BSc Natural Sciences
 UCAS Course Code
 CFG0
 ALevel typical
 AAA See All Requirements
About this course
Cross boundaries with this radically interdisciplinary degree that allows you to study Biology, Chemistry, Computing, Environmental Sciences, Mathematics and Physics. We’re based at the heart of Norwich Research Park, where our cuttingedge work drives our teaching, placing you at the forefront of scientific advances. Because of this, graduates from our Natural Sciences degrees are highly employable – 100% of last year’s alumni were in graduate work or further study within 6 months.
Biology alone will not beat cancer, environmentalists alone will not mitigate global warming – scientific advances are forged through collaboration, and across the country researchers are forming partnerships to tackle the world’s most pressing issues.
This highly competitive degree provides you with vital knowledge of several scientific disciplines and the flexibility of the degree allows you to direct your learning to pursue your own developing interests or career goals.
Biology alone will not beat cancer, environmentalists alone will not mitigate global warming – scientific advances are forged through collaboration, and across the country researchers are forming partnerships to tackle the world’s most pressing issues.
This highly competitive degree provides you with vital knowledge of several scientific disciplines and the flexibility of the degree allows you to direct your learning to pursue your own developing interests or career goals.
Course Profile
Overview
The Natural Sciences programme is ideal if you wish to combine study in more than one area of science whilst retaining a larger degree of flexibility than joint degrees allow. You will study modules from a minimum of two main disciplines, with the opportunity to study specialist topics as your degree programme develops.
By studying Natural Sciences you will be able to appreciate complex concepts from across contemporary science. An example of this could be examining the biological complexities of how a virus spreads through a population, alongside the computational techniques necessary to predict and illustrate it.
You will experience what is required of a competent scientist; from the deliberation needed to design an experiment, including consideration of the results, to the excitement of discovering something new.
Course Structure
This three year course gives you an opportunity to build on your existing scientific knowledge, and possibly discover new avenues of scientific study available at university level. In the second and third year, you will have the chance to choose from a diverse range of scientific modules from science schools across the faculty; from Artificial Intelligence to Quantum Mechanics and Symmetry.
The degree programme is made up of optional modules from across the Faculty of Science. In your final year of study, you will engage in a substantial research project that will reflect your own scientific interests.
Assessment
A variety of assessment methods are used across the different modules available to Natural Sciences students, ranging from 100% coursework to 100% examination. Coursework assessment methods include course tests, problem sheets, laboratory reports, field exercises, field notebooks, literature reviews, essays and seminar presentations. Skillsbased modules are assessed by 100% coursework. The final year project involves a substantial piece of written research work, which counts for 40% of your final year mark.
Course Modules
Students must study the following modules for credits:
Name  Code  Credits 

Students will select 0  60 credits from the following modules:
Name  Code  Credits 

BIODIVERSITY
An introduction to the evolution of the major groups of microorganisms, plants and animals. The module considers structural, physiological and lifecycle characteristics of these organisms. It charts the development of life on land and interprets evolutionary responses to changing environments. Students on this module are strongly advised to also take BIO4008Y or BIO4010Y.

BIO4001A 
20 
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
What are the most pressing environmental challenges facing the world today? How do we understand these problems through cuttingedge environmental science research? What are the possibilities for building sustainable solutions to address them in policy and society? In this module you will tackle these questions by taking an interdisciplinary approach to consider challenges relating to climate change, biodiversity, water resources, natural hazards, and technological risks. In doing so you will gain an insight into environmental science research 'in action' and develop essential academic study skills needed to explore these issues. Please note that ENV students, BIO Ecology students, NAT SCI students and SCI Foundation Year students can request a place on this module, however priority will be given to ENV students. Please note that nonENV students wishing to select this module must obtain a signature from their advisor confirming that he/she will agree to mark the independent essay component of the module assessment in the spring semester (this must be done within the first two weeks of the autumn semester by sending an email to the module organiser (Dr A. AngerKraavi) copied to the HUB at: env_ug.hub@uea.ac.uk ).

ENV4001A 
20 
UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMIC PLANET
Understanding of natural systems is underpinned by physical laws and processes. This module explores energy, mechanics, physical properties of Earth materials and their relevance to environmental science using examples from across the Earth's differing systems. The formation, subsequent evolution and current state of our planet are considered through its structure and behaviour#from the planetary interior to the dynamic surface and into the atmosphere. Plate Tectonics is studied to explain Earth's physiographic features#such as mountain belts and volcanoes#and how the processes of erosion and deposition modify them. The distribution of land masses is tied to global patterns of rock, ice and soil distribution and to atmospheric and ocean circulation. We also explore geological time#the 4.6 billion year record of changing conditions on the planet and introduce geological materials, resources and hazards.

ENV4005A 
20 
Students will select 0  60 credits from the following modules:
Name  Code  Credits 

EVOLUTION, BEHAVIOUR AND ECOLOGY
This module introduces the main ideas in behavioural ecology, evolutionary biology and ecology. It concentrates on outlining concepts as well as describing examples. Specific topics to be covered include the genetical basis of evolution by natural selection, systematics and phylogeny, the adaptive interpretation of animal sexual and social behaviour, ecological processes and population biology.

BIO4002B 
20 
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE EARTH'S SYSTEM I
The habitability of planet Earth depends on the physical and chemical systems on the planet which control everything from the weather and clim ate to the growth of all living organisms. This module aims to introduce you to some of these key cycles and the ways in which physical and chemical scientists investigate and interpret these systems. The module will lead many of you on to second and third year courses (and beyond) studying these systems in more detail, but even for those of you who choose to study other aspects of environmental sciences a basic knowledge of these systems is central to understanding our planet and how it responds to human pressures. The course has two distinct components, one on the physical study of the environment (Physical Processes: e.g. weather, climate, ocean circulation, etc.) and one on the chemical study (Chemical Processes: weathering, atmospheric pollution, ocean productivity, etc.). During the course of the module the teachers will also emphasise the interrelationships between these two sections This course is taught in two variants: In 4007B (described here) we will provide a Basic Chemistry introduction for those students who have little or no background in chemistry before coming to UEA (see prerequisites). If you have previous experience of chemistry you will take ENV 4008B. This course will run throughout semester 2 involving a mixture of lectures, laboratory practical classes, workshops and a half day field trip.

ENV4007B 
20 
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE EARTH'S SYSTEM II
The habitability of planet Earth depends on the physical and chemical systems on the planet which control everything from the weather and climate to the growth of all living organisms. This module aims to introduce you to some of these key cycles and the ways in which physical and chemical scientists investigate and interpret these systems. The module will lead many of you on to second and third year courses (and beyond) studying these systems in more detail, but even for those of you who choose to study other aspects of environmental sciences a basic knowledge of these systems is central to understanding our planet and how it responds to human pressures. The course has two distinct components, one on the physical study of the environment (Physical Processes: e.g. weather, climate, ocean circulation, etc.) and one on the chemical study (Chemical Processes: weathering, atmospheric pollution, ocean productivity, etc.). During the course of the module the teachers will also emphasise the interrelationships between these two sections This course is taught in two variants. The version of the course described here (4008B) is for students with previous experience of chemistry. Students with no previous experience of chemistry will take ENV 4007B (see prerequisites). This course will run throughout semester 2 involving a mixture of lectures, laboratory practical classes, workshops and a half day field trip.

ENV4008B 
20 
SUSTAINABILITY, SOCIETY AND BIODIVERSITY
Striking a balance between societal development, economic growth and environmental protection has proven challenging and oftentimes contentious. The concepts of `sustainability' and `sustainable development' have been coined to denote processed aiming to achieve this balance. Yet this has been hampered by contestation and ambiguity surrounding these concepts. This module introduces sustainable development, and examines why sustainability is so difficult to achieve, bringing together social and ecological perspectives. This module considers sustainability in theory and practice by examining the relationships between environment and society, through the contributions of a variety of social science disciplines. It also explores sustainability from an ecological perspective, introducing a range of concepts relevant to the structure and functioning of the biosphere and topics ranging from landscape and population ecology, to behavioural, physiological, molecular, genetic and chemical ecology. This module is assessed by coursework and an examination. TEACHING AND LEARNING A series of lectures in this module considers sustainability in theory and practice by examining the relationships between environment and society, drawing upon contributions from social science disciplines and perspectives (e.g. politics, health assessment, participation). These lectures, complemented by seminars and practicals introduce sustainable development, explore how interpretations have evolved over time, analyse how these are used by groups and interests in society, and examine the challenges of its implementation. These are followed by lectures which consider interactions between human societies and natural ecosystems, the anthropogenic impacts on biomes, ecosystems, communities, populations and the genetic diversity of individuals. The introduce approaches and ideas fundamental to modern quantitative conservation ecology. The practicals include an introduction to ecological communities, measuring ecological diversity, elementary statistical analysis, field exercises involving terrestrial environments and field trip to a nature reserve to examine relationships between landscape management and/or one or more approaches to measuring biological diversity. Selfdirected reading provides opportunities for the students on this module to explore and reflect on these and other aspects in more detail. This module is intended to give you a flavour of the issues, themes and considerations relating to biodiversity, ecosystem services and human development. It does not require indepth prior knowledge of social sciences, biology chemistry or physics.

ENV4006B 
20 
Students will select 0  120 credits from the following modules:
Name  Code  Credits 

BONDING, STRUCTURE and PERIODICITY
After an introduction to chemical bonding (taught jointly with CHE4101Y), atomic and molecular structure and chemical principles, this module will provide an introduction to the structures, properties and reactivities of molecules and ionic solids. The latter part of the course will concentrate more on fundamental aspects of inorganic chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationships between chemical bonding and the structures and properties of molecules. This module is the prerequisite for the 2nd year inorganic module CHE5301B. The first few lectures of this module are integrated with CHE4101Y. The course is supported and illustrated by the bonding, structrure and periodicity experiments of the first year practical modules, CHE4001Y and CHE4601Y.

CHE4301Y 
20 
CALCULUS AND MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS
This module is incompatible with MTHB4006Y and ENV4002Y. (a) Complex numbers. (b) Differentiation and integration. Taylor and MacLaurin series. Applications: curve sketching, areas, arc length. (c) First order, second order constant coefficient ordinary differential equations. Reduction of order. Numerical solutions using MAPLE. Partial derivatives, chain rule. (d) Vectors. (e) Line integrals. Multiple integrals, including change of coordinates by Jacobians. Green's theorem in the plane. (f) Euler type and general linear ODEs. (g) Divergence, gradient and curl of a vector field. Scalar potential and path independence of line integral. Divergence and Stokes' theorems. (h) Introduction to Matlab

MTHA4005Y 
40 
CHEMISTRY OF CARBONBASED COMPOUNDS
After a shared introduction to atomic structure and periodicity (taught jointly with CHE4301Y), 4101Y introduces the concepts of # and # bonding and hybridisation, conjugation and aromaticity, the mechanistic description of organic reactions, the organic functional groups, the shapes of molecules and the stereochemistry of reactions (enantiomers and diastereoisomers, SN1/SN2 and E1/E2 reactions, and epoxidation and 1,2difunctionalisation of alkenes). These principles are then elucidated in a series of topics: Enolate, Claisen, Mannich reactions, and the Strecker amino acid synthesis; the electrophilic substitution reactions of aromatic compounds, and the addition reactions of alkenes, and the chemistry of polar multiple bonds. Organic synthesis and spectroscopy are discussed, with a survey of methods to synthesise alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers, amines and carboxylic acids, and the use of IR, UV and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to identify the products.

CHE4101Y 
20 
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY  COLLECTION AND COMPARISON
History of forensic science, forensic collection and recovery methods, anticontamination precautions, microscopy, glass refractive index, introduction to pattern recognition including footwear; introduction to Drugs analysis; forensic statistics and QA chain of custody issues. The second half Introduces the student to the fundamentals of DNA and biotechnology essential for an understanding of forensics technologies. Topics covered include: nucleic acid/chromosome structure, replication, mutation and repair; concepts of genetic inheritance; DNA manipulation and visualisation; DNA sequencing; DNA fingerprinting. Teaching and learning methods: lectures, practicals and mentor groups (pbl). Presentation of a case study.

CHE4701Y 
20 
FOUNDATIONS FOR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of the key aspects of physical and biological chemistry that underpin the physiology of living systems. It will provide a basic understanding of a number of physiological processes and functioning of major organ systems of the human body.

BIO4009Y 
20 
GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
This module provides an introduction and orientation regarding geographical thought, methods and concepts. It begins with an overview of the history and development of the discipline. This will lead on to discussion of core concepts such as space, place, scale, systems, nature, landscape and risk. In addition, the methods and different types of evidence used by geographers (e.g. texts, archival data, maps and field observations) will be introduced. Students will be able to demonstrate an appreciation of the diversity of approaches to the generation of geographical knowledge and understanding and the capacity to communicate geographical ideas, principles, and theories effectively and fluently by written, oral and visual means.

ENV4010Y 
20 
LIGHT, ATOMS AND MOLECULES
This module introduces students to the major areas of classical physical chemistry: chemical kinetics, chemical thermodynamics, electrolyte solutions in addition to spectroscopy. Chemical kinetics will consider the kinetic theory of gases and then rate processes, and in particular the rates of chemical reactions taking place either in the gas phase or in solution. The appropriate theoretical basis for understanding rate measurements will be developed during the course, which will include considerations of the order of reaction, the Arrhenius equation and determination of rate constants. Thermodynamics deals with energy relationships in large assemblies, that is those systems which contain sufficient numbers of molecules for 'bulk' properties to be exhibited and which, are in a state of equilibrium. Properties discussed will include the heat content or enthalpy (H), heat capacity (Cp, Cv), internal energy (U), heat and work. The First Law of Thermodynamics will be introduced and its significance explained in the context of chemical reactions. It is very important that chemists have a basic understanding of the behaviour of ions in solution, their conductivity and mobility. These will be discussed in the course, together with simple theories of strong and weak electrolytes in water. The interaction of radiation with matter is termed spectroscopy. Three main topics will be discussed: (i) ultraviolet/visible (UV / Vis) spectroscopy, in which electrons are moved from one orbital to another orbital; (ii) infrared (vibrational) spectroscopy, a technique which provides chemists with important information on the variety of bond types that a molecule can possess; (iii) magnetic resonance spectroscopy, especially nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which allow chemists to identify 'molecular skeletons'.

CHE4202Y 
20 
LINEAR ALGEBRA
Linear equations and matrices (including geometric aspects); Determinants. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Diagonalization. Vector spaces and linear transformations.

MTHA4002Y 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENTISTS A
THIS MODULE CAN NOT BE TAKEN WITH ENV4003Y. This module is designed for students in the Faculty of Science with A2 or AS level mathematics. It covers differentiation, integration, vectors, partial differentiation, ordinary differential equations, further integrals, power series expansions, complex numbers and statistical methods. In addition to the theoretical background there is an emphasis on applied examples. Previous knowledge of calculus is assumed. This module is the first in a series of three maths modules for students across the Faculty of Science that provide a solid undergraduate mathematical training. The following modules are Mathematics for Scientists B and C.

ENV4002Y 
20 
MOLECULES, GENES AND CELLS
The module explores the principles of how information is stored in DNA, how it is expressed, copied and repaired, and how DNA is transmitted between generations. The module will provide an introduction to fundamental aspects of biochemistry and cell biology. The essential roles played by proteins and enzymes in signalling, transport and metabolism will be considered in terms of their structures. You will discover how living cells are visualised and the nature of the cell's component membranes and organelles.

BIO4013Y 
40 
NUMERICAL SKILLS FOR SCIENTISTS
THIS MODULE CAN NOT BE TAKEN WITH ENV4002Y This module is about revising GCSE level mathematics and learning how to apply these skills to solving applied environmental science problems. It is designed for students who have a GCSE in maths at grade C or B or equivalent level and will cover essential mathematics (algebra, indices and scientific notation, manipulating and solving equations, units, accuracy and errors, reading graphs, logs, exponentials, trigonometrical functions, concept of rate of change, and an introduction to calculus). It will also cover the most important statistical methods that you will need during the rest of your career in ENV, including ways of summarising data using both numerical summaries and graphs, testing hypotheses and carrying out these analyses on computers. An important part of this module is applying these quantitative skills to environmental and geographical problems. This module is assessed by formative assessment and course test / examination.

ENV4003Y 
20 
PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN THE BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCES
The lecture programme will provide you with essential information about some of the physical principles that underpin our understanding of molecular and cellular systems. It will be accompanied with lectures/workshops on basic math skills that you will need to use during this module as well as in the rest of your degree program. The complementary seminar series will help to consolidate your understanding through applying this knowledge to selected topics in the molecular biosciences and provide you with the opportunity to develop skills in problem solving and data analysis.

BIO4007Y 
20 
PRACTICAL and QUANTITATIVE SKILLS IN CHEMISTRY
Laboratorybased module exposing the students to experimental and computational aspects of different areas of chemistry: organic, inorganic, analytical and physical. The experiments and simulations exemplify the content of lectures in other modules and provide practical chemistry skills. Mathematical skills relevant to the understanding of chemical concepts will be introduced. Statistics as applied to experimental chemistry. Error propagation in physical chemistry. Physical principles briefly covered through applied mathematics.

CHE4601Y 
20 
RESEARCH AND FIELD SKILLS
This module year long module introduces a range of transferable skills, tools and data resources that are widely used in research across the Environmental Sciences. The aim is to provide a broad understanding of the research process by undertaking different activities that involve i) formulating research questions, ii) collecting data using appropriate sources and techniques, iii) collating and evaluating information and iv) presenting results. The module will include the use of digital mapping technologies (such as geographical information systems GIS) and a 6 day residential field course held during the Easter Break.

ENV4004Y 
20 
SKILLS FOR CHEMISTS
This module will include: Mathematical skills relevant to the understanding of chemical concepts; Statistics as applied to experimental chemistry; Error propagation in physical chemistry and Physical principles through applied mathematics. This part of the module aims to bring students' understanding of mathematical ideas and physics to a sufficient level to study core physical chemistry in later stages. The module also contains a broadly based series of lectures on science, coupled with activities based upon them. The twin objectives for this part of the module are to provide a contextual backdrop for the more focused studies in other concurrent and subsequent degree courses, and to engage students as participants in researching and presenting related information.

CHE4050Y 
20 
TOPICS IN PHYSICS
This module gives an introduction to important topics in physics, with particular, but not exclusive, relevance to chemical and molecular physics. Areas covered include optics, electrostatics and magnetism, and special relativity. The module may be taken by any science students who wish to study physics beyond ALevel.

CHE4801Y 
20 
Students will select 100  120 credits from the following modules:
In this option range 20 of the 100120 credits may be selected from a School outside the Science Faculty, not listed in this profile, with the approval of the Course Director.
Name  Code  Credits 

ALGEBRA
(a) Group theory: basic concepts and examples. Cosets, Lagrange's theorem. Normal subgroups and quotient groups. First isomorphism theorem. Quotient spaces in linear algebra. (b) Rings, elementary properties and examples of commutative rings. Ideals, quotient rings. Polynomial rings and construction of finite fields. Unique Factorization in rings. Applications in linear algebra.

MTHA5003Y 
20 
ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
This module provides a practical introduction to electronics. Topics include a review of basic components and fundamental laws; introduction to semiconductors; operational amplifiers; combinational logic; sequential logic; and state machines. Much of the time is spent on practical work. Students learn how to build prototypes, make measurements and produce PCBs.

CMP5027A 
20 
ANALYSIS
This module covers the standard basic theory of the complex plane. The areas covered in the first semester, (a), and the second semester, (b), are roughly the following: (a) Continuity, power series and how they represent functions for both real and complex variables, differentiation, holomorphic functions, CauchyRiemann equations, Moebius transformations. (b) Topology of the complex plane, complex integration, Cauchy and Laurent theorems, residue calculus.

MTHA5001Y 
20 
APPLIED STATISTICS A
ACTUARIAL SCIENCE AND BUSINESS STATISTICS STUDENTS SHOULD TAKE CMP5019B, APPLIED STATISTICS B, DUE TO THE DIFFERENT REQUIREMENTS OF THEIR COURSE. This is a module designed to give students the opportunity to apply statistical methods in realistic situations. While no advanced knowledge of probability and statistics is required, we expect students to have some background in probability and statistics before taking this module. The aim is to introduce students to R statistical language and to cover Regression, Analysis of Variance and Survival analysis. Other topics from a list including: Extremes and quartiles, Bootstrap methods and their application, Sample surveys, Simulations, Subjective statistics, Forecasting and Clustering methods, may be offered to cover the interests of those in the class.

CMP5017B 
20 
AQUATIC ECOLOGY
An analysis of how chemical, physical and biological influences shape the biological communities of rivers, lakes and estuaries in temperate and tropical regions. There is an important practical component to this module that includes laboratory work and three field visits. The first piece of course work involves statistical analysis of class data. The module can be taken alongside hydrology or geochemical modules, it fits well with other ecology modules and can fit well with modules in development studies. Prerequisite requirements are: An Alevel in a biological subject, a biologically biased access course or any 1st year ecology module in ENV or BIO. Students must have a background in basic statistical analysis of data. Lectures will show how the chemical and physical features of freshwaters influence their biological communities. Students may attend video screenings that complement lectures with examples of aquatic habitats in the tropics. To do well in this module, students need to show that they can use primary literature to illustrate or contradict ideas introduced in lectures: There will be one formal session that shows how to do this. Practical work is an important part of this Module and is an opportunity to develop skills in taxonomy mainly using microscopes, chemical analysis of freshwaters, field observation, working in small groups, minilecture presentation, writing a research proposal and statistical analysis of ecological data. If interested in a career in ecology, the usual route is via a higher degree (Masters or PhD), for which a first or 2:1 is needed. This might lead into research or management work, either in an academically orientated environment or in industry. An alternative path is via casual or voluntary work leading ultimately into conservation or management, but bear in mind that many committed and keen people follow the same route and competition for permanent and paid jobs can be intense. There are also opportunities to enter relevant employment directly after graduation. The Environment Agency, which is responsible for the management, monitoring and legal regulation of many aspects of freshwater, estuaries and coastal waters, is a potential employer. Consulting engineers and many multinational companies have environmental departments that tackle aquatic projects. For this type of work, students might combine ecological modules with management options, or with more physical sciences such as soils, hydrology, hydrogeology, water resources, oceanography and environmental chemistry. Careers in international development on the natural resources side may also benefit from a background in freshwater science.

ENV5001A 
20 
ARCHITECTURES AND OPERATING SYSTEMS
This module studies the organisation of both the system software and the underlying hardware architecture in modern computer systems. The role of concurrent operation of both hardware and software components is emphasised throughout, and the central concepts of the module are reinforced by practical work in the laboratory. The architectures portion of the module focuses on the components of a processor, including the registers and data path, and MIPS is used to demonstrate concepts such as instruction fetch cycles, and instruction decoding, and memory addressing modes. The operating systems component of the module focuses on how the system software manages the competing demands for the system hardware, including memory management, disc and processing scheduling, and so on.

CMP5013A 
20 
ASTROPHYSICS
This 20 credit module gives an overview of astrophysics through lectures and workshops. Assessment will involve some coursework and a coursetest. The module assumes previous study of either A level physics or an equivalent course. Topics covered will include some history of astrophysics, radiation, matter, gravitation, astrophysical measurements, spectroscopy, stars and some aspects of cosmology. Some of these topics will be taken to a more advanced level. The more advanced topics will include workshop examples and course test questions at level 5 standard.

NAT5001A 
20 
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE
Atmospheric chemistry and global change are in the news: stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain, greenhouse gases, and global scale air pollution are among the most significant environmental problems of our age. Chemical composition and transformations underlie these issues, and drive many important atmospheric processes. This module covers the fundamental chemical principles and processes in the atmosphere from the Earth's surface to the stratosphere, and considers current issues of atmospheric chemical change through a series of lectures, problemsolving classes, seminars, experimental and computing labs and a field trip to UEA's own atmospheric observatory in Weybourne/North Norfolk. A solid background in chemistry, physics or maths is recommended.

