heinze, C., Hood, M., Hoppema, M., Hunt, C. W., Hydes, D., Ishii, M., Johannessen, T., Jones, S. D., Key, R. M., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefčvre, N., Lenton, A., Lourantou, A., Merlivat, L., Midorikawa, T., Mintrop, L., Miyazaki, C., Murata, A., Nakadate, A., Nakano, Y., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., Omar, A. M., Padin, X. A., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Perez, F. F., Pierrot, D., Poisson, A., Ríos, A. F., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Salisbury, J., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Schneider, B., Schuster, U., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Suzuki, T., Takahashi, T., Tedesco, K., Telszewski, M., Thomas, H., Tilbrook, B., Tjiputra, J., Vandemark, D., Veness, T., Wanninkhof, R., Watson, A. J., Weiss, R., Wong, C. S., and Yoshikawa-Inoue, H. (2013) A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), Earth Syst. Sci. Data 5: 125-143, doi:10.5194/essd-5-125-2013

 

Pollard, R.T., Salter, I., Sanders, R.J., Lucas, M.I., Moore, C.M., Statham, P.J., Allen, J.T., Bakker, D.C.E., Charette, M.A., Fielding, S., Fones, G.R., French, M., Hickman, A.E., Holland, R.J., Hughes, J.A., Jickells, T.D., Lampitt, R.S., Mills, R.A., Nédélec, F.H., Morris, P.J., Nielsdóttir, M., Planquette, H., Popova, E.E., Poulton, A.J., Read, J.F., Seeyave, S., Smith, T., Stinchcombe, M., Thomalla, S., Venables, H.J., Williamson, R., Zubkov, M.V. (2009) Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization. Nature 457: 577-581. doi:10.1038/nature07716.

 

Rödenbeck, C., Keeling, R.F., Bakker, D.C.E., Metzl, N., Olsen, A., Sabine, C.L., Heimann, M. (2013) Global surface-ocean pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme. Ocean Science 9: 193-216, doi:10.5194/os-9-193-2013.

 

Sabine, C. L., Hankin, S., Koyuk, H., Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Olsen, A., Metzl, N., Kozyr, A., Fassbender, A., Manke, A., Malczyk, J., Akl, J., Alin, S. R., Bellerby, R. G. J., Borges, A., Boutin, J., Brown, P. J., Cai, W.-J., Chavez, F. P., Chen, A., Cosca, C., Feely, R. A., González-Dávila, M., Goyet, C., Hardman-Mountford, N., Heinze, C., Hoppema, M., Hunt, C. W., Hydes, D., Ishii, M., Johannessen, T., Key, R. M., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefčvre, N., Lenton, A., Lourantou, A., Merlivat, L., Midorikawa, T., Mintrop, L., Miyazaki, C., Murata, A., Nakadate, A., Nakano, Y., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., Omar, A. M., Padin, X. A., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Perez, F. F., Pierrot, D., Poisson, A., Ríos, A. F., Salisbury, J., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Schneider, B., Schuster, U., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Suzuki, T., Takahashi, T., Tedesco, K., Telszewski, M., Thomas, H., Tilbrook, B., Vandemark, D., Veness, T., Watson, A. J., Weiss, R., Wong, C. S., and Yoshikawa-Inoue, H. (2013) Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products, Earth Syst. Sci. Data 5: 145-153, doi:10.5194/essd-5-145-2013

 

Watson, A.J., D.C.E. Bakker, P.W. Boyd, A.J. Ridgwell, and C.S. Law (2000) Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2. Nature, 407: 730-733. doi:10.1038/35037561.

 


 
RRS James Cook  

A snow-covered RRS James Clark Ross and the RRS James Cook in South Georgia.

 


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Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences

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