ENV5015A 
20 
BEHAVIOURAL ECOLOGY
In this module, the interrelationships between animal behaviour, ecology and evolution will be explored. Students will examine how behaviour has evolved to maximise survival and reproduction in the natural environment. Darwinian principles will provide the theoretical framework, within which the module will seek to explain the ultimate function of animal behaviours. Concepts and examples will be developed through the lecture series, exploring behaviours in the context of altruism, optimality, foraging, and particularly reproduction, the key currency of evolutionary success. In parallel with the lectures, students will design, conduct, analyse and present their own research project, collecting original data to answer a question about the adaptive significance of behaviour.

BIO5010B 
20 
BIOCHEMISTRY
This module aims to develop understanding of contemporary biochemistry, especially in relation to mammalian physiology and metabolism. There will be a particular focus on proteins and their involvement in cellular reactions, bioenergetics and signalling processes.

BIO5002A 
20 
BIOLOGY IN SOCIETY
THIS MODULE IS ONLY AVAILABLE TO ANY STUDENT THAT SATISFIES THE PREREQUISITE REQUIREMENTS. Alternative prerequisites are BIO4001A and BIO4002B, or BIO4003A and BIO4004B. This module will provide an opportunity to discuss various aspects of biology in society. Students will be able to critically analyse the way biological sciences issues are represented in popular literature and the media and an idea of the current 'hot topics' in biological ethics. Specific topics to be covered will involve aspects of contemporary biological science that have important ethical considerations for society, such as GM crops, DNA databases, designer babies, stem cell research etc. Being able to understand the difference between scientific fact and scientific fiction is not always straightforward. What was once viewed as science fiction has sometimes become a scientific fact or scientific reality as our scientific knowledge and technology has increased exponentially. Conversely, science fiction can sometimes be portrayed inaccurately as scientific fact. Students will research relevant scientific literature and discover the degree of scientific accuracy represented within the genre of science fiction.

BIO5012Y 
20 
BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
This module explores the structural, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of biological systems and the methodologies used to define them. Using predominantly examples from protein biochemistry, these topics will be discussed within three major themes: 1) Binding, activation and transfer in biological systems, 2) Enzyme catalysis, and 3) Macromolecular size, shape and structure determination. The concluding lectures will explore protein disorder, folding and structure to illustrate how biophysicists integrate concepts and methods from each of these themes when addressing a specific research topic.

CHE5601Y 
20 
BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS, MEASURES, PROBABILITIES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
This module is an optional Spring module. It covers two topics: C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities, and D: Mathematical Modelling. Topic C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities This topic will consider the notion of a measure and discuss its connection with integration. We shall discuss Riemann integration versus Jordan measure and Lebesgue integral versus Lebesgue integration. This will lead us to the idea of Boolean algebras, and in particular measure algebras. Probabilities are just a special kind of measures, so we shall also discuss them. Clearly, integration plays a central role in mathematics and physics. One encounters integrals in the notions of area or volume, when solving a differential equation, in the fundamental theorem of calculus, in Stokes' theorem, or in classical and quantum mechanics. The first year analysis module includes an introduction to the Riemann integral, which is satisfactory for many applications. However, it has certain disadvantages, in that some very basic functions are not Riemann integrable, that the pointwise limit of a sequence of Riemann integrable functions need not be Riemann integrable, etc. We introduce Lebesgue integration, which does not suffer from these drawbacks and agrees with the Riemann integral whenever the latter is defined. Topic D: Mathematical Modelling: Mathematical modelling is concerned with how to convert real problems, arising in industry or other sciences, into mathematical equations, and then solving them and using the results to better understand, or make predictions about, the original problem. This topic will look at techniques of mathematical modelling, examining how mathematics can be applied to a variety of real problems and give insight in various areas. The topics will include approximation and nondimensionalising, and discussion of how a mathematical model is created. We will then apply this theory to a variety of models such as traffic flow as well as examples of problems arising in industry.

MTHF5026B 
20 
CELL BIOLOGY
This module explores the molecular organisation of cells and the regulation of dynamic cellular changes, with some emphasis on medical cell biology. Dynamic properties of cell membranes, cell signalling, growth factor function and aspects of cancer biology and immunology. Regulation of the internal cell environment (nuclear organisation and information flow, cell growth, division and motility), the relationship of the cell to its extracellular matrix and the determination of cell phenotype. Aspects of cell death, the ageing process, developmental biology, mechanisms of tissue renewal and repair. It is strongly recommended that students taking this module should also take BIO5003B or BIO5009A.

BIO5005B 
20 
CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY
Life on Earth began in the oceans and the oceans continue to have a major influence on global ecosystems and climate. The chemical composition of seawater is fundamental to the existence of life in the oceans  it is the life support system on which marine productivity is based. Investigating the distribution of nutrients in the ocean allows us to understand the processes that control marine productivity and its impact on global climate, as well as the effect of anthropogenic oversupply of nutrients (eutrophication) on the natural system. Phytoplankton growth in the ocean produces gases that can influence atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere directly affect the marine carbon cycle and cause Ocean Acidification, which threatens to cause considerable harm to marine ecosystems. Direct intervention in the chemical composition of the ocean has been proposed by some as potential geoengineering solutions to help mitigate the effects of global climate change. This module explores all of these major issues and demonstrates the central role that the oceans play in global biogeochemical cycles and the Earth System.

ENV5019A 
20 
CLIMATE CHANGE: SCIENCE AND POLICY
This module develops skills and understanding in the integrated analysis of global climate change, using perspectives from both the natural sciences and the social sciences. It offers a historical perspective on how climate has influenced society, on how global climate change has developed as a scientific object of enquiry, and on the difficulties and controversies over policies and politics on this issue, culminating in the December 2015 Paris Agreement. The course gives grounding in the basics of climate change science, impacts, adaptation, mitigation and their influence on and by policy decisions. Finally, it considers what will be required to meet the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2 #C above preindustrial levels.

ENV5003A 
20 
COMBINATORICS AND QUANTUM MECHANICS
This module is an optional Autumn module. It covers two topics: A: Combinatorics and B: Quantum Mechanics. Topic A: Combinatorics: The topic is about Counting Things. We will cover: binomial coefficients, the inclusionexclusion principle, compositions, the pigeonhole principle and Ramsey Theory. Topic B: Quantum mechanics: The motion of very small systems such as atoms does not satisfy the equations of classical mechanics. For example an electron orbiting a nucleus can only have certain discrete energy levels. In quantum mechanics the motion of a particle is described by a wave function which describes the probability of the particle having a certain energy. Topics addressed in this module include: Wave Functions, Schrodinger's Equation, Uncertainty Principle, Wave Scattering, Harmonic Oscillators. In classical mechanics, a physical system is described in terms of particles moving with a particular linear momentum. Other phenomena such as the transmission of light are described in terms of the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In the 20th century it became clear that some physical observations can not be explained in such terms  for example the formation of fringe patterns due to the scattering of light through two slits. The concept of a photon having both particle and wavelike properties is at the heart of Quantum Mechanics. In this unit the emphasis is on detailed mathematical study of simplified model systems rather than broad descriptions of quantum phenomena. The main mathematical topics from Year One mathematics modules that this module builds on are differential equations and vector calculus (definitions of grad etc).

MTHF5025A 
20 
COMMUNITY, ECOSYSTEM AND MACROECOLOGY
This module introduces the major community concepts and definitions, before looking in some detail at community patterns and processes including: species interactions; energy flows and productivity; and the hierarchy of drivers influencing community assembly, structure and diversity. Progression through these topics culminates in a macroecological perspective on community patterns and biodiversity. Throughout the module, there is an emphasis on the relevance of ecological theory and the fundamental science to the current environmental and biodiversity crisis. Anthropogenic impacts on natural communities through landuse, nonnative species and pathogens, and climate change, are a recurrent theme underpinning the examples we draw upon.

BIO5014B 
20 
CONSERVATION, ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY IN THE TROPICS (FIELDCOURSE)
This module is for students on relevant courses in the Schools of BIO, ENV, DEV and NAT. NOTE: There will be a significant additional cost to this module to cover the costs of transportation and accommodation in the field. Costs will be detailed at an initial meeting for interested students and clearly advertised. Conservation ecology and biodiversity are central areas of research in the biological sciences and they share many theories, concepts and scientific methods. This module intends to take a practical approach to the commonalities in these areas using a combination of seminar work and fieldwork. The seminars will develop ideas in tropical biology and students will research issues affecting conservation of biodiversity in the tropics, considering the species ecology and the habitats, threats and challenges. There will be a significant component of small group work and directed, independent learning. The field component of this module will be a two week residential field trip to the tropics, one of two field sites (depending on numbers of students and availability).The field sites are run by expert field ecologists and during the two weeks we will explore the local environment, learn about the ecology of the landscape and about the species that inhabit the area. We will develop and run practical sessions on survey and census techniques, use of technology in modern field biology and the role of protected areas in species conservation. Students will conduct original research on the field trip, informed by prior research at UEA, to gain a deeper understanding of an aspect of tropical biology. There will be an assessed presentation on the field trip and many opportunities to develop the students own interests. All student participants will take an active role in the organisation and running of the module in order to gain project management and field logistics experience. Students will be responsible for the procurement, storage and transport of field equipment on the way to the field site and of samples on the return to the UK. Students will gain experience of travelling to a remote area and of working through licensing and customs processes. At the end of the module a report is written on the field project in the style of a journal article addressing specific questions in ecology conservation or biodiversity. Throughout the module students will be expected to maintain a modernmedia record of their project from the initial desk based work at UEA, through the field component to outcomes and reporting.

BIO5020K 
20 
DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS
The purpose of this module is to give the student a solid grounding in the design, analysis and implementation of algorithms, and in the efficient implementation of a wide range of important data structures.

CMP5014Y 
20 
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND APPLIED METHODS
(a) Ordinary Differential Equations: solution by reduction of order; variation of parameters for inhomogeneous problems; series solution and the method of Frobenius. Legendre's and Bessel's equations: Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions and their recurrence relations; Fourier series; Partial differential equations (PDEs): heat equation, wave equation, Laplace's equation; solution by separation of variables. (b) Method of characteristics for hyperbolic equations; the characteristic equations; Fourier transform and its use in solving linear PDEs; (c) Dynamical Systems: equilibrium points and their stability; the phase plane; theory and applications.

MTHA5004Y 
20 
EARTH SCIENCE LAB SKILLS
Good observational and descriptive skills lie at the heart of many areas of Environmental Science. This module is designed to develop those and is particularly suitable for students with interests in Earth and Geophysical Sciences. It will cover generic Earth science skills of use for projects in this area. The module will include: observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials (hand specimen and under microscope); measuring and representing 3d data, and reading geological maps. This module may be taken by Environmental Earth Science undergraduate students who for any reason cannot take ENV5030B Earth Science Skills , and by students taking related degrees with a large component of Earth. Assessment includes a laboratory test and a practical project. The practical project will build on the skills learned in the first part of the module and other skills including time management. TEACHING AND LEARNING The first part will be taught predominately by laboratory and tutorial classes with directed learning exercise. This part will be cotaught with the first part of module ENV5030B Earth Science Skills. The second part of the module will involve studying data and/or material supplied to the student and preparing a report. This will require students to practice good time management, some of the laboratory and analysis skills and presentation skills in addition to description and interpretation. COURSE CONTENT The topics will include: Observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials; Introduction to mineralogy using microscopes; Grain size and character; Sediments and sedimentary petrology; One, two and three dimensional data; Basic geological maps; Representing and manipulating geological data in 3d space. CAREER PROSPECTS The basic geological skills of description, data manipulation and geological material identification learned in this module are what employers of Earth science graduates (and students with related degrees) would expect them to have. It is also useful for those embarking on teaching careers in Earth Science, geography or environmental sciences.

ENV5029B 
20 
EARTH SCIENCE SKILLS
The module includes a weeklong residential field work in the Easter vacation. Students who for whatever reason cannot undertake a weeklong field course in the Easter break should take ENV5029B. Good observational and descriptive skills lie at the heart of many areas of Environmental Science. This module is designed to develop those and is particularly suitable for students with interests in Earth and Geophysical Sciences. It will cover generic Earth science skills of use for projects in this area. The module will include: observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials (in the field, in hand specimen and under microscope); measuring and representing 3d data, reading geological maps and basic geological mapping. This module is strongly recommended for Environmental Earth Science students and it is required for the Geological Society accreditation pathway of Earth Sciences degrees. It will also be of use to students taking related degrees with a large component of Earth science. Assessment is coursework only and will include a laboratory test and work undertaken during fieldwork. The field work builds on the skills learned in the labbased first part of the module. If you have any worries, financial or physical about being able to undertake fieldwork you should discuss your worries with the field course leader before registering on this module. If you are unable to do a week long field course in the Easter vacation please consider taking ENV5029B instead of this module. TEACHING AND LEARNING The first part will be taught predominately in laboratory classes and by selfstudy exercises. This part will be cotaught with the first part of module ENV5029B Earth Science Laboratory Skills. Students will improve their observation, recording and description skills. They will learn methods of manipulating and presenting 3d data, learn some geological map skills and become aware of a range of geological laboratory techniques. The second part is a residential weeklong field course and concentrates on Earth science field observation, description and interpretation. During this residential course students will develop a field skillset, which is designed for students planning an independent project requiring Earth science field skills. The primary focus will be on geological mapping, structure and stratigraphy, but may include hydrogeological, geochemical and Quaternary techniques depending on field location and staff availability. The location of the field course is likely to be North Wales. COURSE CONTENT The module will include: Observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials; Introduction to mineralogy using microscopes; Grain size and character; Sediments and sedimentary petrology; One, two and three dimensional data; geological maps; Representing and manipulating geological data in 3d space. CAREER PROSPECTS The basic geological skills of description, data manipulation and geological material identification learned in this module are what employers of Earth science graduates (and students with related degrees) would expect them to have. For this reason it is a compulsory part of the pathway through the Environmental Earth Sciences degree programmes accredited by the Geological Society.

ENV5030B 
20 
ENERGY ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
In the second year we aim to refine the engineering principles from your earlier studies towards a specialised energy context, applying your knowledge of material properties, thermodynamics and lattice structures to industrial examples. These examples include the analysis of fluid flow in tidal energy generation, the structural mechanics and stability of wind turbine towers alongside the electronics of solar power. The complete range of examples allows students to explore the many facets of energy engineering which their education has opened up for them before choosing an area to specialise in during further years of their course.

ENG5001Y 
20 
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
This module is designed to teach skills necessary for the acquisition of good quality chemical data in environmental systems, and in the interpretation of this data. The module will focus on the collection of environmental samples for chemical analysis, methods of chemical analysis and the analytical and mathematical techniques used for data quality control. There will be a large component of practical work. This module will be particularly relevant for those wishing to do a chemistryrelated project later in their degree. TEACHING AND LEARNING The module is structured around practical classes which will focus on the planning and implementation of field sampling, the preparation, storage and chemical analysis of environmental samples and the subsequent interpretation of the data acquired. Lectures will be used to provide supporting information for this exercise and more general information on broader aspects of analytical chemistry not covered in the practical classes. During the first half of the module, practical work will be based around analysis of samples collected by the class from UEA Broad and the River Yare. The second half of the module will be an independent study (miniproject) exercise, in which small groups will conduct more detailed investigations of the chemistry of the natural water bodies around UEA campus. There will be weekly nonassessed feedback on laboratory results during the module and a feedforward formative assessment associated with miniproject topic selection. COURSE CONTENT: The module will cover field sampling strategies and techniques for preparing and storing chemical samples. There will be a strong focus on laboratory chemical analysis and on the mathematical manipulation of raw laboratory results, including quality control of data and critical comparison of results obtained using different methods. Interpretation of chemical data in its environmental context will also be covered. CAREER PROSPECTS The skills taught in this module have direct relevance to careers involving chemical analysis, with potential employers including the Environment Agency, environmental consultancies and research organizations (including postgraduate degree programmes). The broader skills associated with the use of critical analysis and independent and group work are widely valued in a wide range of professions.

ENV5027B 
20 
ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS AND POLICY MAKING
The most significant obstacles to problem solving are often political, not scientific or technological. This module examines the theoretical and empirical development of contemporary environmental politics. It is structured to analyse these issues from different theoretical perspectives, particularly theories of power and public policy making. The module is focused on dynamic examples of environmental politics and policy making at UK, EU and international levels. The module encourages and supports studentled learning by enabling students to develop their own theoretical interpretations of real world examples of politics. These are explored in seminar presentations and in an extended (4000 word) case study essay. The module assumes no prior knowledge of politics/social sciences.

ENV5002B 
20 
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
This module investigates the principles of evolutionary biology, covering various subdisciplines, i.e. adaptive evolution, population ecology, molecular and population genetics, speciation, biogeography, systematics, and finishing with an overview of Biodiversity. This module will enable you to understand, analyse and evaluate the fundamentals of evolutionary biology and be able to synthesise the various components into an overall appreciation of how evolution works. Key topics and recent research will be used to highlight advances in the field and inspire thought. Weekly interactive workshops will explore a number of the conceptual issues indepth through discussions, modelling and problem solving.

BIO5008B 
20 
FIELD ECOLOGY
Students explore the ecology of moorlands, bogs, sand dunes, rocky shores, estuaries and woodlands. Students should develop skills in identifying plants and animals using scientific keys, carrying out quantitative surveys and statistically analysing their data. Strong emphasis is placed on studentlead project work. The bulk of the teaching takes place on a two week field course in Western Ireland, that runs immediately before the start of the Autumn Semester.

BIO5013A 
20 
FLUID DYNAMICS  THEORY AND COMPUTATION
(a) Hydrostatics, compressibility. Kinematics: velocity, particle path, streamlines. Continuity, incompressibility, streamtubes. Dynamics: Material derivative, Euler's equations, vorticity and irrotational flows. Velocity potential and streamfunction. Bernoulli's equation for unsteady flow. Circulation: Kelvin's Theorem, Helmholtz's theorems. Basic water waves. (b) Computational methods for fluid dynamics; Euler's method and RungeKutta methods and their use for computing particle paths and streamlines in a variety of twodimensional and threedimensional flows; numerical computation and flow visualisation using Matlab; convergence, consistency and stability of numerical integration methods for ODEs. (c) Theory of Irrotational and Incompressible Flows: velocity potential, Laplace's Equation, sources and vortices, complex potential. Force on a body and the Blasius theorem. Method of images and conformal mappings.

MTHA5002Y 
20 
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY  ANALYSIS
Following on from CHE4701Y, where the emphasis was on collection of evidence, this module introduces more indepth forensic chemistry, looking at the way evidence gathered at a crime scene may be analysed in the laboratory. The module will deepen the knowledge of forensic statistics and cover basic detection and recovery techniques for body fluids; dna analysis; fingerprint development and recovery; advanced microscopy and spectroscopy and their application to fibres including the theory and practical application of infrared and raman spectroscopy, paint and other particulates; the use of elemental analysis in forensic science including atomic absorption spectroscopy; and questioned document examination including counterfeiting.

CHE5701Y 
20 
FURTHER MATHEMATICS
This module is for those students who have passed CMP4004Y or equivalent, in their first year and would like to study further theory that is a prerequisite for several other 2nd and 3rd level modules in CMP. For such students it provides an introduction to the mathematics of counting and arrangements, a further development of the theory and practice of calculus, an introduction to linear algebra and its computing applications and a further development of the principles and computing applications of probability theory. 3D Vectors and complex numbers are also studied.

CMP5006A 
20 
GENETICS
This module will describe the basis of heredity, describing both the function and structure of genes and whole genomes together with the regulation of gene expression. Examples will be taken from bacterial, animal and plant systems and will be considered from both functional and molecular points of view. The influence of modern genetics on medicine and agriculture will also be included. Laboratorybased practical work will involve functional anlaysis of a protein involved in DNA repair processes in Escherichia coli using contemporary moleculargenetic strategies. It is strongly recommended that students taking this module should also take BIO5003B (Molecular Biology).

BIO5009A 
20 
GEODYNAMICS: EARTH'S ENGINE
Processes in the Earth's interior have exerted a profound influence on all aspects of the Earth's system through geological time. This module is designed to explore all aspects of those processes from the creation and destruction of tectonic plates to the structure of the Earth's interior and the distribution and dissipation of energy within it. This will include: the theory and mechanisms of plate tectonics, , the generation of magma and volcanism; the mechanisms behind earthquakes. The geological record of this activity, its evolution and impacts on the Earth will also be discussed. TEACHING AND LEARNING There will be 2 lectures and a 3hour practical class each week for 11 weeks (there is a Reading Week in week 6). Lectures will introduce you to the full scale of plate tectonics, from the whole Earth to regional scale features at Earth surface with an emphasis on understanding the underlying processes and latest scientific developments in understanding these processes. Theory from lectures is supported by applied examples in practicals through use of maps, experimental analogue materials, and paper exercises. There is some maths (rearranging and solving simple equations) at a level suitable for all ENV students. COURSE CONTENT Earth structure and heat budget Models for tectonic plate motion The Wilson cycle Features and process that characterise continental and oceanic crust, plate boundaries. Faults and seismicity Making and evolving magma Differentiation, storage, movement and eruption of magma How this unit fits into your degree: This is an excellent introduction to some of the principles that underpin many topics in the Earth Sciences in particular. It can be taken as a general interest module but also works particularly well for those with an interest in natural hazards and/or geological processes. Topics discussed also involve some of the basic geological principles behind the deposition and storage of fossil fuels. CAREER PROSPECTS A knowledge of Earth's structure and geological processes are desirable for understanding many of Earth's natural systems, to support interpretations of geophysical surveys, (relevant to subsurface resources of all kinds) and understanding of geohazards. Thus is relevant to research and employment in construction industry, geoconsultancy, geohazard assessment and risk mitigation. Typical employers may include the BGS, geophysical companies (e.g. Gardline, Fugro) and prepare for MSc and PhD that may lead to employment with companies and consultants engaged in resource exploration (from hydrocarbons to water to CO2 storage). The transferable employability skills include selfdirected report writing, thinking in 4D (3D spatial + time), team work, also the integration of physical process with people, resources and the environment.

ENV5018A 
20 
GEOMORPHOLOGY
Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. This module will provide an introduction to understanding a number of earth surface processes that lead to expression in landforms and soil evolution. The approach will be both descriptive and quantitative, based on understanding erosional and depositional concepts, weathering and sediment transport and the evolution of soils in landscape. The emphasis will be on local East Anglian field sites as case studies illustrating and explaining ecogeomorphology, coastal and glacial geomorphology, dovetailed with soil evolution. The geomorphological/landscape expression will be linked to an 'ecosystem service appreciation' in each key teaching block. Students will also be introduced to the methods and different types of evidence used by physical geographers and earth scientists (e.g., maps, imagery and field observations). This module is assessed by an essay/data analysis exercise and students will also be set formative assessments. This module provides a knowledge base of particular relevance to the semester 2 module ENV5035B SEDIMENTOLOGY.

ENV5034A 
20 
GIS SKILLS FOR PROJECT WORK
This module builds upon the introduction to the use of GIS provided in the first year Research and Field Skills module (ENV4004Y), focusing on how students can obtain their own data (both from a wide range of online sources and in the field), integrate it together and then undertake analysis and presentation tasks. Such skills are particularly important for the final year projects (ENV6021A) undertaken by many students. Skills in GIS are also valued by many prospective employers across public, private and nonprofit sectors, and also for further study at MSc or PhD level. The module will review the different techniques that can be used to create and edit data in a GIS, as well as existing digital databases (both UK and global) from which map data can be extracted and downloaded. ESRI ArcGIS will be the main software used, but there will also be an introduction to open source tools such as QGIS. The module will emphasize issues of data quality (e.g. uncertainty and accuracy) as they apply to spatial data and introduce the use of scripting tools (e.g. Python) as a way of documenting and efficiently repeating more complex analysis procedures. To make links with project work and employability there will also be case studies of GIS use in the workplace. Teaching will consist of a onehour lectures and a threehour practical class each week. The lectures will cover key concepts, data sources and techniques in GIS, with a particular emphasis on environmental applications. These will be reinforced by practical exercises mainly using the ArcGIS software. Students should expect to spend a significant amount of time outside of scheduled classes on their formative and summative coursework.

ENV5028B 
20 
GRAPHICS 1
Graphics 1 provides an introduction to the fundamentals of computer graphics for all computing students. It aims to provide a strong foundation for students wishing to study graphics, focusing on 2D graphics, algorithms and interaction. The module requires a good background in programming. OpenGL is utilised as the graphics API with examples provided in the lectures and supported in the laboratory classes. Other topics covered include transformations, texture mapping, collision detection, graphics hardware, fonts, algorithms for line drawing, polygon filling, clipping and colour.

CMP5010B 
20 
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This module aims to provide an understanding of the themes and principles of physiology and a detailed knowledge of the major human organ systems. Topics include: Information transmission by the nervous system and the integrative processes of the spinal cord and brain; Reaction to the environment through perception of external stimuli by sensory receptors, including the eyes and ears; The muscular and skeletal systems, including muscle contraction and its control, bones and joints; Respiration, gas transport, blood circulation and heart function; Kidney function in excretion and in water and mineral homeostasis; Nutrition and the digestive system; The endocrine system and its role in human disease. A central principle in physiology is the concept of homeostasis. An understanding of how disease affects the ability of organ systems to maintain the status quo is an important part of this course.

BIO5004A 
20 
HYDROLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY
Hydrology and hydrogeology are Earth Science subjects concerned with the assessment of the natural distribution of water in time and space and the evaluation of human impacts on the distribution and quality of water. Knowledge of Hydrology and Hydrogeology is fundamental to the management of freshwater resources for the benefits of drinking water supply, food production and aquatic habitats. This module provides an introduction to geological controls on groundwater occurrence, aquifer characteristics (porosity and permeability), basic principles of groundwater flow, basis hydrochemistry, an introduction to catchment hydrology, hydrological data collection and analysis, runoff generation processes and the principles of rainfallrunoff and flood modelling. Practical classes develop analytical skills in solving hydrogeological and hydrological problems as well as field skills in pumping test analysis and stream gauging. A field excursion to the River Thurne catchment in Norfolk is also offered in this module. The module aims to equip students with the basic skills required to pursue careers in water resources engineering and management.equivalent mathematical skills. For example, an ability to work with common mathematical operations is essential such as the simple rearrangement of equations, and the ability to convert between varying units of length and volume. Basic differential equations will be presented for the description of groundwater flow.

ENV5021A 
20 
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
Nowadays, millions of people worldwide make use of IR systems every day via search engines, and the exponential increase in the number of websites and documents available means that these systems have been developed to be highly efficient. In this module, we will cover the essential theoretical ideas that underpin modern information retrieval (e.g. the vectorspace model, probabilistic approaches, relevance feedback etc.) and examine how they are practically implemented in current systems. Lecture material is reenforced by a set of laboratory exercises and an assessment that enable you to implement some of these ideas practically. We also examine natural language processing techniques that are increasingly used in IR, and the emerging technologies of audio and video retrieval.

CMP5036A 
20 
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The module describes the structure, bonding and reactivity patterns of inorganic compounds. The aspects covered are set out in the content summary. The module is a prerequisite for the 3rd level inorganic course CHE6301B. Further details will be provided in the course information booklet.

CHE5301B 
20 
INSTRUMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
The module covers the theory and practical application of some key instrumental techniques for chemical analysis. Molecular spectroscopy, chromatography and electroanalytical techniques are the important instrumental methods included. Laboratory practicals using these techniques will reinforce material covered in the lecture programme.

CHE5501Y 
20 
LOW CARBON ENERGY
This module will focus on the decarbonisation of energy supply and demand in a carbon constrained world. It will examine the role of energy efficiency and low carbon energy technologies, such as wind energy, solar energy, hydrogen and fuel cells, taking into consideration important current issues and sectors for application. This knowledge is used to support an analysis of future energy supply and demand that includes management, policy and technical aspects. This version of the module is assessed by formative assessment and coursework. This module replaces ENV2A84. TEACHING AND LEARNING This module not only provides the framework for learning the key technical and management aspects of low carbon energy but also provides students with the opportunity to explore the future of energy provision in greater depth in the practical sessions. These include an energy tour, debates and smaller seminar group discussions on the practical applications of low carbon energy technologies and energy efficiency and the management of future energy demand. They will provide students with the opportunity to share their knowledge and opinions in this most important field. Students will be expected to supplement the lectures and other learning activities by undertaking selfdirected reading of text books, the research literature and policy documents. COURSE CONTENT # Importance of low carbon energy in terms of climate change, resource limits, fuel poverty and energy security # Current energy use and trends # How energy is produced, distributed and managed in the UK # Economic analysis of low carbon technologies # Low carbon energy technologies: biomass, wind, solar, hydro, wave, tidal, etc. # UK sectoral energy management: domestic, transport and business # Hydrogen energy and fuel cells CAREER PROSPECTS Energy and carbon management, renewable energy development, energy supply industry, energy policy development, energy efficiency consultancy, sustainable transportation development.

ENV5022B 
20 
MARINE SCIENCES FIELDCOURSE
This 11 day 20 credit field course studies physical, chemical and biological coastal oceanographic processes and will probably take place in June. The course includes lectures and practical experience of oceanographic instrumentation, chartwork, numerical analysis of data using matlab and a poster presentation at ENV. The second week of the course will take place in Oban, using the oceanographic research ships and laboratory facilities of the Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory http://www.sams.ac.uk. The course has no pre or corequisites, however it will be of particular relevance to those who have studying ENV5016A Ocean Circulation, ENV5019A Chemical Oceanography and ENV6055A Biological Oceanography and Marine Ecology. PLEASE NOTE THAT YOU CAN ONLY ENROL ONTO THIS MODULE VIA AN APPLICATION FORM FROM THE SCHOOL AND NOT VIA THE STANDARD MODULE ENROLMENT PROCESS. ALSO THE MODULE RUNS IN THE SUMMER PRIOR TO THE START OF THE ACADEMIC YEAR.

ENV5020K 
20 
MATERIALS AND POLYMER CHEMISTRY
An introduction to the basic principles of polymer synthesis is presented, together with a discussion of their physical properties. Speciality polymers are discussed. Materials chemistry is developed further with the introduction of inorganic structures and the concept of ferroelectric properties together with powder xray diffraction as applied to cubic crystals. Ion conductivity and basic band theory are also discussed. Semiconductivity is introduced and related to the band description of these materials. A series of practical experiments in polymer and materials chemistry supports this module and are designed to improve and enhance laboratory skills through experiments, which cover important topics in modern chemistry.

CHE5350Y 
20 
MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS
It introduces the essential concepts of mathematical statistics deriving the necessary distribution theory as required. In consequence in addition to ideas of sampling and central limit theorem, it will cover estimation methods and hypothesistesting. Some Bayesian ideas will be also introduced.

CMP5034A 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENTISTS B
This module is the second in a series of three mathematical modules for students across the Faculty of Science. It covers vector calculus (used in the study of vector fields in subjects such as fluid dynamics and electromagnetism), time series and spectral analysis (a highly adaptable and useful mathematical technique in many science fields, including data analysis), and fluid dynamics (which has applications to the circulation of the atmosphere, ocean, interior of the Earth, chemical engineering, and biology). There is a continuing emphasis on applied examples.

ENV5006A 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENTISTS C
This module is the third in a series of three mathematical units for students across the Faculty of Science. It covers matrix algebra and numerical methods (with applications to many multivariable problems in science), second order partial differential equations (which govern the behaviour of diffusive, advective and wavelike systems), and solid mechanics (applications in geophysics, glaciology, and material science). There is a continuing emphasis on applied examples, and the use of numerical computing software (Matlab) is extended with a dedicated programming component. This module is taught by mathematicians with considerable expertise in the use of mathematics in the natural/environmental sciences and is largely designed to equip students with the tools necessary for advanced second and third level modules, particularly those in the physical sciences. Emphasis is placed on problem solving and there are three lectures a week accompanied by one seminar which focuses on the discussion of relevant problem sheets.

ENV5007B 
20 
MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
This module introduces medicinal chemistry using chemical principles established during the first year. The series of lectures covers a wide range of topics central to medicinal chemistry. Topics discussed include an Introduction to Drug Development, Proteins as Drug Targets, Revision Organic Chemistry, Targeting DNA with Antitumour Drugs, Targeting DNAAssociated Processes, Fatty Acid and Polyketide Natural Products.

CHE5150Y 
20 
METEOROLOGY I
This module is designed to give a general introduction to meteorology, concentrating on the physical processed in the atmosphere and how these influence our weather. The module contains both descriptive and mathematical treatments of Radiation Balance, Cloud Physics, Thermodynamics and Dynamics and the assessment is designed to allow those with either mathematical or descriptive abilities to do well; however a reasonable mathematical competence is essential. TEACHING AND LEARNING Practical session will provide opportunities for individual and groupbased work in which problem sheets and data analysis exercises are tackled. Lectures will provide the forum for introduction of theoretical material and also for following up and summarising the key points emanating from previous practical sessions. Lecturers will also ensure that attention is drawn, as appropriate, to links between theory and 'current weather', often in the form of references to online information resources. The course Blackboard site will provide opportunities for students to assess their own progress through informal formative assessment material. # The Structure of the Atmosphere # Short and long wave radiation in the atmosphere # Thermal equilibrium of the Earth atmosphere system # Laws of thermodynamics applied to the atmosphere # Atmospheric Stability # Atmospheric Dynamics # Atmospheric momentum balance # Meteorological surface observations and plotting codes # Cloud physics CAREER PROSPECTS Students regularly go on to careers in the Met Office, in meteorological consultancy and in a number of other research organisations in the UK and abroad, either directly or after taking a higher degree. Meteorology interfaces with many other disciplines n the environmental sciences (eg oceanography, hydrology, energy and epidemiology) and impacts upon most sectors of the economy. While graduates regularly move directly into weather forecasting and analysis jobs, a career in meteorological research would often first require a higher degree. This module is designed to give a general introduction to meteorology, concentrating on the physical processes in the atmosphere and how these influence our weather. The module contains both descriptive and mathematical treatments of Radiation Balance, Cloud Physics, Thermodynamics and Dynamics and the assessment is designed to allow those with either mathematical or descriptive abilities to do well; however a reasonable mathematical competence is essential, including a basic understanding of differentiation and integration.

ENV5008A 
20 
METEOROLOGY II
This module will build upon material introduced in ENV5008A (Meteorology I) covering topics such as synoptic meteorology, microscale processes, the General Circulation and weather forecasting. Practical sessions, some computer based, will provide opportunities for individual and groupbased work in which problem sheets, simulations and case study exercises are tackled, coupled with experiential sessions in forecasting and broadcast meteorology. Lectures will provide the forum for introduction of theoretical material and also for following up and summarising the key points emanating from previous practical sessions. Lectures will also ensure that attention is drawn, as appropriate, to links between theory and 'current weather', often in the form of references to online information resources. A noncompulsory programme of complementary monthly evening seminars is also available through the Royal Meteorological Society's East Anglian Centre, based at UEA, including talks by employers.

ENV5009B 
20 
METEOROLOGY II WITH FIELDCOURSE
This module will build upon material covered in ENV5008A (Meteorology I) by covering topics such as synoptic meteorology, microscale processes, the General Circulation and weather forecasting. The module also includes a week long Easter vacation residential fieldcourse, based in the Lake District, involving students in designing scientific experiments to quantify the effects of micro and synopticscale weather and climate processes, focusing on lake, forest and mountain environments. RESIDENTIAL FIELD COURSE The additional Field Course runs during the first seven days of the Easter Vacation based at Hawkshead Youth Hostel in Cumbria. There will be a charge for attending this field course. The charge is heavily subsidized by the School, but students enrolling must understand that they will commit to paying a sum to cover attendance. As the details of many modules and field courses have changed recently the following figures should be viewed as ballpark estimates only. If you would like firmer data please consult the module organizer closer to the field course. The cost to the student will be in the order of GBP160.

ENV5010K 
20 
MICROBIOLOGY
Prerequisites: Students must have taken BIO4003A and either BIO4001A or BIO4004B to take this module. A broad module covering all aspects of the biology of microorganisms, providing key knowledge for specialist Level 6 modules. Detailed description is given about the cell biology of bacteria, fungi and protists together with microbial physiology, genetics and environmental and applied microbiology. The biology of diseasecausing microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) and prions is also covered. Practical work provides handson experience of important microbiological techniques, and expands on concepts introduced in lectures. The module should appeal to biology students across a wide range of disciplines and interests.

BIO5015B 
20 
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
The aims are to provide: (i) a background to the fundamental principles of molecular biology, in particular the nature of the relationship between genetic information and the synthesis, and three dimensional structures, of macromolecules; (ii) practical experience of some of the techniques used for the experimental manipulation of genetic material, and the necessary theoretical framework, and (iii) an introduction to bioinformatics, the computerassisted analysis of DNA and protein sequence information.

BIO5003B 
20 
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND ENERGY LEVELS
Quantum mechanics, one of the key scientific ideas of the 20th century, has had a wide impact in chemistry. In the first part of the module you will be introduced to the language and methods of quantum mechanics. In the second part, the close relation between spectroscopic measurements of small molecules and quantum theory will be discussed. Further methods of spectroscopy will then be introduced, beginning with the most widely used of all techniques in structure determination, NMR spectroscopy. This will be followed by a discussion of molecular electronic spectra which are widely used in chemical analysis.

CHE5202Y 
20 
NETWORKS
This module examines networks and how they are designed and implemented to provide reliable data transmission. A layered approach is taken in the study of networks with emphasis given to the functionality of the traditional OSI 7 layer reference model and the TCP/IP model. Weekbyweek the module examines the functionality provided by each layer and how this contributes to the overall reliable data transmission that the network provides. Underlying theory behind each layer is studied and then examples given as to how this is used in practice  for example within voice over IP (VoIP). An emphasis is placed on practical issues associated with networking such as realtime delivery of multimedia information and network security. The coursework tends to be highly practical and underpins the theory learnt in lectures.

CMP5037B 
20 
OCEAN CIRCULATION
This module gives you an understanding of the physical processes occurring in the basinscale ocean environment. We will introduce and discuss large scale global ocean circulation, including gyres, boundary currents and the overturning circulation. Major themes include the interaction between ocean and atmosphere, and the forces which drive ocean circulation. You should be familiar with partial differentiation, integration, handling equations and using calculators. ENV5017B is a natural followon module and builds on some of the concepts introduced here. We strongly recommend that you also gain oceanographic fieldwork experience by taking the 20credit biennial Marine Sciences fieldcourse.

ENV5016A 
20 
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
This course builds on CHE  4101Y (the first year organic chemistry course). Four main topics are covered. The first "Aromaticity" includes benzenoid and heteroaromatic systems. The second major topic is the organic chemistry of carbonyl compounds. Spectroscopic characterisation of organic compounds is reviewed and the final major topic is "Stereochemistry and Mechanisms". This covers conformational aspects of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Stereoelectronic effects, Neighbouring Group Participation (NGP), Baldwin's rules, Cram's rule and cycloaddition reactions are then discussed.

CHE5101A 
20 
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I
The module covers a number of areas of modern physical chemistry which are essential to a proper understanding of the behaviour of chemical systems. These include the second Law of thermodynamics and entropy, the thermodynamics of solutions, chemical kinetics, surface chemistry and catalysis. The module includes laboratory work. Due to the laboratorybased content on this module students must have completed at least one level 4 module containing laboratory work.

CHE5201Y 
20 
PLANT BIOLOGY
This module aims to provide an appreciation of modern plant biology with an emphasis on development, signalling and response to the environment. It consists of practical classes and lectures. It encompasses molecular genetics, molecular, biochemical and physiological perspectives, and affords an understanding of aspects of plant and plant cell function including photosynthesis and the mechanisms by which plants perceive and respond to biotic and abiotic environments.

BIO5006A 
20 
POPULATION ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
We live in a human dominated era recently designated "the Anthropocene". Humans harvest more than half of the primary productivity of the planet, many resources are overexploited or depleted (e.g. fisheries) never before it was so important to correctly manage natural resources for an exponentially growing human population. It is, thus, fundamental to predict where other species occur and the sizes of their populations (abundance). Population Ecology it is an area dedicated to the dynamics of population development. In this module we will look closely at how populations are regulated, from within through density dependent factors and, from external density independent factors. We start the module with a global environmental change perspective to the management of populations and the factors that affect the population size. We then extend these ideas to help us understand population properties and processes both intraspecifically and interspecifically. Finally we examine several management applications where we show that a good understanding of the population modelling is essential to correctly manage natural resources on the planet. Practicals will be based on statistical or modelling projects and will provide a strong training in both subject specific and transferrable skills.

ENV5014A 
20 
PROGRAMMING 2
This is a compulsory module for all computing students and is a continuation of CMP4008Y. It contains greater breadth and depth and provides students with the range of skills needed for many of their subsequent modules. We recap Java and deepen your understanding of the language by teaching topics such as nested classes, enumeration, generics, reflection, collections and threaded programming. We then introduce C in order to improve your low level understanding of how programming works, before moving on to C++ in semester 2. We conclude by introducing C# to highlight the similarities and differences between languages.

CMP5015Y 
20 
PROGRAMMING FOR NONSPECIALISTS
The purpose of this module is to give the student a solid grounding in the essential features programming using the Java programming language. The module is designed to meet the needs of the student who has not previously studied programming.

CMP5020B 
20 
QUANTUM THEORY AND SYMMETRY
This course covers the foundation and basics of quantum theory and symmetry, starting with features of the quantum world and including elements of quantum chemistry, group theory, computerbased methods for calculating molecular wavefunctions, quantum information, and the quantum nature of light. The subject matter paves the way for applications to a variety of chemical and physical systems  in particular, processes and properties involving the electronic structure of atoms and molecules.

CHE5250Y 
20 
RENEWABLE ENERGY
With the number of skilled energy engineers decreasing but concerns over climate change rising, there is more demand than ever for graduates with a detailed knowledge of renewable energy resources. This module expands your understanding of wind, tidal and hydroelectric energy whilst acquainting you with alternative techniques including heat pumps, deep geothermal sources and anaerobic digestion. Students will consider how these various technologies can realistically contribute to the energy mix, as well as the developing possibilities of converting waste to energy. An important aspect of the module is the study of the various targets and legislative instruments that are used to control and encourage developments.

ENG5002B 
20 
SEDIMENTOLOGY
Sedimentary rocks cover much of the Earth's surface, record the Earth's history of environmental change, contain the fossil record and host many of the world's natural resources. This module includes the study of modern sediments such as sand, mud and carbonates and the processes that result in their deposition. Understanding of modern processes is used to interpret ancient sedimentary rocks, their stratigraphy and the sedimentary structures they contain. Topics will include: (1) sedimentary fluid dynamics; (2) modern and ancient sedimentary environments including rivers, coastal margins, shallow shelf seas and the deep ocean; (3) differences between siliciclastic and carbonate depositional systems, and (4) the interactions between organisms and sediments. This module replaces ENV2A85/ENV5011A.

ENV5035B 
20 
SELECTED TOPICS IN MATHEMATICS
This module is an optional Year long module. It covers two topics, one in Autumn Semester (chosen between A: Combinatorics and B: Quantum mechanics), one in Spring semester (chosen between C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities, and D:Mathematical Modelling). Topic A: Combinatorics: The topic is about Counting Things. We will cover: binomial coefficients, the inclusionexclusion principle, compositions, the pigeonhole principle and Ramsey Theory. Topic B: Quantum mechanics: The motion of very small systems such as atoms does not satisfy the equations of classical mechanics. For example an electron orbiting a nucleus can only have certain discrete energy levels. In quantum mechanics the motion of a particle is described by a wave function which describes the probability of the particle having a certain energy. Topics addressed in this module include: Wave Functions, Schrodinger's Equation, Uncertainty Principle, Wave Scattering, Harmonic Oscillators. In classical mechanics, a physical system is described in terms of particles moving with a particular linear momentum. Other phenomena such as the transmission of light are described in terms of the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In the 20th century it became clear that some physical observations can not be explained in such terms  for example the formation of fringe patterns due to the scattering of light through two slits. The concept of a photon having both particle and wavelike properties is at the heart of Quantum Mechanics. In this unit the emphasis is on detailed mathematical study of simplified model systems rather than broad descriptions of quantum phenomena. The main mathematical topics from Year One mathematics modules that this module builds on are differential equations and vector calculus (definitions of grad etc). Topic C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities This topic will consider the notion of a measure and discuss its connection with integration. We shall discuss Riemann integration versus Jordan measure and Lebesgue integral versus Lebesgue integration. This will lead us to the idea of Boolean algebras, and in particular measure algebras. Probabilities are just a special kind of measures, so we shall also discuss them. Clearly, integration plays a central role in mathematics and physics. One encounters integrals in the notions of area or volume, when solving a differential equation, in the fundamental theorem of calculus, in Stokes' theorem, or in classical and quantum mechanics. The first year analysis module includes an introduction to the Riemann integral, which is satisfactory for many applications. However, it has certain disadvantages, in that some very basic functions are not Riemann integrable, that the pointwise limit of a sequence of Riemann integrable functions need not be Riemann integrable, etc. We introduce Lebesgue integration, which does not suffer from these drawbacks and agrees with the Riemann integral whenever the latter is defined. Topic D: Mathematical Modelling: Mathematical modelling is concerned with how to convert real problems, arising in industry or other sciences, into mathematical equations, and then solving them and using the results to better understand, or make predictions about, the original problem. This topic will look at techniques of mathematical modelling, examining how mathematics can be applied to a variety of real problems and give insight in various areas. The topics will include approximation and nondimensionalising, and discussion of how a mathematical model is created. We will then apply this theory to a variety of models such as traffic flow as well as examples of problems arising in industry.

MTHF5027Y 
20 
SHELF SEA DYNAMICS AND COASTAL PROCESSES
The shallow shelf seas that surround the continents are the oceans that we most interact with. They contribute a disproportionate amount to global marine primary production and CO2 drawdown into the ocean, and are important economically through commercial fisheries, offshore oil and gas exploration, and renewable energy developments (e.g. offshore wind farms). This module explores the physical processes that occur in shelf seas and coastal waters, their effect on biological, chemical and sedimentary processes, and how they can be harnessed to generate renewable energy. Career development: New skills developed during this module will support careers in the offshore oil and gas industry, renewable energy industry, environmental consultancy, government laboratories (e.g. Cefas) and academia. Mathematical background: The level of mathematical ability required to take this module is similar to Ocean Circulation and Meteorology I. You should be familiar with radians, rearranging equations and plotting functions.

ENV5017B 
20 
SOCIAL RESEARCH SKILLS FOR GEOGRAPHERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTISTS
The study of society and its relationship to the natural environment poses distinct research challenges and social science presents a range of approaches and methods with which to address these problems. This module provides an introduction to the theory and practice of social science research. It covers research design, sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and presentation of results. It is recommended for any student intending to carry out a social sciencebased research project.

ENV5031B 
20 
SOCIAL RESEARCH SKILLS FOR GEOGRAPHERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTISTS WITH FIELDCOURSE
The study of society and its relationship to the natural environment poses distinct research challenges and social science presents a range of approaches and methods with which to address these problems. The module provides an introduction to the theory and practice of social science research. This will cover different perspectives on research, developing a research question, research design, research ethics, sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and includes quantitative, qualitative and mixedmethod approaches. The learning outcomes will be for students to be able to demonstrate: (i) Knowledge and critical understanding of relevant concepts and principles (ii) Ability to apply concepts and principles to the design of social science research (iii) Knowledge of some of the main methods of enquiry (iv) Ability to evaluate critically different approaches (v) Ability to present effectively a research proposal, both orally and in writing. The module will include a field course at Easter based in Keswick, an area which provides excellent opportunities for studying a range of geographical and environmental issues, including flooding, lowcarbon energy developments, spatial contrasts in economic development and landscape management. The first part of the field course will consist of four days of facultyorganised activities where students will be able to practice questionnaire surveys, interviewing and other social research methods. During the final two days students will work in small groups to plan a research investigation from a list of predefined topics. Each group will present their research proposal on the final afternoon of the field course as a piece of formative assessment and the individual members will then write separate short reports on their proposal as their second item of summative assessment for the module. There will be an additional charge for students to attend the field course, though the cost is substantially reduced through financial support from ENV.

ENV5036K 
20 
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 1
Software Engineering is one of the most essential skills for work in the software development industry. Students will gain an understanding of the issues involved in designing and creating software systems from an industry perspective. They will be taught state of the art in phased software development methodology, with a special focus on the activities required to go from initial class model design to actual running software systems. These activities are complemented with an introduction into software project management and development facilitation.

CMP5012B 
20 
SOIL PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
This module will combine lectures, practicals, seminars and fieldwork to provide students with an appreciation of the soil environment and the processes that occurs within it. The module will progress through: basic soil components/properties; soil identification and classification; soil as a habitat; soil organisms; soil functions; the agricultural environment; soilorganismagrochemical interaction; soil contamination; soil and climate change.

ENV5012A 
20 
SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS
What lies beneath our feet? This module addresses this question by exploring how wavefields and potential fields are used in geophysics to image the subsurface on scales of metres to kilometres. The basic theory, data acquisition and interpretation methods of seismic, electrical, gravity and magnetic surveys are studied. A wide range of applications is covered including archaeological geophysics, energy resources and geohazards. This module is highly valued by employers in industry; guest industrial lecturers will cover the current 'stateoftheart' applications in real world situations. Students doing this module are normally expected to have a good mathematical ability, notably in calculus and algebra before taking this module (ENV4002Y Mathematics for Scientists A or equivalent).

ENV5004B 
20 
SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS WITH FIELDCOURSE
What lies beneath our feet? This module addresses this question by exploring how waves, rays and the various physical techniques are used in geophysics to image the subsurface on scales of meters to kilometres. The basic theory and interpretation methods of seismic, electrical and gravity and magnetic surveys are studied. A wide range of applications is covered including archaeological geophysics, energy resources and geohazards. The fieldcourse provides "handson" experience of the various techniques and applications, adding on valuable practical skills. This module is highly valued by employers in industry; guest industrial lecturers will cover the current 'stateoftheart' applications in real world situations. Students doing this module are normally expected to have a good mathematical ability, notably in calculus and algebra before taking this module (ENV4002Y Mathematics for Scientists A or equivalent). RESIDENTIAL FIELDCOURSE: There will be a charge for attending this field course. The charge is heavily subsidised by the School, but students enrolling must understand that they will commit to paying a sum to cover attendance. As the details of many modules and field courses have changed recently. The following figures should be viewed as ballpark estimates only. If you would like firmer data please consult the module organiser closer to the field course. The cost to the student will be on the order of GBP150.

ENV5005K 
20 
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
This module considers, at a high level, various activities associated with the development of all types of computer based information systems including project management, feasibility, investigation, analysis, logical and physical design, and the links to design and implementation. Its main focus, however, is on the early stages, in particular requirements investigation and specification including the use of UML. It makes use of a number of analysis and design tools and techniques in order to produce readable system specifications. Students are introduced to a number of development methods including object orientated, soft systems, structured, participative, iterative and rapid approaches.

CMP5003A 
20 
TOPICS IN MATHEMATICS
This module is an optional Year long module. It covers four topics, two in Autumn Semester (A: Combinatorics and B: Quantum mechanics), two in Spring semester (C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities, and D: Mathematical Modelling). Topic A: Combinatorics: The topic is about Counting Things. We will cover: binomial coefficients, the inclusionexclusion principle, compositions, the pigeonhole principle and Ramsey Theory. Topic B: Quantum mechanics: The motion of very small systems such as atoms does not satisfy the equations of classical mechanics. For example an electron orbiting a nucleus can only have certain discrete energy levels. In quantum mechanics the motion of a particle is described by a wave function which describes the probability of the particle having a certain energy. Topics addressed in this module include: Wave Functions, Schrodinger's Equation, Uncertainty Principle, Wave Scattering, Harmonic Oscillators. In classical mechanics, a physical system is described in terms of particles moving with a particular linear momentum. Other phenomena such as the transmission of light are described in terms of the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In the 20th century it became clear that some physical observations can not be explained in such terms  for example the formation of fringe patterns due to the scattering of light through two slits. The concept of a photon having both particle and wavelike properties is at the heart of Quantum Mechanics. In this unit the emphasis is on detailed mathematical study of simplified model systems rather than broad descriptions of quantum phenomena. The main mathematical topics from Year One mathematics modules that this module builds on are differential equations and vector calculus (definitions of grad etc). Topic C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities This topic will consider the notion of a measure and discuss its connection with integration. We shall discuss Riemann integration versus Jordan measure and Lebesgue integral versus Lebesgue integration. This will lead us to the idea of Boolean algebras, and in particular measure algebras. Probabilities are just a special kind of measures, so we shall also discuss them. Clearly, integration plays a central role in mathematics and physics. One encounters integrals in the notions of area or volume, when solving a differential equation, in the fundamental theorem of calculus, in Stokes' theorem, or in classical and quantum mechanics. The first year analysis module includes an introduction to the Riemann integral, which is satisfactory for many applications. However, it has certain disadvantages, in that some very basic functions are not Riemann integrable, that the pointwise limit of a sequence of Riemann integrable functions need not be Riemann integrable, etc. We introduce Lebesgue integration, which does not suffer from these drawbacks and agrees with the Riemann integral whenever the latter is defined. Topic D: Mathematical Modelling: Mathematical modelling is concerned with how to convert real problems, arising in industry or other sciences, into mathematical equations, and then solving them and using the results to better understand, or make predictions about, the original problem. This topic will look at techniques of mathematical modelling, examining how mathematics can be applied to a variety of real problems and give insight in various areas. The topics will include approximation and nondimensionalising, and discussion of how a mathematical model is created. We will then apply this theory to a variety of models such as traffic flow as well as examples of problems arising in industry.

MTHF5028Y 
40 
Students will select 0  20 credits from the following modules:
A further 20 credits may be chosen from Options Range A above, or by taking a level 4 module from the following list.
Name  Code  Credits 

ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE SKILLS
THIS MODULE CAN NOT BE TAKEN WITH ENV4002Y or ENV4003Y. This module is designed for students who have mathematics at GCSEA grade; or have AS or A2 maths below grade C. This module will consolidate GCSE level mathematics and develop your quantitative skills further in order to broaden the range of quantitative Environmental Science modules you are able to take at Level 5 and 6. It will also cover the most important statistical methods that you will need during the rest of your career in ENV, including ways of summarising data using both numerical summaries and graphs, testing hypotheses and carrying out these analyses on computers. An important part of this module is applying these quantitative skills to applied environmental and geographical problems. This module is assessed by formative assessment and course test / examination.

ENV4011Y 
20 
BIODIVERSITY
An introduction to the evolution of the major groups of microorganisms, plants and animals. The module considers structural, physiological and lifecycle characteristics of these organisms. It charts the development of life on land and interprets evolutionary responses to changing environments. Students on this module are strongly advised to also take BIO4008Y or BIO4010Y.

BIO4001A 
20 
BONDING, STRUCTURE and PERIODICITY
After an introduction to chemical bonding (taught jointly with CHE4101Y), atomic and molecular structure and chemical principles, this module will provide an introduction to the structures, properties and reactivities of molecules and ionic solids. The latter part of the course will concentrate more on fundamental aspects of inorganic chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationships between chemical bonding and the structures and properties of molecules. This module is the prerequisite for the 2nd year inorganic module CHE5301B. The first few lectures of this module are integrated with CHE4101Y. The course is supported and illustrated by the bonding, structrure and periodicity experiments of the first year practical modules, CHE4001Y and CHE4601Y.

CHE4301Y 
20 
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY (A)
This is a laboratory based module covering experimental aspects of the "core" chemistry courses CHE4101Y (Chemistry of Carbonbased Compounds CCC), CHE4301Y (Bonding, Structure and Periodicity BSP) and CHE4201Y (Energetics and Spectroscopy ES). A component on Analytical Chemistry is also included. The use of spreadsheets for analyzing and presenting data is covered in the ES section of the course.

CHE4001Y 
20 
CHEMISTRY OF CARBONBASED COMPOUNDS
After a shared introduction to atomic structure and periodicity (taught jointly with CHE4301Y), 4101Y introduces the concepts of # and # bonding and hybridisation, conjugation and aromaticity, the mechanistic description of organic reactions, the organic functional groups, the shapes of molecules and the stereochemistry of reactions (enantiomers and diastereoisomers, SN1/SN2 and E1/E2 reactions, and epoxidation and 1,2difunctionalisation of alkenes). These principles are then elucidated in a series of topics: Enolate, Claisen, Mannich reactions, and the Strecker amino acid synthesis; the electrophilic substitution reactions of aromatic compounds, and the addition reactions of alkenes, and the chemistry of polar multiple bonds. Organic synthesis and spectroscopy are discussed, with a survey of methods to synthesise alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers, amines and carboxylic acids, and the use of IR, UV and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to identify the products.

CHE4101Y 
20 
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS
RESERVED FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS. This module utilises the mathematical concepts from the Mathematics for Scientists module in an engineering context, before complementing the material with practical mechanics to solve realworld problems. Over the first semester students are introduced to the vocational necessity of estimation in the absence of accurate data through a teambased competition, as well as the practical geometry and numerical methods which can be used when analytical techniques fail. This is supplemented by practical exercises in graphical presentation and data analysis which will contribute to the coursework element of the module. Teaching then concentrates on mechanics in the second semester, encompassing Newton's laws of motion, particle dynamics and conservation laws before a final exam.

ENG4004Y 
20 
ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES AND LAWS
To take this module you will need the equivalent of Maths A level grade B. This 20credit module introduces several distinct topics  all of which will be essential during the later stages of the course. During the first semester, students investigate how to harness the properties of modern materials within an engineering context followed by fluid flow and hyrdaulics supported by lab work and assessed in one formative and one summative course test. Semester 2 begins by developing an appreciation of structural behaviour through examination of solid and lattice structures followed by integrating the study of thermodynamics and heat transfer into coursework and a final exam worth 70% of the module. The written formative assessment is a laboratory report to prepare students for the summative report.

ENG4002Y 
20 
EVOLUTION, BEHAVIOUR AND ECOLOGY
This module introduces the main ideas in behavioural ecology, evolutionary biology and ecology. It concentrates on outlining concepts as well as describing examples. Specific topics to be covered include the genetical basis of evolution by natural selection, systematics and phylogeny, the adaptive interpretation of animal sexual and social behaviour, ecological processes and population biology.

BIO4002B 
20 
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY  COLLECTION AND COMPARISON
History of forensic science, forensic collection and recovery methods, anticontamination precautions, microscopy, glass refractive index, introduction to pattern recognition including footwear; introduction to Drugs analysis; forensic statistics and QA chain of custody issues. The second half Introduces the student to the fundamentals of DNA and biotechnology essential for an understanding of forensics technologies. Topics covered include: nucleic acid/chromosome structure, replication, mutation and repair; concepts of genetic inheritance; DNA manipulation and visualisation; DNA sequencing; DNA fingerprinting. Teaching and learning methods: lectures, practicals and mentor groups (pbl). Presentation of a case study.

CHE4701Y 
20 
FOUNDATIONS FOR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of the key aspects of physical and biological chemistry that underpin the physiology of living systems. It will provide a basic understanding of a number of physiological processes and functioning of major organ systems of the human body.

BIO4009Y 
20 
GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
This module provides an introduction and orientation regarding geographical thought, methods and concepts. It begins with an overview of the history and development of the discipline. This will lead on to discussion of core concepts such as space, place, scale, systems, nature, landscape and risk. In addition, the methods and different types of evidence used by geographers (e.g. texts, archival data, maps and field observations) will be introduced. Students will be able to demonstrate an appreciation of the diversity of approaches to the generation of geographical knowledge and understanding and the capacity to communicate geographical ideas, principles, and theories effectively and fluently by written, oral and visual means.

ENV4010Y 
20 
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
What are the most pressing environmental challenges facing the world today? How do we understand these problems through cuttingedge environmental science research? What are the possibilities for building sustainable solutions to address them in policy and society? In this module you will tackle these questions by taking an interdisciplinary approach to consider challenges relating to climate change, biodiversity, water resources, natural hazards, and technological risks. In doing so you will gain an insight into environmental science research 'in action' and develop essential academic study skills needed to explore these issues. Please note that ENV students, BIO Ecology students, NAT SCI students and SCI Foundation Year students can request a place on this module, however priority will be given to ENV students. Please note that nonENV students wishing to select this module must obtain a signature from their advisor confirming that he/she will agree to mark the independent essay component of the module assessment in the spring semester (this must be done within the first two weeks of the autumn semester by sending an email to the module organiser (Dr A. AngerKraavi) copied to the HUB at: env_ug.hub@uea.ac.uk ).

ENV4001A 
20 
LIGHT, ATOMS AND MOLECULES
This module introduces students to the major areas of classical physical chemistry: chemical kinetics, chemical thermodynamics, electrolyte solutions in addition to spectroscopy. Chemical kinetics will consider the kinetic theory of gases and then rate processes, and in particular the rates of chemical reactions taking place either in the gas phase or in solution. The appropriate theoretical basis for understanding rate measurements will be developed during the course, which will include considerations of the order of reaction, the Arrhenius equation and determination of rate constants. Thermodynamics deals with energy relationships in large assemblies, that is those systems which contain sufficient numbers of molecules for 'bulk' properties to be exhibited and which, are in a state of equilibrium. Properties discussed will include the heat content or enthalpy (H), heat capacity (Cp, Cv), internal energy (U), heat and work. The First Law of Thermodynamics will be introduced and its significance explained in the context of chemical reactions. It is very important that chemists have a basic understanding of the behaviour of ions in solution, their conductivity and mobility. These will be discussed in the course, together with simple theories of strong and weak electrolytes in water. The interaction of radiation with matter is termed spectroscopy. Three main topics will be discussed: (i) ultraviolet/visible (UV / Vis) spectroscopy, in which electrons are moved from one orbital to another orbital; (ii) infrared (vibrational) spectroscopy, a technique which provides chemists with important information on the variety of bond types that a molecule can possess; (iii) magnetic resonance spectroscopy, especially nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which allow chemists to identify 'molecular skeletons'.

CHE4202Y 
20 
LINEAR ALGEBRA
Linear equations and matrices (including geometric aspects); Determinants. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Diagonalization. Vector spaces and linear transformations.

MTHA4002Y 
20 
MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING, MECHANICS AND MODELLING
The first part of the module is about how to approach mathematical problems (both pure and applied) and write mathematics. It aims to promote accurate writing, reading and thinking about mathematics, and to improve students' confidence and abilities to tackle unfamiliar problems. The second part of the module is about Mechanics. It includes discussion of Newton's laws of motion, particle dynamics, orbits, and conservation laws. This module is reserved for students registered in the School of Mathematics or registered on the Natural Sciences programme.

MTHA4004Y 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR COMPUTING A
The module is designed to provide students who have not studied A level Mathematics with sufficient understanding of basic algebra to give them confidence to embark on the study of computing fundamentals. Various topics in discrete and continuous mathematics which are fundamental to Computer Science will be introduced.

CMP4004Y 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR COMPUTING B
This module is designed for students with an A level (or equivalent) in Mathematics. For these students it provides an introduction to the mathematics of counting and arrangements, a further development of the theory and practice of calculus, an introduction to linear algebra and its computing applications and a further development of the principles and computing applications of probability theory. In addition 3D Vectors are introduced and complex numbers are studied.

CMP4005Y 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENTISTS A
THIS MODULE CAN NOT BE TAKEN WITH ENV4003Y. This module is designed for students in the Faculty of Science with A2 or AS level mathematics. It covers differentiation, integration, vectors, partial differentiation, ordinary differential equations, further integrals, power series expansions, complex numbers and statistical methods. In addition to the theoretical background there is an emphasis on applied examples. Previous knowledge of calculus is assumed. This module is the first in a series of three maths modules for students across the Faculty of Science that provide a solid undergraduate mathematical training. The following modules are Mathematics for Scientists B and C.

ENV4002Y 
20 
NUMERICAL SKILLS FOR SCIENTISTS
THIS MODULE CAN NOT BE TAKEN WITH ENV4002Y This module is about revising GCSE level mathematics and learning how to apply these skills to solving applied environmental science problems. It is designed for students who have a GCSE in maths at grade C or B or equivalent level and will cover essential mathematics (algebra, indices and scientific notation, manipulating and solving equations, units, accuracy and errors, reading graphs, logs, exponentials, trigonometrical functions, concept of rate of change, and an introduction to calculus). It will also cover the most important statistical methods that you will need during the rest of your career in ENV, including ways of summarising data using both numerical summaries and graphs, testing hypotheses and carrying out these analyses on computers. An important part of this module is applying these quantitative skills to environmental and geographical problems. This module is assessed by formative assessment and course test / examination.

ENV4003Y 
20 
PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN THE BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCES
The lecture programme will provide you with essential information about some of the physical principles that underpin our understanding of molecular and cellular systems. It will be accompanied with lectures/workshops on basic math skills that you will need to use during this module as well as in the rest of your degree program. The complementary seminar series will help to consolidate your understanding through applying this knowledge to selected topics in the molecular biosciences and provide you with the opportunity to develop skills in problem solving and data analysis.

BIO4007Y 
20 
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE EARTH'S SYSTEM I
The habitability of planet Earth depends on the physical and chemical systems on the planet which control everything from the weather and clim ate to the growth of all living organisms. This module aims to introduce you to some of these key cycles and the ways in which physical and chemical scientists investigate and interpret these systems. The module will lead many of you on to second and third year courses (and beyond) studying these systems in more detail, but even for those of you who choose to study other aspects of environmental sciences a basic knowledge of these systems is central to understanding our planet and how it responds to human pressures. The course has two distinct components, one on the physical study of the environment (Physical Processes: e.g. weather, climate, ocean circulation, etc.) and one on the chemical study (Chemical Processes: weathering, atmospheric pollution, ocean productivity, etc.). During the course of the module the teachers will also emphasise the interrelationships between these two sections This course is taught in two variants: In 4007B (described here) we will provide a Basic Chemistry introduction for those students who have little or no background in chemistry before coming to UEA (see prerequisites). If you have previous experience of chemistry you will take ENV 4008B. This course will run throughout semester 2 involving a mixture of lectures, laboratory practical classes, workshops and a half day field trip.

ENV4007B 
20 
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE EARTH'S SYSTEM II
The habitability of planet Earth depends on the physical and chemical systems on the planet which control everything from the weather and climate to the growth of all living organisms. This module aims to introduce you to some of these key cycles and the ways in which physical and chemical scientists investigate and interpret these systems. The module will lead many of you on to second and third year courses (and beyond) studying these systems in more detail, but even for those of you who choose to study other aspects of environmental sciences a basic knowledge of these systems is central to understanding our planet and how it responds to human pressures. The course has two distinct components, one on the physical study of the environment (Physical Processes: e.g. weather, climate, ocean circulation, etc.) and one on the chemical study (Chemical Processes: weathering, atmospheric pollution, ocean productivity, etc.). During the course of the module the teachers will also emphasise the interrelationships between these two sections This course is taught in two variants. The version of the course described here (4008B) is for students with previous experience of chemistry. Students with no previous experience of chemistry will take ENV 4007B (see prerequisites). This course will run throughout semester 2 involving a mixture of lectures, laboratory practical classes, workshops and a half day field trip.

ENV4008B 
20 
PRACTICAL and QUANTITATIVE SKILLS IN CHEMISTRY
Laboratorybased module exposing the students to experimental and computational aspects of different areas of chemistry: organic, inorganic, analytical and physical. The experiments and simulations exemplify the content of lectures in other modules and provide practical chemistry skills. Mathematical skills relevant to the understanding of chemical concepts will be introduced. Statistics as applied to experimental chemistry. Error propagation in physical chemistry. Physical principles briefly covered through applied mathematics.

CHE4601Y 
20 
PROBABILITY AND MECHANICS
In taking this module you cannot take MTHA4001Y or take MTHA4004Y. While taking this module you must take or have taken MTHA4005Y or MTHB4006Y or ENV4002Y. Stuedntes are expected to have attained a grade B or above in Alevel maths, or equivalent. (a) Probability as a measurement of uncertainty, statistical experiments and Bayes' theorem. Discrete and continuous distributions. Expectation. Applications of probability. (b) The second part of the module is about Mechanics. It includes discussion of Newton's laws of motion, particle dynamics, orbits, and conservation laws.

MTHB4007B 
20 
PROGRAMMING 1
The purpose of this module is to give the student a solid grounding in the essential features of objectorientated programming using the Java programming language. The module is designed to meet the needs of the student who has not previously studied programming, although it is recognised that many will have done so in some measure.

CMP4008Y 
20 
PROGRAMMING FOR APPLICATIONS
The purpose of this module is to give the student a solid grounding in the essential features of programming using Java programming language. The module is designed to meet the needs of the studet who has not previously studied programming.

CMP4009B 
20 
REAL ANALYSIS
Sequences and series, tests for convergence. Limits, continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration, Fundamental Theorem.

MTHA4003Y 
20 
RESEARCH AND FIELD SKILLS
This module year long module introduces a range of transferable skills, tools and data resources that are widely used in research across the Environmental Sciences. The aim is to provide a broad understanding of the research process by undertaking different activities that involve i) formulating research questions, ii) collecting data using appropriate sources and techniques, iii) collating and evaluating information and iv) presenting results. The module will include the use of digital mapping technologies (such as geographical information systems GIS) and a 6 day residential field course held during the Easter Break.

ENV4004Y 
20 
SETS, NUMBERS AND PROBABILITY
Basic settheoretic notation, functions. Proof by induction, arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, the Euclidean algorithm. Styles of proof. Elementary set theory. Modular arithmetic, equivalence relations. Countability. Probability as a measurement of uncertainty, statistical experiments and Bayes' theorem. Discrete and continuous distributions. Expectation. Applications of probability: Markov chains, reliability theory.

MTHA4001Y 
20 
SKILLS FOR CHEMISTS
This module will include: Mathematical skills relevant to the understanding of chemical concepts; Statistics as applied to experimental chemistry; Error propagation in physical chemistry and Physical principles through applied mathematics. This part of the module aims to bring students' understanding of mathematical ideas and physics to a sufficient level to study core physical chemistry in later stages. The module also contains a broadly based series of lectures on science, coupled with activities based upon them. The twin objectives for this part of the module are to provide a contextual backdrop for the more focused studies in other concurrent and subsequent degree courses, and to engage students as participants in researching and presenting related information.

CHE4050Y 
20 
SUSTAINABILITY, SOCIETY AND BIODIVERSITY
Striking a balance between societal development, economic growth and environmental protection has proven challenging and oftentimes contentious. The concepts of `sustainability' and `sustainable development' have been coined to denote processed aiming to achieve this balance. Yet this has been hampered by contestation and ambiguity surrounding these concepts. This module introduces sustainable development, and examines why sustainability is so difficult to achieve, bringing together social and ecological perspectives. This module considers sustainability in theory and practice by examining the relationships between environment and society, through the contributions of a variety of social science disciplines. It also explores sustainability from an ecological perspective, introducing a range of concepts relevant to the structure and functioning of the biosphere and topics ranging from landscape and population ecology, to behavioural, physiological, molecular, genetic and chemical ecology. This module is assessed by coursework and an examination. TEACHING AND LEARNING A series of lectures in this module considers sustainability in theory and practice by examining the relationships between environment and society, drawing upon contributions from social science disciplines and perspectives (e.g. politics, health assessment, participation). These lectures, complemented by seminars and practicals introduce sustainable development, explore how interpretations have evolved over time, analyse how these are used by groups and interests in society, and examine the challenges of its implementation. These are followed by lectures which consider interactions between human societies and natural ecosystems, the anthropogenic impacts on biomes, ecosystems, communities, populations and the genetic diversity of individuals. The introduce approaches and ideas fundamental to modern quantitative conservation ecology. The practicals include an introduction to ecological communities, measuring ecological diversity, elementary statistical analysis, field exercises involving terrestrial environments and field trip to a nature reserve to examine relationships between landscape management and/or one or more approaches to measuring biological diversity. Selfdirected reading provides opportunities for the students on this module to explore and reflect on these and other aspects in more detail. This module is intended to give you a flavour of the issues, themes and considerations relating to biodiversity, ecosystem services and human development. It does not require indepth prior knowledge of social sciences, biology chemistry or physics.

ENV4006B 
20 
TOPICS IN PHYSICS
This module gives an introduction to important topics in physics, with particular, but not exclusive, relevance to chemical and molecular physics. Areas covered include optics, electrostatics and magnetism, and special relativity. The module may be taken by any science students who wish to study physics beyond ALevel.

CHE4801Y 
20 
UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMIC PLANET
Understanding of natural systems is underpinned by physical laws and processes. This module explores energy, mechanics, physical properties of Earth materials and their relevance to environmental science using examples from across the Earth's differing systems. The formation, subsequent evolution and current state of our planet are considered through its structure and behaviour#from the planetary interior to the dynamic surface and into the atmosphere. Plate Tectonics is studied to explain Earth's physiographic features#such as mountain belts and volcanoes#and how the processes of erosion and deposition modify them. The distribution of land masses is tied to global patterns of rock, ice and soil distribution and to atmospheric and ocean circulation. We also explore geological time#the 4.6 billion year record of changing conditions on the planet and introduce geological materials, resources and hazards.

ENV4005A 
20 
Students must study the following modules for 40 credits:
Name  Code  Credits 

NATURAL SCIENCES BSC PROJECT
This individual research module is compulsory for all Natural Sciences students and is only available to Natural Sciences students. It comprises supervised research in at least one area of science. It may involve research partners across the Norwich Research Park. The project can involve collection of data in the laboratory or in the field, and/or development of a piece of equipment, and/or development of software or a theoretical/numerical model, and/or analysis of preexisting data from a variety of sources. It must include independent scientific analysis. It will be assessed by a written report, a presentation, and a web log maintained throughout the project.

NAT6001Y 
40 
Students will select 60  80 credits from the following modules:
In this option range 20 of the 6080 credits may be selected from a School outside the Science Faculty, not listed in this profile, with the approval of the Course Director.
Name  Code  Credits 

ADVANCED STATISTICS
This module covers three topics in statistical theory. For this year they are Regression and Linear Model, Generalised Models and Nonparametric Methods. The first two topics consider both the theory and practice of statistical model fitting and students will be expected to analyse real data. The third topic is chosen to be a contrasting one. Nonparametric methods are a vital part of the statisticians armoury and cheap computing makes such techniques very powerful. We look at the traditional permutation based methods as well as the empirical distribution function.

CMP6004A 
20 
ALGORITHMS FOR BIOINFORMATICS
Bioinformatics is one of the great growth areas in computing sciences due to the development of powerful new technologies that are able to churn out vast amounts of biological data. This data is often in the form of DNA or protein sequence data and the challenge that computer scientists' face involves developing efficient algorithms to process and understand the resulting complex data sets. Although the algorithms (such as dynamic programming and heuristics) and computer science techniques (such as graph theory and algorithm analysis) are introduced in a bioinformatics context, they are applicable to computer science problems in general. A brief introduction to the basics of molecular biology will be given, and so no background in biology is required. Topics will include sequence analysis, structural genomics and protein modelling, genome assembly and phylogenetics. Lecturers will highlight the relevance of the material to cuttingedge research and in applications such as understanding human diseases, developing new drugs, improving crop plants, and uncovering the origins of species.

CMP6034B 
20 
ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION: MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING
Air pollution is one of the most significant environmental problems of the 21st century, with serious implications for human health and mortality, ecosystem and infrastructure damage, and climate change. This module will look at cuttingedge, stateoftheart methods used to measure and monitor air pollutants at urban, regional and global scales, and how these measurements are interpreted using a variety of numerical models and graphical tools.

ENV6020B 
20 
AUDIOVISUAL PROCESSING
This module continues the exploration of computer processing of sound and image signals begun in Sound and Image I. The two aspects of the module are brought together using a common application: speech recognition  a technology that is becoming ubiquitous and found in almost all modern day mobile phones. In the sound component, the focus is on understanding acoustic feature extraction and acoustic modelling for recognition, and noise compensation techniques to overcome the effects of the environment. The imaging component builds on the idea of speech recognition to consider the choice of visual feature for computer lipreading and the integration of acoustic and visual information for more robust recognition. The theoretical material covered in the lectures is reinforced with practical laboratory sessions and coursework, where full acoustic, visualonly and audiovisual speech recognisers are built. This includes data capture, preprocessing, feature extraction, modelling and recognition.

CMP6026A 
20 
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND HUMAN SOCIETY
The global biodiversity crisis threatens mass species loss. What are the implications for society? How can communities solve this problem in a world that is facing other challenges of climate change, food security and justice? This interdisciplinary module focused on the interactions between biodiversity and human societies is designed for students of Geography, Environmental Science, Ecology and International Development who have an interest in biodiversity. The module adopts a rigorous evidencebased approach. Classes first critically examine the human drivers of biodiversity loss and the importance of biodiversity to human society, to understand how underlying perspectives and motivations influence approaches to conservation. We then examine conflicts between human society and conservation and how these potentially can be resolved, reviewing institutions and potential instruments for biodiversity conservation in both Europe and developing countries. Although particularly relevant to Ecology students with an interest in biodiversity conservation, the module is also suitable for Environmental Science or Geography students who have not taken ecological modules; where a simple understanding of ecological principles is important to understanding material, these will be reviewed in class. There are no formal prerequisites. The module is particularly relevant for students who have previously taken one or other of: ENV5014A Population Ecology and Management; ENV5002B Environmental Politics and Policy Making; BIO 5014B Community, Ecosystem and MacroEcology; or DEV5013Y Natural Resources and Development. At Level 6 it is complementary to: ENV6012B Natural Resources and Environmental Economics; ENV6024B Science, Society and Sustainability; or DEV6005B Contemporary Issues in Resource Development and Conservation.

ENV6006A 
20 
BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE ECOLOGY
This module examines the microbial processes that underpin our dependence on the marine environment for 'services' such as climate modulation and nutrient regeneration. The module will cover the evolution, biodiversity and molecular ecology of bacteria, diatoms, coccolithophores and nitrogen fixers, and the physiology and distribution of zooplankton. Example ecosystems such as the Antarctic, mid ocean gyres and Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems will be studied in detail and predictions of the impact of environmental change (increasing temperature, decreasing pH, decreasing oxygen, and changes in nutrient supply) on marine ecosystem dynamics will be examined. Biological oceanographic methods will be critically evaluated. The module will include a reading week in week 7 and employability visits to the Centre for the Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) and British Antarctic Survey (BAS).

ENV6005A 
20 
CANCER BIOLOGY
This module deals with the concepts and principles of genetic analysis of cancer. The various roles of genes in development, apoptosis, the cell cycle, metastasis and angiogenesis are covered for example. A discussion on the potential of novel therapies concludes the module. This module takes advantage of several experts from the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital. Students will thus gain an indepth appreciation of cancer as a disease process from both the scientific and clinical viewpoints. It is highly advantageous to have taken BIO5003B as well as BIO5005B.

BIO6009A 
20 
CATCHMENT WATER RESOURCES
This module will adopt an integrated approach to studying surface water and groundwater resources in river basins to enable students to analyse aspects of land management that affect catchment water resources and ecosystems.

ENV6018B 
20 
CELL BIOLOGY AND MECHANISMS OF DISEASE
This module is concerned with the structure and function of cells in health and disease. It includes demonstrations of some of the imaging techniques used in the study of Cell Biology and workshops focused on how to design experiments and analyse research papers. Topics to be covered include: ubiquitination, the cytoskeleton and mechanics of cell division, signalling and cell migration, differentiation and apoptosis.

BIO6006B 
20 
CELLULAR SIGNALLING
The module deals with signal transduction mechanisms, particularly in mammalian cells and with emphasis on human disease. Topics include the molecular basis of cell surface receptor activation, Gprotein coupled receptors, kinases/phosphatases, 2nd messengers such as calcium and inositol lipids, and ion channels. The module then goes on to consider signalling mechanisms important for cell growth, differentiation and survival. (With the agreement of the module organiser, students who have taken BIO5002A but not BIO5005B may be allowed to take this module.)

BIO6003A 
20 
CHEMICAL PHYSICS  PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
The module will consist of topics covering important areas of modern physical chemistry and chemical physics. The material will blend together experimental and theoretical aspects of photonics, condensed phase dynamics in molecular and macromolecular fluids and quantum and classical simulations.

CHE6250Y 
20 
CLIMATE SYSTEMS
This module is about understanding the processes that determine why the Earth's climate (defined, for example, as its temperature and moisture distribution) looks like it does, what are the major circulation patterns and climate zones around the world and how do they arise, how and why the climate can change in time over different timescales, and how we can use this knowledge to understand the climate systems of other planets. This course is aimed at those students who wish to further their knowledge of climate and climatology, and also want a base for any future study of climate change, such as students doing the Meteorology/Oceanography or the Environmental Geography and Climate Change degrees. Note that Meteorology I (ENV 5008A) is a prerequisite for this module. After completing this module, students should be able to: # Understand the processes that control the energy balance of the atmosphere (following on from ENV5008A) # Explain the temperature and moisture structure of the atmosphere # Understand the science underlying regional and global circulations and climatic zones (complementing level M/6level Global Circulation and Dynamical Oceanography, feeding into Mlevel Physical Science Basis of Climate Change) # Identify how and why climate changes on a variety of timescales (feeding into Mlevel Physical Science Basis of Climate Change, Mlevel Geoengineering) # Use this knowledge to understand other climate.

ENV6025B 
20 
COMPUTER VISION
Computer Vision is about "teaching machines how to see". It includes methods for acquiring, analysing and understanding images. The unit comprises lectures and laboratories. Practical exercises and projects, undertaken in the laboratory support the underpinning theory and enable students to implement contemporary computer vision algorithms.

CMP6035B 
20 
DYNAMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY
This level 6 module covers modelling the large scale ocean circulation and structure, internal waves and coastal flows. The mathematical modelling of the oceans in this module provides a demonstration of how the techniques developed in second year modules on fluid dynamics and differential equations can be used to explain some interesting phenomena in the real physical world. The module begins with a discussion of the effects of rotation in fluid flows. The dynamics of large scale ocean circulation is discussed including the development of ocean gyres and strong western boundary currents. The thermal structure associated with these flows is examined. These large scale currents are responsible for the variation in climate between land on the eastern and western side of major ocean basins. The dynamics of equatorial waves are examined. Such waves are intimately linked with the El Nino phenomena which affects the climate throughout the globe.

MTHE6007B 
20 
EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC HAZARDS
Geophysical hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and landslides have significant environmental and societal impacts. This module focuses on the physical basis and analysis of each hazard, their global range of occurrence and their local and global impact. The module addresses matters such as hazard monitoring, modelling and assessment. The module considers approaches towards risk mitigation and the reduction of vulnerability (individual and societal), with an emphasis on their practical implementation. Scenarios and probabilities of megadisasters are also investigated. All the teaching faculty involved have practical experience of supplying professional advice on these hazards (and related risks) in addition to their own research involvement. A basic knowledge of physical science and of mathematics is assumed e.g. use of logs, exponentials, powers, cosines, rearrangement of equations.

ENV6001B 
20 
ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION
In the final semester of third year this module will build on your established understanding of electricity by studying the technical aspects of the electrical industry. Analysing transformer designs will help consolidate your knowledge of generation before developing an advanced understanding of the constraints of cabling for offshore wind turbines. You will evaluate the efficiency of the national grid by comparing the practical design aspects to the costs involved. A detailed consideration of the current shortfall in meeting demand for electricity will lead to the study of novel methods of distribution, including pumpedstorage schemes and supercapacitors.

ENG6001B 
20 
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Embedded processors are at the core of a huge range of products e.g. mobile telephones, cameras, passenger cars, washing machines, DVD players, medical equipment, etc. The embedded market is currently estimated to be worth around 100x the 'desktop' market and is projected to grow exponentially over the next decade. This module builds on the material delivered in CMP5013A to consider the design and development of realtime embedded system applications for commercial off the shelf (COTS) processors running realtime operating systems (RTOS) such as eLinux.

CMP6024B 
20 
ENERGY AND PEOPLE
This module will introduce students to a range of social science perspectives on the interrelationships between energy and people. The module begins by tracing the history and development of energy intensive societies and everyday lives as a means of understanding how energy has emerged as a key sustainability problem. The second part of the module then introduces some theories of social and technical change and uses these to critically analyse a range of peoplebased solutions to energy problems  including behaviour change initiatives, domestic energy efficiency technologies, and communityscale renewables  that are currently being tried and tested around the world. TEACHING AND LEARNING The module is taught through a combination of lectures and seminars involving group projects, peer discussions, practical exercises and studentled learning. The lectures (2 per week) will introduce students to some core theoretical ideas about the relationships between energy and people, as well as examining a series of peoplebased solutions to energy problems that have been attempted around the world. The seminar sessions (1 per week) will give students the opportunity to engage with the lecture content in more depth through a range of exercises designed to promote discussion with both course lecturers and peers. Essential readings will be identified for each lecture. To do well in the module students will need to demonstrate that they have engaged extensively with the literature in this area, particularly regarding the 'real world' implications of theoretical ideas and debates. CAREER PROSPECTS Contemporary energy problems are a key concern of central and local government policy, business activities, charity and community work and wider public debates. A key reason why existing solutions to these problems either fail or are not as effective as at first assumed, is that they are often based on a poor understanding of how people use and engage with energy in the course of their everyday lives. Improving students' understanding of the relationships between energy and people and providing them with the intellectual tools necessarily to critically assess energy problems and potential solutions will therefore give them with a significant advantage in this growing job market. In addition to enhancing employability in the specific area of energy, this module will also provide students with a range of key transferable skills that will help them secure gainful employment on completion of their undergraduate degree. These include: developing analytical and critical thinking skills; understanding how to work effectively in teams; advocacy and negotiation skills; developing creative approaches to presentation; and presenting work to different audiences.

ENV6026B 
20 
ENERGY MATERIALS
This module is designed to provide students with an understanding of the developing landscape and challenges in the broad area of energy generation and transduction. It has a particular emphasis on the science that underpins emerging technologies related to the hydrogen economy, photovoltaics and biological or solar fuels. Necessarily it encompasses crossdiscipline aspects of chemistry, physics materials and biological science with the students gaining knowledge of how these disciplines interplay in the design and construction of new devices for energy harvesting and utilisation.

CHE6350Y 
20 
EVOLUTION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
The module aims to provide an uptodate and thoughtprovoking discussion about evolutionary medicine and the evolution of disease. The module will examine how evolutionary principles illuminate and provide fresh insight into a broad range of contemporary health problems including infectious, chronic and nutritional diseases and disorders. Topics are introduced in a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account the relationship between biology and society as it relates to understanding, treating, and preventing disease. Evidence will be presented that all aspects of the human condition have an evolutionary basis. The course will cover 4 broad areas: (i) principles of evolutionary medicine  humans in their evolutionary context, and discussion of the factors that drive evolutionary change; (ii) evolution and noninfectious diseases (cancer, lifestyles, ageing); (iii) evolution and infection (vaccines, antibiotics, pathogens, emerging diseases); (iv) personalised medicine and social context of evolutionary medicine.

BIO6017A 
20 
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION GENETICS
In this module, students will study evolutionary theory and its application to conservation genetics. The principal focus will be on how evolutionary forces (mutation, recombination, genetic drift, gene flow, and selection) and epigenetics affect phenotype, behaviour, and genetic variation. We will cover the rich evolutionary literature, discussing the paradigmshifting studies by Darwin, Fisher, Wright, Haldane and others. The module also covers current knowledge of molecular technology as applied to ecological, evolutionary and conservation studies.

BIO6008B 
20 
FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS
The Mathematical Modelling of Finance is a relatively new area of application of mathematics yet it is expanding rapidly and has great importance for world financial markets. The module is concerned with the valuation of financial instruments known as derivatives. Introduction to options, futures and the noarbitrage principle. Mathematical models for various types of options are discussed. We consider also Brownian motion, stochastic processes, stochastic calculus and Ito's lemma. The BlackScholes partial differential equation is derived and its connection with diffusion brought out. It is applied and solved in various circumstances.

MTHE6026A 
20 
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY  INTERPRETATION AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS
In the first semester, the module contains introductory lectures on the diverse aspects of mass spectrometry in inorganic and organic chemistry from routine benchtop GC/LCMS to OrbitrapMS and MCCCICPMS in a forensic chemistry context. It then applies this knowledge in two areas; an introduction to Forensic Toxicology, including drugs of abuse, and to Environmental issues, including provenancing of foodstuffs. The module also reenforces issues of collection and preservation of evidence through two simulated case exercises dealing with scene examination and collection of evidence. In the second semester the module expands on themes introduced in the first semester and concentrates on developing both the written and oral presentation skills of students. It is based around a simulated case in which the students will need to examine some evidence, place in the context of the case and write an expert witness report. This will culminate in the presentation of live evidence to a simulated court. The module also includes teaching and discussion of more advanced forensic topics such as advanced DNA, firearms and gunshot residues. This module provides a foundation for the advanced forensic topics taught through CHE7701Y in the final year.

CHE6701Y 
20 
FOSSIL FUELS
Geological, economic and political aspects of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) are introduced. These are used to discuss environmental concerns arising from the use of fossil fuels, and the potentially profound implications of future fuel scarcity. This module is suitable for students taking degrees in the School of Environmental Sciences. Some knowledge of Earth science will be expected. Therefore before taking this module you must take or be taking at least 20 credits of Earth Science or Geophysics modules at honours level. This module replaces ENV3A35.

ENV6009A 
20 
GALOIS THEORY
Introduction: This module is an introduction to Galois Theory, which beautifully brings together the notions of a group and of a field. In particular, the ideas developed will be applied to looking at the question of solving polynomial equations. Overview: Galois theory is one of the most spectacular mathematical theories. It gives a beautiful connection between the theory of polynomial equations and group theory. In fact, many fundamental notions of group theory originated in the work of Galois. For example, why are some groups called "solvable"? Because they correspond to the equations which can be solved (by some formula based on the coefficients and involving algebraic operations and extracting roots of various degrees). Galois theory explains why we can solve quadratic, cubic and quartic equations, but no similar formulae exist for equations of degree greater than 4. In modern exposition, Galois theory deals with "field extensions", and the central topic is the "Galois correspondence" between extensions and groups.

MTHE6004A 
20 
GENOMES, GENES AND GENOMICS
This module provides a comprehensive coverage of contemporary biological studies of genomes. There will be a strong focus on the molecular basis of gene expression in a range of organisms, with a particular emphasis on the regulatory processes that affect expression at the genome level, including epigenetic ones. Topics covered will also include contemporary DNA sequencing technologies, comparative and functional genomics, the organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, global regulation of gene expression and the mechanisms that maintain genome integrity. Other lectures will highlight how modern genomics approaches are being exploited within BIO to address significant biological problems. The associated practical programme will also enhance students understanding of contemporary approaches used to characterise gene function, together with bioinformatics, as well as enhancing their practical skills in the analysis of genomes and gene products.

BIO6013A 
20 
GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES FIELD COURSE TO SPAIN
Prerequisite: at least two of the following: ENV5003A Climate Change: Science and Policy; ENV5018A Geodynamics: Earth's Engine; ENV5021A Hydrology and Hydrogeology; ENV5022B Low Carbon Energy; ENV5028B GIS Skills for Project Work; ENV5031B or ENV5036K Social Research Skills for Geographers and Environmental Scientists; ENV5034A Geomorphology. The module will use the same Urra field centre in the Almeria region of southern Spain as ENV6029K Geosciences Field Course to Spain and there will be some overlap in the sites visited and material covered. As a consequence, students may not take both of these field courses to Spain. This module is designed to promote a deeper understanding of the interactions between the natural environment and human society in particular geographical contexts through a fieldbased teaching and project work in Almeria, southern Spain. This region provides classic examples of landform evolution and arid environments, as well as experiencing major socioeconomic changes in recent decades. Field activities will focus on such issue as agriculture, water resources, renewable energy and adaptation to climate change. Methods for evaluating potential natural resources, siting new developments and landscapescale planning will be implemented and assessed. These techniques are applicable to many aspects of geography and the environmental sciences, as well as being relevant to a range of future careers.

ENV6030K 
20 
GEOSCIENCES FIELD COURSE TO SPAIN
This module is designed to promote a deeper understanding and integration of geoscience subjects through the development of field observation, recording and interpretation skills in areas of classic field geology. This 10 day field course is to the Almeria province in southern Spain, a region to the north of the Mediterranean coast; accommodation is likely to be full board at the Urra field study centre near Sorbas. The focus of this field course is folded and metamorphic solid geology which form alpine belts which bound sedimentary fill of a basin. The sedimentary fill provides a World class example of basin analysis  sediments represent different stages of basin evolution and different depositional environments under varied climatic conditions, postdepositional uplift, and incision in a nowarid region. The regional setting is an active strikeslip fault system, with associated submarine Miocene volcanism.

ENV6029K 
20 
GRAPHICS 2
This module introduces the fundamentals of 3D geometric transformations and viewing using OpenGL. It teaches the theory and implementation of fundamental visibility determination algorithms and techniques for lighting, shading and antialiasing. Issues involved with modern high performance graphics processor are also considered. It also studies 3D curves and fundamental geometric data structures.

CMP6006A 
20 
HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
We trace the development of Arithmetic and Algebra from the high cultures of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom and Mesopotamia (1600BC) through Islamic mathematics and early algebra and on to the beginnings of mathematical modernity in the work of Galois in the 1830's. We present the rise of the Calculus from the first work of Archimedes and Apollonius around 200BC onwards, to trace ideas on differentiation and integration through to the time of Newton and Leibniz in the early 18th century. We explore mathematical logic, the ideas of propositions, logical methods in the axiomatisation of mathematics, and the idea of quantifiers. Of special interest is interplay between the development of logic and the development of mathematics, including theoretical computing. We discuss the Hilbert programme, first order logic, and the completeness and incompleteness theorems of Goedel, undecidability and independence. Our style will be to explore mathematical practice and conceptual developments in different historical contexts.

MTHA6002B 
20 
HOSTPARASITE INTERACTIONS
The object of the module is to examine, from a evolutionary and ecological perspective, the complex interactions between parasites/diseases and their hosts and to show how the selection pressures that each side of these interactions impose lead to coevolutionary processes. We will take an overview of the role that such parasitic interactions may have played in the development of key biological traits, such as the evolution of sexual reproduction, and their current role in sexual selection. The module will include traditional parasitology (to set the scene and understand the complexity of the interactions), introducing the major groups of parasites and their hosts. We will examine the role of parasites and hostparasite interactions in evolution, drawing examples from conservation, behaviour, current research, theoretical predictions and models.

BIO6016A 
20 
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY
This module aims to provide a detailed coverage of the biology of selected infectious microorganisms, in the context of host and responses to pathogens. The properties of organs, cells and molecules of the immune system are described, along with the mechanism of antibody diversity generation, and the exploitation of the immune response for vaccine development. Examples of microbiological pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are used to illustrate major virulence strategies. The impact of genomics on the study of infection, and on mechanisms used by pathogens to evade host responses will be discussed. The module's theme is the molecular and cellular biology events at the hostpathogen interface.

BIO6010B 
20 
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
This module concentrates on two important themes in contemporary inorganic chemistry: (i) the role of transition metals in homogeneous catalysis (ii) the correlation between the structures of transition metal complexes and their physical properties, specifically electronic and magnetic properties. The structure and bonding in these compounds will be discussed as well as applications in materials chemistry and synthesis. There will be a series of problemsolving workshops interspersed with the lectures. As each of the three lecturers completes their material, there will be a formative course test of short questions in exam format.

CHE6301Y 
20 
INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
This is an introductory course in numerical analysis which will cover approximating a function and it's derivative numerically. Further topics will include the numerical solution to boundary and initial value problems, numerical integration and nonlinear equations.

MTHE6012B 
20 
LINEAR ALGEBRA AND APPLICATIONS
This course is about a central subject in mathematics. It aims to develop the theory (Part A) and computational implementations of Linear Algebra (Part B). Topics include A1: Review of basis, linear map, matrix of linear map, change of basis; A2: Bilinear forms, adjoint of a map, selfadjoint maps, diagonalization, spectral theorem; A3: Polynomials of linear maps, characteristic and minimal polynomial, triangularization, CayleyHamilton theorem, normal forms; B1: Orthogonality: Representation through projections in computational approximations; B2: Matrix norms and condition number. Computational matrix inversion; B3: Basic finite element methods for ODEs and the Fast Fourier Transform.

MTHA6003A 
20 
MACHINE LEARNING
This module covers the core topics that dominate machine learning research: classification, clustering and reinforcement learning. We describe a variety of classification algorithms (e.g. Neural Networks, Decision Trees and Learning Classifier Systems) and clustering algorithms (e.g. kNN and PAM) and discuss the practical implications of their application to real world problems. We then introduce reinforcement learning and the Qlearning problem and describe its application to control problems such as maze solving.

CMP6002B 
20 
MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
This module provides a overview of the uses of microorganisms in biotechnological principles. It provides training in the basic principles that control microbiological culture growth, the microbial physiology and genetics that underpin the production of bioproducts such as biofuels, bioplastics, antibiotics and food products, as well as the use of microorganisms in wastewater treatment and bioremediation.

BIO6004A 
20 
MICROBIAL CELL BIOLOGY
We will give you a real understanding of cutting edge developments in microbial cell biology. This module is taught by worldleading research scientists from across the Norwich Research Park with focus on the structure and analysis of bacterial genomes, the bacterial cytoskeleton, subcellular localisation, cell shape and cell division and intercellular communication between bacteria and higher organisms. There will also be research led seminars delivered by a range PhD students studying on the Norwich Research Park.

BIO6005B 
20 
MODELLING ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES
The aim of the module is to show how environmental problems may be solved from the initial problem, to mathematical formulation and numerical solution. Problems will be described conceptually, then defined mathematically, then solved numerically via computer programming. The module consists of lectures on numerical methods and computing practicals (using Matlab); the practicals being designed to illustrate the solution of problems using the methods covered in lectures. The module will guide students through the solution of a model of an environmental process of their own choosing. The problem will be discussed and placed into context through a project proposal, instead of an essay, and then solved and written up in a project report. The skills developed in this module are highly valued by prospective employers of students wishing to carry on into further studies or in professional employment. TEACHING AND LEARNING The aim of this course is to show how environmental problems may be solved from the initial problem, to mathematical formulation and numerical solution. There is a focus on examples within meteorology, oceanography and also the solid earth. The course consists of lectures on numerical methods, taught computing practicals and an independent project. The taught practicals illustrate the solution of a broad range of environmental problems using the methods covered in lectures. The module will guide students through an individual project which will develop a simple numerical model of an environmental process of their own choosing. The problem will be discussed and placed into context through a proposal, and then solved and written up in a project report. The first 8 weeks of the module are taught lectures and practicals, while the last 4 weeks is devoted to completing the independent project. The computing practicals are run in Matlab and a brief review of programming in Matlab is included in the module. Previous programming experience in any language will be extremely useful. The skills developed in this unit are highly valued by prospective employers of students wishing to carry on into further studies or in professional employment. COURSE CONTENT: Lectures, computing practicals and an independent project CAREER PROSPECTS: Numerical modelling and computer programming are commonly requested skills for science graduates, especially those looking towards further study or to stay in science.

ENV6004A 
20 
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT
This module will discuss the molecular and cellular principles that drive embryonic development, including the signals and signalling pathways that lead to the establishment of the body plan, pattern formation and differentiation/organogenesis. Lectures will cover different model organisms used in the study of development including plants and Drosophila, however there is a focus on vertebrate systems. The relevance of embryonic development to our understanding of human development and disease is a recurring theme throughout the module, which also covers stem cells and their role in postnatal development and tissue maintenance.

BIO6012A 
20 
MOLECULAR ENZYMOLOGY IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
BEFORE TAKING THIS MODULE YOU MUST TAKE BIO5002A OR TAKE CHE5601Y The module sets out to explain the molecular basis of the often complex catalytic mechanisms of enzymes in biological systems concentrating particularly on their relevance to and applications in medicine. Covered are the underlying principles of enzyme catalysis and techniques for the study of enzyme mechanism and structure. These provide a foundation for discussions of the catalytic and cellular mechanisms of proteinase families such as the serine and metalloproteinases. Mechanismbased drug design is discussed particularly with respect to development of inhibitors of aspartic proteinases. Covered also are molecular motors, complex nanomachines involved in vesicle transport, ATP synthesis and DNA replication. Finally, the biosynthesis of the signalling molecule nitric oxide and the P450s involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics are presented. An extended practical based on the kinetics of a model enzyme, chymotrypsin, helps underpin concepts learnt in the module.

BIO6001A 
20 
MOLECULAR PLANTMICROBE INTERACTIONS
Plants interact with a range of microbes with consequences that are both beneficial (e.g. nitrogenfixing symbioses between legumes and Rhizobium, and the wide ranging mycorrhizal interactions between plants and fungi) and harmful (with many diseases being caused by viruses, fungi and oomycetes). This module explores 1) the ways in which the microbes recognise and invade host plants and 2) the responses of plants to symbiotic and pathogenic microbes. The Norwich Research Park is a world centre for this subject, and the module is be taught by researchers from the John Innes Centre and the Sainsbury Laboratory, as well as from UEA. There is no prerequisite for this module, but knowledge of both plant and molecular biology would be advantageous.

BIO6007B 
20 
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
Have you ever wondered why human economic activity seems to be so bad for the environment? Does it have to be like that? Is it possible for human beings to enjoy high standards of living and a high quality environment? Through the study of the principles of Environmental Economics this course sets out to answer those questions. Addressing a widerange of economyenvironment problems including car pollution, overfishing, climate change and declining oil stocks, the course shows that most environmental problems can be solved through the adoption of policies crafted with the careful application of economic reasoning.

ENV6012B 
20 
NUCLEAR AND SOLAR ENERGY
As we turn to new energy supplies to replace our polluting traditional resources, it is essential to fully consider the responsibilities of introducing new technologies into the mainstream energy mix. This module addresses the technical aspects of nuclear power and solar energy, whilst letting students apply their knowledge from the Engineering Practice module to make ethical decisions incorporating health and safety risk assessments. Successful design of nuclear installations requires a detailed quantitative risk analysis within a regulatory framework that imposes high tolerances. In contrast, the rapid installation of solar panels at a domestic scale requires education to ensure smaller companies remain in line with legislation. Although these new energies are considered cleaner it is essential to consider the developing environmental impact and planning law, as well as changing the societal perception of nuclear and solar energies.

ENG6002Y 
20 
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES
This module covers several key topics required to plan the synthesis of organic compounds, and to understand the properties displayed by organic compounds. The first topic is on the use of organometallic compounds in synthesis with a particular emphasis on the use of transition metal based catalysts. The second topic is on physical organic chemistry and includes aspects of radical chemistry. The third topic is on the synthesis of chiral nonracemic compounds, and describes the use of chiral pool compounds and methods for the amplification of chiral information. The fourth topic covers pericyclic reactions, and includes the prediction of the stereochemistry displayed by these reactions from an analysis of frontier orbitals. The final topic is on synthesis planning, strategy and analysis, supported by a study of further important reactions.

CHE6101Y 
20 
PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY
This module examines the geological evidence for major climatic change through the Quaternary Period (the last 2.6 million years) and the longterm evolution of climate through the Cenozoic Era (the last 65 million years). The key mechanisms behind these major global environmental changes are explored using a wide range of approaches  stable isotope geochemistry, sedimentology, radioisotopes, palaeoecology, and organic geochemistry. We will focus on selected topics that relate to the extent, timing and causes of past variations of climate as expressed through changes in the geological record and the fossil record. Taught classes will largely draw on information obtained from marine sediments, ice cores, and terrestrial and lacustrine biological and sedimentological archives. Topics to be covered include: # Past climate change and causes of change over geological timescales # Driving mechanisms of Quaternary climate change# # High frequency climate variability# # Stratigraphy and geochronology # Palaeotemperature reconstruction# # Ice sheet variability and climate linkages# # Sea level change over geological timescales # Palaeoclimate modelling The module provides an essential geological perspective on the topic of climate change and the interpretation of past environments for those interested from either an academic or consultancy viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of this module means that it provides valuable skills for those who have interests in pursuing careers in oceanography, climatology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, archaeology and environmental management/consultancy.

ENV6017B 
20 
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II
The module covers fundamental material in Physical Chemistry including statistical thermodynamics, plus specialist topics such as lasers and photochemistry, diffraction methods, interfacial kinetics and dynamic electrochemistry.

CHE6201Y 
20 
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION
Sustainable crop production is an important strategic objective. The identification of important traits from wild germplasm and existing cultivars, and their introduction into elite cultivars has been achieved primarily using conventional plant breeding methods. This module will describe current crop improvement strategies and identify the major challenges for achieving sustainable crop production in the future. The lecture programme will focus primarily on the significant potential of plant biotechnology in achieving this goal.

BIO6025B 
20 
PROTEIN STRUCTURE, CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING
The structural basis of the function of many proteins has been elucidated and this, together with the ready availability of chemical and biochemical techniques for altering proteins in a controlled way, has led to the application of proteins in a wide variety of chemical processes. These include their use as industrial catalysts and medicines, in organic syntheses and in the development of new materials. Central to the module is the link between the structures of proteins and their biochemical and physical properties. Included are discussions of protein structure, and an introduction to the methods employed to determine protein structures by Xray crystallography. Acknowledging the importance of metal ions to protein function, the chemical principles of proteinmetal interactions and spectroscopic techniques for studying protein metal centres are also covered. Relevant methods from bioinformatics and computational biomolecular modelling are introduced as tools for rational protein engineering. In the second half of the module, lectures progress to explain the experimental techniques by which the properties of proteins can be altered, through to the design and production of completely novel proteins and of synthetic protein mimics.

CHE6601Y 
20 
QUIVERS AND REPRESENTATIONS
This module is about representation of associative algebras over fields. Algebras, and their representations, will be studied using quivers, which are dots with arrows between them. The emphasis will be on noncommutative, finitedimensional algebras. A key topic will be understanding extensions of modules.

MTHD6026B 
20 
SCIENCE COMMUNICATION
This module aims to bring an understanding of how science is disseminated to the public. Students on the module will be made aware of the theories surrounding learning and communication. They will investigate science as a culture and how this culture interfaces with the public. Students will examine case studies in a variety of different scientific areas. They will look at how information is released in scientific literature and how this is subsequently picked up by the public press. They will gain an appreciation of how science information can be used to change public perception and how it can sometimes be misinterpreted. Students will also learn practical skills by designing, running and evaluating a public outreach event at a school or in a public area. OPEN TO ALL STUDENTS REGISTERED IN THE SCIENCE FACULTY.

BIO6018Y 
20 
SEMIGROUP THEORY
Introduction: This module is an introduction to Semigroup Theory. Semigroups are algebraic objects which generalize groups. They are of interests because they arise naturally in many parts of mathematics, for example, whenever we are composing functions, multiplying matrices, or considering homomorphisms between objects, there are semigroups underlying our mathematics. Overview: This course is concerned with the study of a class of algebraic objects called semigroups. A semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation. For example, every group is a semigroup, but the converse is far from being true. Semigroups are ubiquitous in pure mathematics: whenever we are composing functions, multiplying matrices, or considering homomorphisms between objects, there are semigroups underlying our mathematics. Finite semigroups are also of importance in the theory of finite automata (an area of theoretical computer science). This course will cover the fundamentals of semigroup theory, with the focus on using Green's relations to study their underlying structure. Topics covered will include: definition of semigroups and monoids with examples, idempotents, maximal subgroups, ideals and Rees quotients, Green's relations and regular semigroups, 0simple semigroups, principal factors, Rees matrix semigroups and the Rees theorem.

MTHE6011A 
20 
SET THEORY
Introduction: This unit is concerned with foundational issues in mathematics and provides the appropriate mathematical framework for discussing 'sizes of infinity'. On the one hand we shall cover concepts such as ordinals, cardinals, and the ZermeloFraenkel axioms with the Axiom of Choice. On the other, we shall see how these ideas come up in other areas of mathematics, such as graph theory and topology. Familiarity with and a taste for mathematical proofs will be assumed. Therefore, second year Analysis is a desired prerequisite. Overview: Set theory plays a dual role in mathematics. It provides a manageable foundation to mathematics and it is itself a sophisticated area of mathematics. The foundational role of set theory consists in providing a reasonable set of assumptions (axioms) which enable us to construct most mathematical objects, and from which most mathematics can be derived by proving theorems based on these axioms. We will discuss this system of axioms, known as ZFC (ZermeloFraenkel Axioms with the Axiom of Choice), and will demonstrate how it can be used to build the foundations of mathematics. We will discuss some background foundational issues, including Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and the notion of consistency (these issues will be discussed without proofs), and will discuss some alternatives to ZFC. We will give a complete development of the general theory of ordinals and, along with it, we will introduce the methods of transfinite induction and recursion. Armed with these tools, we shall see how set theory provides the right framework for studying infinite sets. Examples of such sets are the set of all natural numbers, the set of all rationals, and the set of all real numbers. It turns out that there is a very natural way to assign a notion of size to such sets, providing us with more information than just 'infinite'. According to this notion (cardinality), the first two of the above sets have the same size, which is strictly smaller than that of the third. We will construct concrete examples of infinite objects in mathematics, such as infinite graphs, almost disjoint families, topological spaces, and groups, and will study some of their properties. Finally, if we have time we will briefly discuss the limitations of ZFC as well as criteria for extending ZFC in a sensible way. .

MTHE6003B 
20 
SOCIAL EVOLUTION
Life is organised hierarchically. Genes aggregate in cells, cells aggregate in organisms, and organisms aggregate in societies. Each step in the formation of this hierarchy is termed a major evolutionary transition. Because common principles of social evolution underlie each transition, the study of altruism and cooperation in nature has broadened out to embrace the fundamental hierarchical structure common to all life. This module investigates this new vision of social evolution. It explores how principles of social evolution underlying each transition illuminate our understanding of life's diversity and organisation, using examples ranging from selfish genetic elements to social insects and mammals.

BIO6011B 
20 
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 2
Industrial software development is seldom started from scratch, companies generally have large systems of legacy software that need to be maintained, improved and extended. This module focuses on advanced software engineering topics, such as reverse engineering to understand legacy software, refactoring and design patterns to improve the design of software systems and developing new software projects using thirdparty software components. Assessment will be done by a group project which consists of a design and analysis task, and the group implementation task of a software project. Confidence in Java programming language skills as well as software engineering practice (phased development with agile methods, Unified Modeling Language, testdriven developement) are prerequisites. Software Engineering I is required for this module.

CMP6010A 
20 
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
This module draws together a wide range of material and considers it in the context of developing modern largescale computer systems. Topics such as Outsourcing, Process Improvement, System Failure, Project Management, Configuration Management, Maintainability, Legacy Systems and Reengineering, Acceptance and Performance Testing, Metrics and Human Factors are covered in this module. The module is supported by a series of industrial case studies and includes speakers from industry.

CMP6003B 
20 
THE CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
What do you know about the drivers of climate change? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the greenhouse gas that has, by far, the greatest impact on climate change, but how carbon cycles through the Earth is complex and not fully understood. Predicting future climate or defining 'dangerous' climate change is challenging, in large part because of this complexity. In this module you will learn about the atmosphere, ocean and land components of the carbon cycle. We cover urgent global issues such as ocean acidification and how to get off our fossil fuel 'addiction'. The complexity of the carbon cycle leads to a truly interdisciplinary module, incorporating elements of chemistry, ecology, physics, mathematics and geography. We also consider several human dimensions such as: how to 'decarbonise' the UK; geoengineering the climate; how to deal with climate denialists; how to verify greenhouse gas emissions; and the policy relevance of the carbon cycle. The understanding of the carbon cycle gained from this module is an important foundation for all climate change studies. Emphasis is given to the most recent, cuttingedge research in the field.

ENV6008A 
20 
THEORY OF WATER WAVES
This course provides an introduction to the theory of water waves. It requires some knowledge of hydrodynamics and multivariable calculus. The unit is suitable for those with an interest in Applied Mathematics. Overview: Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and everyday life. Examples of free surface problems are waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne and a liquid jet flowing from a tap. In these examples the free surface is the surface of the sea, the interface between the gas and the champagne and the boundary of the falling jet. We will study aspects of linear and nonlinear water waves using analytical techniques

MTHE6014A 
20 
TOPICS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The aim of this module is to provide an overview of important classes of organic natural product and pharmaceutical compounds. The biosynthetic origins and or the natural product synthesis of some of these entities are also, in some cases, explained in terms of classic organic chemistry, arrow pushing, all of which is presented alongside the properties of perinent examples. The module examines examples of biogenesis, chemical synthesis as well as the biological action of selected natural products and pharmaceutically active compounds. More specifically the chemistry associated with natural products that contain important bioactive motifs will be discussed. The roles of coenzymes in the mevalonate and methylerythritol pathways that generate the "isoprene" building blocks for terpenes and steroids, are outlined as well as the significance of substrate folding in the action of terpene synthases and the enzymes that produce steroids. The historical development and applications of multicomponent reactions as well as the use of microfluidics (flow and continuous), microwave and biphasic chemical synthesis. Finally target molecule synthesis associated with natural product synthesis and the chemistry associated with organosulfur, organosilicon and organoselenium chemistry is discussed in the context of natural product synthesis.

CHE6151Y 
20 
Students will select 0  20 credits from the following modules:
A further 20 credits may be chosen from Options Range A above, or by taking a level 5 module from the following list.
Name  Code  Credits 

ALGEBRA
(a) Group theory: basic concepts and examples. Cosets, Lagrange's theorem. Normal subgroups and quotient groups. First isomorphism theorem. Quotient spaces in linear algebra. (b) Rings, elementary properties and examples of commutative rings. Ideals, quotient rings. Polynomial rings and construction of finite fields. Unique Factorization in rings. Applications in linear algebra.

MTHA5003Y 
20 
ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
This module provides a practical introduction to electronics. Topics include a review of basic components and fundamental laws; introduction to semiconductors; operational amplifiers; combinational logic; sequential logic; and state machines. Much of the time is spent on practical work. Students learn how to build prototypes, make measurements and produce PCBs.

CMP5027A 
20 
ANALYSIS
This module covers the standard basic theory of the complex plane. The areas covered in the first semester, (a), and the second semester, (b), are roughly the following: (a) Continuity, power series and how they represent functions for both real and complex variables, differentiation, holomorphic functions, CauchyRiemann equations, Moebius transformations. (b) Topology of the complex plane, complex integration, Cauchy and Laurent theorems, residue calculus.

MTHA5001Y 
20 
APPLIED STATISTICS A
ACTUARIAL SCIENCE AND BUSINESS STATISTICS STUDENTS SHOULD TAKE CMP5019B, APPLIED STATISTICS B, DUE TO THE DIFFERENT REQUIREMENTS OF THEIR COURSE. This is a module designed to give students the opportunity to apply statistical methods in realistic situations. While no advanced knowledge of probability and statistics is required, we expect students to have some background in probability and statistics before taking this module. The aim is to introduce students to R statistical language and to cover Regression, Analysis of Variance and Survival analysis. Other topics from a list including: Extremes and quartiles, Bootstrap methods and their application, Sample surveys, Simulations, Subjective statistics, Forecasting and Clustering methods, may be offered to cover the interests of those in the class.

CMP5017B 
20 
AQUATIC ECOLOGY
An analysis of how chemical, physical and biological influences shape the biological communities of rivers, lakes and estuaries in temperate and tropical regions. There is an important practical component to this module that includes laboratory work and three field visits. The first piece of course work involves statistical analysis of class data. The module can be taken alongside hydrology or geochemical modules, it fits well with other ecology modules and can fit well with modules in development studies. Prerequisite requirements are: An Alevel in a biological subject, a biologically biased access course or any 1st year ecology module in ENV or BIO. Students must have a background in basic statistical analysis of data. Lectures will show how the chemical and physical features of freshwaters influence their biological communities. Students may attend video screenings that complement lectures with examples of aquatic habitats in the tropics. To do well in this module, students need to show that they can use primary literature to illustrate or contradict ideas introduced in lectures: There will be one formal session that shows how to do this. Practical work is an important part of this Module and is an opportunity to develop skills in taxonomy mainly using microscopes, chemical analysis of freshwaters, field observation, working in small groups, minilecture presentation, writing a research proposal and statistical analysis of ecological data. If interested in a career in ecology, the usual route is via a higher degree (Masters or PhD), for which a first or 2:1 is needed. This might lead into research or management work, either in an academically orientated environment or in industry. An alternative path is via casual or voluntary work leading ultimately into conservation or management, but bear in mind that many committed and keen people follow the same route and competition for permanent and paid jobs can be intense. There are also opportunities to enter relevant employment directly after graduation. The Environment Agency, which is responsible for the management, monitoring and legal regulation of many aspects of freshwater, estuaries and coastal waters, is a potential employer. Consulting engineers and many multinational companies have environmental departments that tackle aquatic projects. For this type of work, students might combine ecological modules with management options, or with more physical sciences such as soils, hydrology, hydrogeology, water resources, oceanography and environmental chemistry. Careers in international development on the natural resources side may also benefit from a background in freshwater science.

ENV5001A 
20 
ARCHITECTURES AND OPERATING SYSTEMS
This module studies the organisation of both the system software and the underlying hardware architecture in modern computer systems. The role of concurrent operation of both hardware and software components is emphasised throughout, and the central concepts of the module are reinforced by practical work in the laboratory. The architectures portion of the module focuses on the components of a processor, including the registers and data path, and MIPS is used to demonstrate concepts such as instruction fetch cycles, and instruction decoding, and memory addressing modes. The operating systems component of the module focuses on how the system software manages the competing demands for the system hardware, including memory management, disc and processing scheduling, and so on.

CMP5013A 
20 
ASTROPHYSICS
This 20 credit module gives an overview of astrophysics through lectures and workshops. Assessment will involve some coursework and a coursetest. The module assumes previous study of either A level physics or an equivalent course. Topics covered will include some history of astrophysics, radiation, matter, gravitation, astrophysical measurements, spectroscopy, stars and some aspects of cosmology. Some of these topics will be taken to a more advanced level. The more advanced topics will include workshop examples and course test questions at level 5 standard.

NAT5001A 
20 
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE
Atmospheric chemistry and global change are in the news: stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain, greenhouse gases, and global scale air pollution are among the most significant environmental problems of our age. Chemical composition and transformations underlie these issues, and drive many important atmospheric processes. This module covers the fundamental chemical principles and processes in the atmosphere from the Earth's surface to the stratosphere, and considers current issues of atmospheric chemical change through a series of lectures, problemsolving classes, seminars, experimental and computing labs and a field trip to UEA's own atmospheric observatory in Weybourne/North Norfolk. A solid background in chemistry, physics or maths is recommended.

ENV5015A 
20 
BEHAVIOURAL ECOLOGY
In this module, the interrelationships between animal behaviour, ecology and evolution will be explored. Students will examine how behaviour has evolved to maximise survival and reproduction in the natural environment. Darwinian principles will provide the theoretical framework, within which the module will seek to explain the ultimate function of animal behaviours. Concepts and examples will be developed through the lecture series, exploring behaviours in the context of altruism, optimality, foraging, and particularly reproduction, the key currency of evolutionary success. In parallel with the lectures, students will design, conduct, analyse and present their own research project, collecting original data to answer a question about the adaptive significance of behaviour.

BIO5010B 
20 
BIOCHEMISTRY
This module aims to develop understanding of contemporary biochemistry, especially in relation to mammalian physiology and metabolism. There will be a particular focus on proteins and their involvement in cellular reactions, bioenergetics and signalling processes.

BIO5002A 
20 
BIOLOGY IN SOCIETY
THIS MODULE IS ONLY AVAILABLE TO ANY STUDENT THAT SATISFIES THE PREREQUISITE REQUIREMENTS. Alternative prerequisites are BIO4001A and BIO4002B, or BIO4003A and BIO4004B. This module will provide an opportunity to discuss various aspects of biology in society. Students will be able to critically analyse the way biological sciences issues are represented in popular literature and the media and an idea of the current 'hot topics' in biological ethics. Specific topics to be covered will involve aspects of contemporary biological science that have important ethical considerations for society, such as GM crops, DNA databases, designer babies, stem cell research etc. Being able to understand the difference between scientific fact and scientific fiction is not always straightforward. What was once viewed as science fiction has sometimes become a scientific fact or scientific reality as our scientific knowledge and technology has increased exponentially. Conversely, science fiction can sometimes be portrayed inaccurately as scientific fact. Students will research relevant scientific literature and discover the degree of scientific accuracy represented within the genre of science fiction.

BIO5012Y 
20 
BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
This module explores the structural, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of biological systems and the methodologies used to define them. Using predominantly examples from protein biochemistry, these topics will be discussed within three major themes: 1) Binding, activation and transfer in biological systems, 2) Enzyme catalysis, and 3) Macromolecular size, shape and structure determination. The concluding lectures will explore protein disorder, folding and structure to illustrate how biophysicists integrate concepts and methods from each of these themes when addressing a specific research topic.

CHE5601Y 
20 
BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS, MEASURES, PROBABILITIES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
This module is an optional Spring module. It covers two topics: C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities, and D: Mathematical Modelling. Topic C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities This topic will consider the notion of a measure and discuss its connection with integration. We shall discuss Riemann integration versus Jordan measure and Lebesgue integral versus Lebesgue integration. This will lead us to the idea of Boolean algebras, and in particular measure algebras. Probabilities are just a special kind of measures, so we shall also discuss them. Clearly, integration plays a central role in mathematics and physics. One encounters integrals in the notions of area or volume, when solving a differential equation, in the fundamental theorem of calculus, in Stokes' theorem, or in classical and quantum mechanics. The first year analysis module includes an introduction to the Riemann integral, which is satisfactory for many applications. However, it has certain disadvantages, in that some very basic functions are not Riemann integrable, that the pointwise limit of a sequence of Riemann integrable functions need not be Riemann integrable, etc. We introduce Lebesgue integration, which does not suffer from these drawbacks and agrees with the Riemann integral whenever the latter is defined. Topic D: Mathematical Modelling: Mathematical modelling is concerned with how to convert real problems, arising in industry or other sciences, into mathematical equations, and then solving them and using the results to better understand, or make predictions about, the original problem. This topic will look at techniques of mathematical modelling, examining how mathematics can be applied to a variety of real problems and give insight in various areas. The topics will include approximation and nondimensionalising, and discussion of how a mathematical model is created. We will then apply this theory to a variety of models such as traffic flow as well as examples of problems arising in industry.

MTHF5026B 
20 
CELL BIOLOGY
This module explores the molecular organisation of cells and the regulation of dynamic cellular changes, with some emphasis on medical cell biology. Dynamic properties of cell membranes, cell signalling, growth factor function and aspects of cancer biology and immunology. Regulation of the internal cell environment (nuclear organisation and information flow, cell growth, division and motility), the relationship of the cell to its extracellular matrix and the determination of cell phenotype. Aspects of cell death, the ageing process, developmental biology, mechanisms of tissue renewal and repair. It is strongly recommended that students taking this module should also take BIO5003B or BIO5009A.

BIO5005B 
20 
CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY
Life on Earth began in the oceans and the oceans continue to have a major influence on global ecosystems and climate. The chemical composition of seawater is fundamental to the existence of life in the oceans  it is the life support system on which marine productivity is based. Investigating the distribution of nutrients in the ocean allows us to understand the processes that control marine productivity and its impact on global climate, as well as the effect of anthropogenic oversupply of nutrients (eutrophication) on the natural system. Phytoplankton growth in the ocean produces gases that can influence atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere directly affect the marine carbon cycle and cause Ocean Acidification, which threatens to cause considerable harm to marine ecosystems. Direct intervention in the chemical composition of the ocean has been proposed by some as potential geoengineering solutions to help mitigate the effects of global climate change. This module explores all of these major issues and demonstrates the central role that the oceans play in global biogeochemical cycles and the Earth System.

ENV5019A 
20 
CLIMATE CHANGE: SCIENCE AND POLICY
This module develops skills and understanding in the integrated analysis of global climate change, using perspectives from both the natural sciences and the social sciences. It offers a historical perspective on how climate has influenced society, on how global climate change has developed as a scientific object of enquiry, and on the difficulties and controversies over policies and politics on this issue, culminating in the December 2015 Paris Agreement. The course gives grounding in the basics of climate change science, impacts, adaptation, mitigation and their influence on and by policy decisions. Finally, it considers what will be required to meet the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2 #C above preindustrial levels.

ENV5003A 
20 
COMBINATORICS AND QUANTUM MECHANICS
This module is an optional Autumn module. It covers two topics: A: Combinatorics and B: Quantum Mechanics. Topic A: Combinatorics: The topic is about Counting Things. We will cover: binomial coefficients, the inclusionexclusion principle, compositions, the pigeonhole principle and Ramsey Theory. Topic B: Quantum mechanics: The motion of very small systems such as atoms does not satisfy the equations of classical mechanics. For example an electron orbiting a nucleus can only have certain discrete energy levels. In quantum mechanics the motion of a particle is described by a wave function which describes the probability of the particle having a certain energy. Topics addressed in this module include: Wave Functions, Schrodinger's Equation, Uncertainty Principle, Wave Scattering, Harmonic Oscillators. In classical mechanics, a physical system is described in terms of particles moving with a particular linear momentum. Other phenomena such as the transmission of light are described in terms of the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In the 20th century it became clear that some physical observations can not be explained in such terms  for example the formation of fringe patterns due to the scattering of light through two slits. The concept of a photon having both particle and wavelike properties is at the heart of Quantum Mechanics. In this unit the emphasis is on detailed mathematical study of simplified model systems rather than broad descriptions of quantum phenomena. The main mathematical topics from Year One mathematics modules that this module builds on are differential equations and vector calculus (definitions of grad etc).

MTHF5025A 
20 
COMMUNITY, ECOSYSTEM AND MACROECOLOGY
This module introduces the major community concepts and definitions, before looking in some detail at community patterns and processes including: species interactions; energy flows and productivity; and the hierarchy of drivers influencing community assembly, structure and diversity. Progression through these topics culminates in a macroecological perspective on community patterns and biodiversity. Throughout the module, there is an emphasis on the relevance of ecological theory and the fundamental science to the current environmental and biodiversity crisis. Anthropogenic impacts on natural communities through landuse, nonnative species and pathogens, and climate change, are a recurrent theme underpinning the examples we draw upon.

BIO5014B 
20 
CONSERVATION, ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY IN THE TROPICS (FIELDCOURSE)
This module is for students on relevant courses in the Schools of BIO, ENV, DEV and NAT. NOTE: There will be a significant additional cost to this module to cover the costs of transportation and accommodation in the field. Costs will be detailed at an initial meeting for interested students and clearly advertised. Conservation ecology and biodiversity are central areas of research in the biological sciences and they share many theories, concepts and scientific methods. This module intends to take a practical approach to the commonalities in these areas using a combination of seminar work and fieldwork. The seminars will develop ideas in tropical biology and students will research issues affecting conservation of biodiversity in the tropics, considering the species ecology and the habitats, threats and challenges. There will be a significant component of small group work and directed, independent learning. The field component of this module will be a two week residential field trip to the tropics, one of two field sites (depending on numbers of students and availability).The field sites are run by expert field ecologists and during the two weeks we will explore the local environment, learn about the ecology of the landscape and about the species that inhabit the area. We will develop and run practical sessions on survey and census techniques, use of technology in modern field biology and the role of protected areas in species conservation. Students will conduct original research on the field trip, informed by prior research at UEA, to gain a deeper understanding of an aspect of tropical biology. There will be an assessed presentation on the field trip and many opportunities to develop the students own interests. All student participants will take an active role in the organisation and running of the module in order to gain project management and field logistics experience. Students will be responsible for the procurement, storage and transport of field equipment on the way to the field site and of samples on the return to the UK. Students will gain experience of travelling to a remote area and of working through licensing and customs processes. At the end of the module a report is written on the field project in the style of a journal article addressing specific questions in ecology conservation or biodiversity. Throughout the module students will be expected to maintain a modernmedia record of their project from the initial desk based work at UEA, through the field component to outcomes and reporting.

BIO5020K 
20 
DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS
The purpose of this module is to give the student a solid grounding in the design, analysis and implementation of algorithms, and in the efficient implementation of a wide range of important data structures.

CMP5014Y 
20 
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND APPLIED METHODS
(a) Ordinary Differential Equations: solution by reduction of order; variation of parameters for inhomogeneous problems; series solution and the method of Frobenius. Legendre's and Bessel's equations: Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions and their recurrence relations; Fourier series; Partial differential equations (PDEs): heat equation, wave equation, Laplace's equation; solution by separation of variables. (b) Method of characteristics for hyperbolic equations; the characteristic equations; Fourier transform and its use in solving linear PDEs; (c) Dynamical Systems: equilibrium points and their stability; the phase plane; theory and applications.

MTHA5004Y 
20 
EARTH SCIENCE LAB SKILLS
Good observational and descriptive skills lie at the heart of many areas of Environmental Science. This module is designed to develop those and is particularly suitable for students with interests in Earth and Geophysical Sciences. It will cover generic Earth science skills of use for projects in this area. The module will include: observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials (hand specimen and under microscope); measuring and representing 3d data, and reading geological maps. This module may be taken by Environmental Earth Science undergraduate students who for any reason cannot take ENV5030B Earth Science Skills , and by students taking related degrees with a large component of Earth. Assessment includes a laboratory test and a practical project. The practical project will build on the skills learned in the first part of the module and other skills including time management. TEACHING AND LEARNING The first part will be taught predominately by laboratory and tutorial classes with directed learning exercise. This part will be cotaught with the first part of module ENV5030B Earth Science Skills. The second part of the module will involve studying data and/or material supplied to the student and preparing a report. This will require students to practice good time management, some of the laboratory and analysis skills and presentation skills in addition to description and interpretation. COURSE CONTENT The topics will include: Observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials; Introduction to mineralogy using microscopes; Grain size and character; Sediments and sedimentary petrology; One, two and three dimensional data; Basic geological maps; Representing and manipulating geological data in 3d space. CAREER PROSPECTS The basic geological skills of description, data manipulation and geological material identification learned in this module are what employers of Earth science graduates (and students with related degrees) would expect them to have. It is also useful for those embarking on teaching careers in Earth Science, geography or environmental sciences.

ENV5029B 
20 
EARTH SCIENCE SKILLS
The module includes a weeklong residential field work in the Easter vacation. Students who for whatever reason cannot undertake a weeklong field course in the Easter break should take ENV5029B. Good observational and descriptive skills lie at the heart of many areas of Environmental Science. This module is designed to develop those and is particularly suitable for students with interests in Earth and Geophysical Sciences. It will cover generic Earth science skills of use for projects in this area. The module will include: observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials (in the field, in hand specimen and under microscope); measuring and representing 3d data, reading geological maps and basic geological mapping. This module is strongly recommended for Environmental Earth Science students and it is required for the Geological Society accreditation pathway of Earth Sciences degrees. It will also be of use to students taking related degrees with a large component of Earth science. Assessment is coursework only and will include a laboratory test and work undertaken during fieldwork. The field work builds on the skills learned in the labbased first part of the module. If you have any worries, financial or physical about being able to undertake fieldwork you should discuss your worries with the field course leader before registering on this module. If you are unable to do a week long field course in the Easter vacation please consider taking ENV5029B instead of this module. TEACHING AND LEARNING The first part will be taught predominately in laboratory classes and by selfstudy exercises. This part will be cotaught with the first part of module ENV5029B Earth Science Laboratory Skills. Students will improve their observation, recording and description skills. They will learn methods of manipulating and presenting 3d data, learn some geological map skills and become aware of a range of geological laboratory techniques. The second part is a residential weeklong field course and concentrates on Earth science field observation, description and interpretation. During this residential course students will develop a field skillset, which is designed for students planning an independent project requiring Earth science field skills. The primary focus will be on geological mapping, structure and stratigraphy, but may include hydrogeological, geochemical and Quaternary techniques depending on field location and staff availability. The location of the field course is likely to be North Wales. COURSE CONTENT The module will include: Observing, describing and recording the characteristics of geological materials; Introduction to mineralogy using microscopes; Grain size and character; Sediments and sedimentary petrology; One, two and three dimensional data; geological maps; Representing and manipulating geological data in 3d space. CAREER PROSPECTS The basic geological skills of description, data manipulation and geological material identification learned in this module are what employers of Earth science graduates (and students with related degrees) would expect them to have. For this reason it is a compulsory part of the pathway through the Environmental Earth Sciences degree programmes accredited by the Geological Society.

ENV5030B 
20 
ENERGY ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
In the second year we aim to refine the engineering principles from your earlier studies towards a specialised energy context, applying your knowledge of material properties, thermodynamics and lattice structures to industrial examples. These examples include the analysis of fluid flow in tidal energy generation, the structural mechanics and stability of wind turbine towers alongside the electronics of solar power. The complete range of examples allows students to explore the many facets of energy engineering which their education has opened up for them before choosing an area to specialise in during further years of their course.

ENG5001Y 
20 
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
This module is designed to teach skills necessary for the acquisition of good quality chemical data in environmental systems, and in the interpretation of this data. The module will focus on the collection of environmental samples for chemical analysis, methods of chemical analysis and the analytical and mathematical techniques used for data quality control. There will be a large component of practical work. This module will be particularly relevant for those wishing to do a chemistryrelated project later in their degree. TEACHING AND LEARNING The module is structured around practical classes which will focus on the planning and implementation of field sampling, the preparation, storage and chemical analysis of environmental samples and the subsequent interpretation of the data acquired. Lectures will be used to provide supporting information for this exercise and more general information on broader aspects of analytical chemistry not covered in the practical classes. During the first half of the module, practical work will be based around analysis of samples collected by the class from UEA Broad and the River Yare. The second half of the module will be an independent study (miniproject) exercise, in which small groups will conduct more detailed investigations of the chemistry of the natural water bodies around UEA campus. There will be weekly nonassessed feedback on laboratory results during the module and a feedforward formative assessment associated with miniproject topic selection. COURSE CONTENT: The module will cover field sampling strategies and techniques for preparing and storing chemical samples. There will be a strong focus on laboratory chemical analysis and on the mathematical manipulation of raw laboratory results, including quality control of data and critical comparison of results obtained using different methods. Interpretation of chemical data in its environmental context will also be covered. CAREER PROSPECTS The skills taught in this module have direct relevance to careers involving chemical analysis, with potential employers including the Environment Agency, environmental consultancies and research organizations (including postgraduate degree programmes). The broader skills associated with the use of critical analysis and independent and group work are widely valued in a wide range of professions.

ENV5027B 
20 
ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS AND POLICY MAKING
The most significant obstacles to problem solving are often political, not scientific or technological. This module examines the theoretical and empirical development of contemporary environmental politics. It is structured to analyse these issues from different theoretical perspectives, particularly theories of power and public policy making. The module is focused on dynamic examples of environmental politics and policy making at UK, EU and international levels. The module encourages and supports studentled learning by enabling students to develop their own theoretical interpretations of real world examples of politics. These are explored in seminar presentations and in an extended (4000 word) case study essay. The module assumes no prior knowledge of politics/social sciences.

ENV5002B 
20 
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
This module investigates the principles of evolutionary biology, covering various subdisciplines, i.e. adaptive evolution, population ecology, molecular and population genetics, speciation, biogeography, systematics, and finishing with an overview of Biodiversity. This module will enable you to understand, analyse and evaluate the fundamentals of evolutionary biology and be able to synthesise the various components into an overall appreciation of how evolution works. Key topics and recent research will be used to highlight advances in the field and inspire thought. Weekly interactive workshops will explore a number of the conceptual issues indepth through discussions, modelling and problem solving.

BIO5008B 
20 
FIELD ECOLOGY
Students explore the ecology of moorlands, bogs, sand dunes, rocky shores, estuaries and woodlands. Students should develop skills in identifying plants and animals using scientific keys, carrying out quantitative surveys and statistically analysing their data. Strong emphasis is placed on studentlead project work. The bulk of the teaching takes place on a two week field course in Western Ireland, that runs immediately before the start of the Autumn Semester.

BIO5013A 
20 
FLUID DYNAMICS  THEORY AND COMPUTATION
(a) Hydrostatics, compressibility. Kinematics: velocity, particle path, streamlines. Continuity, incompressibility, streamtubes. Dynamics: Material derivative, Euler's equations, vorticity and irrotational flows. Velocity potential and streamfunction. Bernoulli's equation for unsteady flow. Circulation: Kelvin's Theorem, Helmholtz's theorems. Basic water waves. (b) Computational methods for fluid dynamics; Euler's method and RungeKutta methods and their use for computing particle paths and streamlines in a variety of twodimensional and threedimensional flows; numerical computation and flow visualisation using Matlab; convergence, consistency and stability of numerical integration methods for ODEs. (c) Theory of Irrotational and Incompressible Flows: velocity potential, Laplace's Equation, sources and vortices, complex potential. Force on a body and the Blasius theorem. Method of images and conformal mappings.

MTHA5002Y 
20 
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY  ANALYSIS
Following on from CHE4701Y, where the emphasis was on collection of evidence, this module introduces more indepth forensic chemistry, looking at the way evidence gathered at a crime scene may be analysed in the laboratory. The module will deepen the knowledge of forensic statistics and cover basic detection and recovery techniques for body fluids; dna analysis; fingerprint development and recovery; advanced microscopy and spectroscopy and their application to fibres including the theory and practical application of infrared and raman spectroscopy, paint and other particulates; the use of elemental analysis in forensic science including atomic absorption spectroscopy; and questioned document examination including counterfeiting.

CHE5701Y 
20 
FURTHER MATHEMATICS
This module is for those students who have passed CMP4004Y or equivalent, in their first year and would like to study further theory that is a prerequisite for several other 2nd and 3rd level modules in CMP. For such students it provides an introduction to the mathematics of counting and arrangements, a further development of the theory and practice of calculus, an introduction to linear algebra and its computing applications and a further development of the principles and computing applications of probability theory. 3D Vectors and complex numbers are also studied.

CMP5006A 
20 
GENETICS
This module will describe the basis of heredity, describing both the function and structure of genes and whole genomes together with the regulation of gene expression. Examples will be taken from bacterial, animal and plant systems and will be considered from both functional and molecular points of view. The influence of modern genetics on medicine and agriculture will also be included. Laboratorybased practical work will involve functional anlaysis of a protein involved in DNA repair processes in Escherichia coli using contemporary moleculargenetic strategies. It is strongly recommended that students taking this module should also take BIO5003B (Molecular Biology).

BIO5009A 
20 
GEODYNAMICS: EARTH'S ENGINE
Processes in the Earth's interior have exerted a profound influence on all aspects of the Earth's system through geological time. This module is designed to explore all aspects of those processes from the creation and destruction of tectonic plates to the structure of the Earth's interior and the distribution and dissipation of energy within it. This will include: the theory and mechanisms of plate tectonics, , the generation of magma and volcanism; the mechanisms behind earthquakes. The geological record of this activity, its evolution and impacts on the Earth will also be discussed. TEACHING AND LEARNING There will be 2 lectures and a 3hour practical class each week for 11 weeks (there is a Reading Week in week 6). Lectures will introduce you to the full scale of plate tectonics, from the whole Earth to regional scale features at Earth surface with an emphasis on understanding the underlying processes and latest scientific developments in understanding these processes. Theory from lectures is supported by applied examples in practicals through use of maps, experimental analogue materials, and paper exercises. There is some maths (rearranging and solving simple equations) at a level suitable for all ENV students. COURSE CONTENT Earth structure and heat budget Models for tectonic plate motion The Wilson cycle Features and process that characterise continental and oceanic crust, plate boundaries. Faults and seismicity Making and evolving magma Differentiation, storage, movement and eruption of magma How this unit fits into your degree: This is an excellent introduction to some of the principles that underpin many topics in the Earth Sciences in particular. It can be taken as a general interest module but also works particularly well for those with an interest in natural hazards and/or geological processes. Topics discussed also involve some of the basic geological principles behind the deposition and storage of fossil fuels. CAREER PROSPECTS A knowledge of Earth's structure and geological processes are desirable for understanding many of Earth's natural systems, to support interpretations of geophysical surveys, (relevant to subsurface resources of all kinds) and understanding of geohazards. Thus is relevant to research and employment in construction industry, geoconsultancy, geohazard assessment and risk mitigation. Typical employers may include the BGS, geophysical companies (e.g. Gardline, Fugro) and prepare for MSc and PhD that may lead to employment with companies and consultants engaged in resource exploration (from hydrocarbons to water to CO2 storage). The transferable employability skills include selfdirected report writing, thinking in 4D (3D spatial + time), team work, also the integration of physical process with people, resources and the environment.

ENV5018A 
20 
GEOMORPHOLOGY
Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. This module will provide an introduction to understanding a number of earth surface processes that lead to expression in landforms and soil evolution. The approach will be both descriptive and quantitative, based on understanding erosional and depositional concepts, weathering and sediment transport and the evolution of soils in landscape. The emphasis will be on local East Anglian field sites as case studies illustrating and explaining ecogeomorphology, coastal and glacial geomorphology, dovetailed with soil evolution. The geomorphological/landscape expression will be linked to an 'ecosystem service appreciation' in each key teaching block. Students will also be introduced to the methods and different types of evidence used by physical geographers and earth scientists (e.g., maps, imagery and field observations). This module is assessed by an essay/data analysis exercise and students will also be set formative assessments. This module provides a knowledge base of particular relevance to the semester 2 module ENV5035B SEDIMENTOLOGY.

ENV5034A 
20 
GIS SKILLS FOR PROJECT WORK
This module builds upon the introduction to the use of GIS provided in the first year Research and Field Skills module (ENV4004Y), focusing on how students can obtain their own data (both from a wide range of online sources and in the field), integrate it together and then undertake analysis and presentation tasks. Such skills are particularly important for the final year projects (ENV6021A) undertaken by many students. Skills in GIS are also valued by many prospective employers across public, private and nonprofit sectors, and also for further study at MSc or PhD level. The module will review the different techniques that can be used to create and edit data in a GIS, as well as existing digital databases (both UK and global) from which map data can be extracted and downloaded. ESRI ArcGIS will be the main software used, but there will also be an introduction to open source tools such as QGIS. The module will emphasize issues of data quality (e.g. uncertainty and accuracy) as they apply to spatial data and introduce the use of scripting tools (e.g. Python) as a way of documenting and efficiently repeating more complex analysis procedures. To make links with project work and employability there will also be case studies of GIS use in the workplace. Teaching will consist of a onehour lectures and a threehour practical class each week. The lectures will cover key concepts, data sources and techniques in GIS, with a particular emphasis on environmental applications. These will be reinforced by practical exercises mainly using the ArcGIS software. Students should expect to spend a significant amount of time outside of scheduled classes on their formative and summative coursework.

ENV5028B 
20 
GRAPHICS 1
Graphics 1 provides an introduction to the fundamentals of computer graphics for all computing students. It aims to provide a strong foundation for students wishing to study graphics, focusing on 2D graphics, algorithms and interaction. The module requires a good background in programming. OpenGL is utilised as the graphics API with examples provided in the lectures and supported in the laboratory classes. Other topics covered include transformations, texture mapping, collision detection, graphics hardware, fonts, algorithms for line drawing, polygon filling, clipping and colour.

CMP5010B 
20 
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This module aims to provide an understanding of the themes and principles of physiology and a detailed knowledge of the major human organ systems. Topics include: Information transmission by the nervous system and the integrative processes of the spinal cord and brain; Reaction to the environment through perception of external stimuli by sensory receptors, including the eyes and ears; The muscular and skeletal systems, including muscle contraction and its control, bones and joints; Respiration, gas transport, blood circulation and heart function; Kidney function in excretion and in water and mineral homeostasis; Nutrition and the digestive system; The endocrine system and its role in human disease. A central principle in physiology is the concept of homeostasis. An understanding of how disease affects the ability of organ systems to maintain the status quo is an important part of this course.

BIO5004A 
20 
HYDROLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY
Hydrology and hydrogeology are Earth Science subjects concerned with the assessment of the natural distribution of water in time and space and the evaluation of human impacts on the distribution and quality of water. Knowledge of Hydrology and Hydrogeology is fundamental to the management of freshwater resources for the benefits of drinking water supply, food production and aquatic habitats. This module provides an introduction to geological controls on groundwater occurrence, aquifer characteristics (porosity and permeability), basic principles of groundwater flow, basis hydrochemistry, an introduction to catchment hydrology, hydrological data collection and analysis, runoff generation processes and the principles of rainfallrunoff and flood modelling. Practical classes develop analytical skills in solving hydrogeological and hydrological problems as well as field skills in pumping test analysis and stream gauging. A field excursion to the River Thurne catchment in Norfolk is also offered in this module. The module aims to equip students with the basic skills required to pursue careers in water resources engineering and management.equivalent mathematical skills. For example, an ability to work with common mathematical operations is essential such as the simple rearrangement of equations, and the ability to convert between varying units of length and volume. Basic differential equations will be presented for the description of groundwater flow.

ENV5021A 
20 
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
Nowadays, millions of people worldwide make use of IR systems every day via search engines, and the exponential increase in the number of websites and documents available means that these systems have been developed to be highly efficient. In this module, we will cover the essential theoretical ideas that underpin modern information retrieval (e.g. the vectorspace model, probabilistic approaches, relevance feedback etc.) and examine how they are practically implemented in current systems. Lecture material is reenforced by a set of laboratory exercises and an assessment that enable you to implement some of these ideas practically. We also examine natural language processing techniques that are increasingly used in IR, and the emerging technologies of audio and video retrieval.

CMP5036A 
20 
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The module describes the structure, bonding and reactivity patterns of inorganic compounds. The aspects covered are set out in the content summary. The module is a prerequisite for the 3rd level inorganic course CHE6301B. Further details will be provided in the course information booklet.

CHE5301B 
20 
INSTRUMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
The module covers the theory and practical application of some key instrumental techniques for chemical analysis. Molecular spectroscopy, chromatography and electroanalytical techniques are the important instrumental methods included. Laboratory practicals using these techniques will reinforce material covered in the lecture programme.

CHE5501Y 
20 
LOW CARBON ENERGY
This module will focus on the decarbonisation of energy supply and demand in a carbon constrained world. It will examine the role of energy efficiency and low carbon energy technologies, such as wind energy, solar energy, hydrogen and fuel cells, taking into consideration important current issues and sectors for application. This knowledge is used to support an analysis of future energy supply and demand that includes management, policy and technical aspects. This version of the module is assessed by formative assessment and coursework. This module replaces ENV2A84. TEACHING AND LEARNING This module not only provides the framework for learning the key technical and management aspects of low carbon energy but also provides students with the opportunity to explore the future of energy provision in greater depth in the practical sessions. These include an energy tour, debates and smaller seminar group discussions on the practical applications of low carbon energy technologies and energy efficiency and the management of future energy demand. They will provide students with the opportunity to share their knowledge and opinions in this most important field. Students will be expected to supplement the lectures and other learning activities by undertaking selfdirected reading of text books, the research literature and policy documents. COURSE CONTENT # Importance of low carbon energy in terms of climate change, resource limits, fuel poverty and energy security # Current energy use and trends # How energy is produced, distributed and managed in the UK # Economic analysis of low carbon technologies # Low carbon energy technologies: biomass, wind, solar, hydro, wave, tidal, etc. # UK sectoral energy management: domestic, transport and business # Hydrogen energy and fuel cells CAREER PROSPECTS Energy and carbon management, renewable energy development, energy supply industry, energy policy development, energy efficiency consultancy, sustainable transportation development.

ENV5022B 
20 
MARINE SCIENCES FIELDCOURSE
This 11 day 20 credit field course studies physical, chemical and biological coastal oceanographic processes and will probably take place in June. The course includes lectures and practical experience of oceanographic instrumentation, chartwork, numerical analysis of data using matlab and a poster presentation at ENV. The second week of the course will take place in Oban, using the oceanographic research ships and laboratory facilities of the Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory http://www.sams.ac.uk. The course has no pre or corequisites, however it will be of particular relevance to those who have studying ENV5016A Ocean Circulation, ENV5019A Chemical Oceanography and ENV6055A Biological Oceanography and Marine Ecology. PLEASE NOTE THAT YOU CAN ONLY ENROL ONTO THIS MODULE VIA AN APPLICATION FORM FROM THE SCHOOL AND NOT VIA THE STANDARD MODULE ENROLMENT PROCESS. ALSO THE MODULE RUNS IN THE SUMMER PRIOR TO THE START OF THE ACADEMIC YEAR.

ENV5020K 
20 
MATERIALS AND POLYMER CHEMISTRY
An introduction to the basic principles of polymer synthesis is presented, together with a discussion of their physical properties. Speciality polymers are discussed. Materials chemistry is developed further with the introduction of inorganic structures and the concept of ferroelectric properties together with powder xray diffraction as applied to cubic crystals. Ion conductivity and basic band theory are also discussed. Semiconductivity is introduced and related to the band description of these materials. A series of practical experiments in polymer and materials chemistry supports this module and are designed to improve and enhance laboratory skills through experiments, which cover important topics in modern chemistry.

CHE5350Y 
20 
MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS
It introduces the essential concepts of mathematical statistics deriving the necessary distribution theory as required. In consequence in addition to ideas of sampling and central limit theorem, it will cover estimation methods and hypothesistesting. Some Bayesian ideas will be also introduced.

CMP5034A 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENTISTS B
This module is the second in a series of three mathematical modules for students across the Faculty of Science. It covers vector calculus (used in the study of vector fields in subjects such as fluid dynamics and electromagnetism), time series and spectral analysis (a highly adaptable and useful mathematical technique in many science fields, including data analysis), and fluid dynamics (which has applications to the circulation of the atmosphere, ocean, interior of the Earth, chemical engineering, and biology). There is a continuing emphasis on applied examples.

ENV5006A 
20 
MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENTISTS C
This module is the third in a series of three mathematical units for students across the Faculty of Science. It covers matrix algebra and numerical methods (with applications to many multivariable problems in science), second order partial differential equations (which govern the behaviour of diffusive, advective and wavelike systems), and solid mechanics (applications in geophysics, glaciology, and material science). There is a continuing emphasis on applied examples, and the use of numerical computing software (Matlab) is extended with a dedicated programming component. This module is taught by mathematicians with considerable expertise in the use of mathematics in the natural/environmental sciences and is largely designed to equip students with the tools necessary for advanced second and third level modules, particularly those in the physical sciences. Emphasis is placed on problem solving and there are three lectures a week accompanied by one seminar which focuses on the discussion of relevant problem sheets.

ENV5007B 
20 
MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
This module introduces medicinal chemistry using chemical principles established during the first year. The series of lectures covers a wide range of topics central to medicinal chemistry. Topics discussed include an Introduction to Drug Development, Proteins as Drug Targets, Revision Organic Chemistry, Targeting DNA with Antitumour Drugs, Targeting DNAAssociated Processes, Fatty Acid and Polyketide Natural Products.

CHE5150Y 
20 
METEOROLOGY I
This module is designed to give a general introduction to meteorology, concentrating on the physical processed in the atmosphere and how these influence our weather. The module contains both descriptive and mathematical treatments of Radiation Balance, Cloud Physics, Thermodynamics and Dynamics and the assessment is designed to allow those with either mathematical or descriptive abilities to do well; however a reasonable mathematical competence is essential. TEACHING AND LEARNING Practical session will provide opportunities for individual and groupbased work in which problem sheets and data analysis exercises are tackled. Lectures will provide the forum for introduction of theoretical material and also for following up and summarising the key points emanating from previous practical sessions. Lecturers will also ensure that attention is drawn, as appropriate, to links between theory and 'current weather', often in the form of references to online information resources. The course Blackboard site will provide opportunities for students to assess their own progress through informal formative assessment material. # The Structure of the Atmosphere # Short and long wave radiation in the atmosphere # Thermal equilibrium of the Earth atmosphere system # Laws of thermodynamics applied to the atmosphere # Atmospheric Stability # Atmospheric Dynamics # Atmospheric momentum balance # Meteorological surface observations and plotting codes # Cloud physics CAREER PROSPECTS Students regularly go on to careers in the Met Office, in meteorological consultancy and in a number of other research organisations in the UK and abroad, either directly or after taking a higher degree. Meteorology interfaces with many other disciplines n the environmental sciences (eg oceanography, hydrology, energy and epidemiology) and impacts upon most sectors of the economy. While graduates regularly move directly into weather forecasting and analysis jobs, a career in meteorological research would often first require a higher degree. This module is designed to give a general introduction to meteorology, concentrating on the physical processes in the atmosphere and how these influence our weather. The module contains both descriptive and mathematical treatments of Radiation Balance, Cloud Physics, Thermodynamics and Dynamics and the assessment is designed to allow those with either mathematical or descriptive abilities to do well; however a reasonable mathematical competence is essential, including a basic understanding of differentiation and integration.

ENV5008A 
20 
METEOROLOGY II
This module will build upon material introduced in ENV5008A (Meteorology I) covering topics such as synoptic meteorology, microscale processes, the General Circulation and weather forecasting. Practical sessions, some computer based, will provide opportunities for individual and groupbased work in which problem sheets, simulations and case study exercises are tackled, coupled with experiential sessions in forecasting and broadcast meteorology. Lectures will provide the forum for introduction of theoretical material and also for following up and summarising the key points emanating from previous practical sessions. Lectures will also ensure that attention is drawn, as appropriate, to links between theory and 'current weather', often in the form of references to online information resources. A noncompulsory programme of complementary monthly evening seminars is also available through the Royal Meteorological Society's East Anglian Centre, based at UEA, including talks by employers.

ENV5009B 
20 
METEOROLOGY II WITH FIELDCOURSE
This module will build upon material covered in ENV5008A (Meteorology I) by covering topics such as synoptic meteorology, microscale processes, the General Circulation and weather forecasting. The module also includes a week long Easter vacation residential fieldcourse, based in the Lake District, involving students in designing scientific experiments to quantify the effects of micro and synopticscale weather and climate processes, focusing on lake, forest and mountain environments. RESIDENTIAL FIELD COURSE The additional Field Course runs during the first seven days of the Easter Vacation based at Hawkshead Youth Hostel in Cumbria. There will be a charge for attending this field course. The charge is heavily subsidized by the School, but students enrolling must understand that they will commit to paying a sum to cover attendance. As the details of many modules and field courses have changed recently the following figures should be viewed as ballpark estimates only. If you would like firmer data please consult the module organizer closer to the field course. The cost to the student will be in the order of GBP160.

ENV5010K 
20 
MICROBIOLOGY
Prerequisites: Students must have taken BIO4003A and either BIO4001A or BIO4004B to take this module. A broad module covering all aspects of the biology of microorganisms, providing key knowledge for specialist Level 6 modules. Detailed description is given about the cell biology of bacteria, fungi and protists together with microbial physiology, genetics and environmental and applied microbiology. The biology of diseasecausing microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) and prions is also covered. Practical work provides handson experience of important microbiological techniques, and expands on concepts introduced in lectures. The module should appeal to biology students across a wide range of disciplines and interests.

BIO5015B 
20 
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
The aims are to provide: (i) a background to the fundamental principles of molecular biology, in particular the nature of the relationship between genetic information and the synthesis, and three dimensional structures, of macromolecules; (ii) practical experience of some of the techniques used for the experimental manipulation of genetic material, and the necessary theoretical framework, and (iii) an introduction to bioinformatics, the computerassisted analysis of DNA and protein sequence information.

BIO5003B 
20 
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND ENERGY LEVELS
Quantum mechanics, one of the key scientific ideas of the 20th century, has had a wide impact in chemistry. In the first part of the module you will be introduced to the language and methods of quantum mechanics. In the second part, the close relation between spectroscopic measurements of small molecules and quantum theory will be discussed. Further methods of spectroscopy will then be introduced, beginning with the most widely used of all techniques in structure determination, NMR spectroscopy. This will be followed by a discussion of molecular electronic spectra which are widely used in chemical analysis.

CHE5202Y 
20 
NETWORKS
This module examines networks and how they are designed and implemented to provide reliable data transmission. A layered approach is taken in the study of networks with emphasis given to the functionality of the traditional OSI 7 layer reference model and the TCP/IP model. Weekbyweek the module examines the functionality provided by each layer and how this contributes to the overall reliable data transmission that the network provides. Underlying theory behind each layer is studied and then examples given as to how this is used in practice  for example within voice over IP (VoIP). An emphasis is placed on practical issues associated with networking such as realtime delivery of multimedia information and network security. The coursework tends to be highly practical and underpins the theory learnt in lectures.

CMP5037B 
20 
OCEAN CIRCULATION
This module gives you an understanding of the physical processes occurring in the basinscale ocean environment. We will introduce and discuss large scale global ocean circulation, including gyres, boundary currents and the overturning circulation. Major themes include the interaction between ocean and atmosphere, and the forces which drive ocean circulation. You should be familiar with partial differentiation, integration, handling equations and using calculators. ENV5017B is a natural followon module and builds on some of the concepts introduced here. We strongly recommend that you also gain oceanographic fieldwork experience by taking the 20credit biennial Marine Sciences fieldcourse.

ENV5016A 
20 
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
This course builds on CHE  4101Y (the first year organic chemistry course). Four main topics are covered. The first "Aromaticity" includes benzenoid and heteroaromatic systems. The second major topic is the organic chemistry of carbonyl compounds. Spectroscopic characterisation of organic compounds is reviewed and the final major topic is "Stereochemistry and Mechanisms". This covers conformational aspects of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Stereoelectronic effects, Neighbouring Group Participation (NGP), Baldwin's rules, Cram's rule and cycloaddition reactions are then discussed.

CHE5101A 
20 
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I
The module covers a number of areas of modern physical chemistry which are essential to a proper understanding of the behaviour of chemical systems. These include the second Law of thermodynamics and entropy, the thermodynamics of solutions, chemical kinetics, surface chemistry and catalysis. The module includes laboratory work. Due to the laboratorybased content on this module students must have completed at least one level 4 module containing laboratory work.

CHE5201Y 
20 
PLANT BIOLOGY
This module aims to provide an appreciation of modern plant biology with an emphasis on development, signalling and response to the environment. It consists of practical classes and lectures. It encompasses molecular genetics, molecular, biochemical and physiological perspectives, and affords an understanding of aspects of plant and plant cell function including photosynthesis and the mechanisms by which plants perceive and respond to biotic and abiotic environments.

BIO5006A 
20 
POPULATION ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
We live in a human dominated era recently designated "the Anthropocene". Humans harvest more than half of the primary productivity of the planet, many resources are overexploited or depleted (e.g. fisheries) never before it was so important to correctly manage natural resources for an exponentially growing human population. It is, thus, fundamental to predict where other species occur and the sizes of their populations (abundance). Population Ecology it is an area dedicated to the dynamics of population development. In this module we will look closely at how populations are regulated, from within through density dependent factors and, from external density independent factors. We start the module with a global environmental change perspective to the management of populations and the factors that affect the population size. We then extend these ideas to help us understand population properties and processes both intraspecifically and interspecifically. Finally we examine several management applications where we show that a good understanding of the population modelling is essential to correctly manage natural resources on the planet. Practicals will be based on statistical or modelling projects and will provide a strong training in both subject specific and transferrable skills.

ENV5014A 
20 
PROGRAMMING 2
This is a compulsory module for all computing students and is a continuation of CMP4008Y. It contains greater breadth and depth and provides students with the range of skills needed for many of their subsequent modules. We recap Java and deepen your understanding of the language by teaching topics such as nested classes, enumeration, generics, reflection, collections and threaded programming. We then introduce C in order to improve your low level understanding of how programming works, before moving on to C++ in semester 2. We conclude by introducing C# to highlight the similarities and differences between languages.

CMP5015Y 
20 
PROGRAMMING FOR NONSPECIALISTS
The purpose of this module is to give the student a solid grounding in the essential features programming using the Java programming language. The module is designed to meet the needs of the student who has not previously studied programming.

CMP5020B 
20 
QUANTUM THEORY AND SYMMETRY
This course covers the foundation and basics of quantum theory and symmetry, starting with features of the quantum world and including elements of quantum chemistry, group theory, computerbased methods for calculating molecular wavefunctions, quantum information, and the quantum nature of light. The subject matter paves the way for applications to a variety of chemical and physical systems  in particular, processes and properties involving the electronic structure of atoms and molecules.

CHE5250Y 
20 
RENEWABLE ENERGY
With the number of skilled energy engineers decreasing but concerns over climate change rising, there is more demand than ever for graduates with a detailed knowledge of renewable energy resources. This module expands your understanding of wind, tidal and hydroelectric energy whilst acquainting you with alternative techniques including heat pumps, deep geothermal sources and anaerobic digestion. Students will consider how these various technologies can realistically contribute to the energy mix, as well as the developing possibilities of converting waste to energy. An important aspect of the module is the study of the various targets and legislative instruments that are used to control and encourage developments.

ENG5002B 
20 
SEDIMENTOLOGY
Sedimentary rocks cover much of the Earth's surface, record the Earth's history of environmental change, contain the fossil record and host many of the world's natural resources. This module includes the study of modern sediments such as sand, mud and carbonates and the processes that result in their deposition. Understanding of modern processes is used to interpret ancient sedimentary rocks, their stratigraphy and the sedimentary structures they contain. Topics will include: (1) sedimentary fluid dynamics; (2) modern and ancient sedimentary environments including rivers, coastal margins, shallow shelf seas and the deep ocean; (3) differences between siliciclastic and carbonate depositional systems, and (4) the interactions between organisms and sediments. This module replaces ENV2A85/ENV5011A.

ENV5035B 
20 
SELECTED TOPICS IN MATHEMATICS
This module is an optional Year long module. It covers two topics, one in Autumn Semester (chosen between A: Combinatorics and B: Quantum mechanics), one in Spring semester (chosen between C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities, and D:Mathematical Modelling). Topic A: Combinatorics: The topic is about Counting Things. We will cover: binomial coefficients, the inclusionexclusion principle, compositions, the pigeonhole principle and Ramsey Theory. Topic B: Quantum mechanics: The motion of very small systems such as atoms does not satisfy the equations of classical mechanics. For example an electron orbiting a nucleus can only have certain discrete energy levels. In quantum mechanics the motion of a particle is described by a wave function which describes the probability of the particle having a certain energy. Topics addressed in this module include: Wave Functions, Schrodinger's Equation, Uncertainty Principle, Wave Scattering, Harmonic Oscillators. In classical mechanics, a physical system is described in terms of particles moving with a particular linear momentum. Other phenomena such as the transmission of light are described in terms of the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In the 20th century it became clear that some physical observations can not be explained in such terms  for example the formation of fringe patterns due to the scattering of light through two slits. The concept of a photon having both particle and wavelike properties is at the heart of Quantum Mechanics. In this unit the emphasis is on detailed mathematical study of simplified model systems rather than broad descriptions of quantum phenomena. The main mathematical topics from Year One mathematics modules that this module builds on are differential equations and vector calculus (definitions of grad etc). Topic C: Boolean algebras, measures and probabilities This topic will consider the notion of a measure and discuss its connection with integration. We shall discuss Riemann integration versus Jordan measure and Lebesgue integral versus Lebesgue integration. This will lead us to the idea of Boolean algebras, and in particular measure algebras. Probabilities are just a special kind of measures, so we shall also discuss them. Clearly, integration plays a central role in mathematics and physics. One encounters integrals in the notions of area or volume, when solving a differential equation, in the fundamental theorem of calculus, in Stokes' theorem, or in classical and quantum mechanics. The first year analysis module includes an introduction to the Riemann integral, which is satisfactory for many applications. However, it has certain disadvantages, in that some very basic functions are not Riemann integrable, that the pointwise limit of a sequence of Riemann integrable functions need not be Riemann integrable, etc. We introduce Lebesgue integration, which does not suffer from these drawbacks and agrees with the Riemann integral whenever the latter is defined. Topic D: Mathematical Modelling: Mathematical modelling is concerned with how to convert real problems, arising in industry or other sciences, into mathematical equations, and then solving them and using the results to better understand, or make predictions about, the original problem. This topic will look at techniques of mathematical modelling, examining how mathematics can be applied to a variety of real problems and give insight in various areas. The topics will include approximation and nondimensionalising, and discussion of how a mathematical model is created. We will then apply this theory to a variety of models such as traffic flow as well as examples of problems arising in industry.

MTHF5027Y 
20 
SHELF SEA DYNAMICS AND COASTAL PROCESSES
The shallow shelf seas that surround the continents are the oceans that we most interact with. They contribute a disproportionate amount to global marine primary production and CO2 drawdown into the ocean, and are important economically through commercial fisheries, offshore oil and gas exploration, and renewable energy developments (e.g. offshore wind farms). This module explores the physical processes that occur in shelf seas and coastal waters, their effect on biological, chemical and sedimentary processes, and how they can be harnessed to generate renewable energy. Career development: New skills developed during this module will support careers in the offshore oil and gas industry, renewable energy industry, environmental consultancy, government laboratories (e.g. Cefas) and academia. Mathematical background: The level of mathematical ability required to take this module is similar to Ocean Circulation and Meteorology I. You should be familiar with radians, rearranging equations and plotting functions.

ENV5017B 
20 
SOCIAL RESEARCH SKILLS FOR GEOGRAPHERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTISTS
The study of society and its relationship to the natural environment poses distinct research challenges and social science presents a range of approaches and methods with which to address these problems. This module provides an introduction to the theory and practice of social science research. It covers research design, sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and presentation of results. It is recommended for any student intending to carry out a social sciencebased research project.

ENV5031B 
20 
SOCIAL RESEARCH SKILLS FOR GEOGRAPHERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTISTS WITH FIELDCOURSE
The study of society and its relationship to the natural environment poses distinct research challenges and social science presents a range of approaches and methods with which to address these problems. The module provides an introduction to the theory and practice of social science research. This will cover different perspectives on research, developing a research question, research design, research ethics, sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and includes quantitative, qualitative and mixedmethod approaches. The learning outcomes will be for students to be able to demonstrate: (i) Knowledge and critical understanding of relevant concepts and principles (ii) Ability to apply concepts and principles to the design of social science research (iii) Knowledge of some of the main methods of enquiry (iv) Ability to evaluate critically different approaches (v) Ability to present effectively a research proposal, both orally and in writing. The module will include a field course at Easter based in Keswick, an area which provides excellent opportunities for studying a range of geographical and environmental issues, including flooding, lowcarbon energy developments, spatial contrasts in economic development and landscape management. The first part of the field course will consist of four days of facultyorganised activities where students will be able to practice questionnaire surveys, interviewing and other social research methods. During the final two days students will work in small groups to plan a research investigation from a list of predefined topics. Each group will present their research proposal on the final afternoon of the field course as a piece of formative assessment and the individual members will then write separate short reports on their proposal as their second item of summative assessment for the module. There will be an additional charge for students to attend the field course, though the cost is substantially reduced through financial support from ENV.

ENV5036K 
20 
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 1
Software Engineering is one of the most essential skills for work in the software development industry. Students will gain an understanding of the issues involved in designing and creating software systems from an industry perspective. They will be taught state of the art in phased software development methodology, with a special focus on the activities required to go from initial class model design to actual running software systems. These activities are complemented with an introduction into software project management and development facilitation.

CMP5012B 
20 
SOIL PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
This module will combine lectures, practicals, seminars and fieldwork to provide students with an appreciation of the soil environment and the processes that occurs within it. The module will progress through: basic soil components/properties; soil identification and classification; soil as a habitat; soil organisms; soil functions; the agricultural environment; soilorganismagrochemical interaction; soil contamination; soil and climate change.

ENV5012A 
20 
SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS
What lies beneath our feet? This module addresses this question by exploring how wavefields and potential fields are used in geophysics to image the subsurface on scales of metres to kilometres. The basic theory, data acquisition and interpretation methods of seismic, electrical, gravity and magnetic surveys are studied. A wide range of applications is covered including archaeological geophysics, energy resources and geohazards. This module is highly valued by employers in industry; guest industrial lecturers will cover the current 'stateoftheart' applications in real world situations. Students doing this module are normally expected to have a good mathematical ability, notably in calculus and algebra before taking this module (ENV4002Y Mathematics for Scientists A or equivalent).

ENV5004B 
20 
SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS WITH FIELDCOURSE
What lies beneath our feet? This module addresses this question by exploring how waves, rays and the various physical techniques are used in geophysics to image the subsurface on scales of meters to kilometres. The basic theory and interpretation methods of seismic, electrical and gravity and magnetic surveys are studied. A wide range of applications is covered including archaeological geophysics, energy resources and geohazards. The fieldcourse provides "handson" experience of the various techniques and applications, adding on valuable practical skills. This module is highly valued by employers in industry; guest industrial lecturers will cover the current 'stateoftheart' applications in real world situations. Students doing this module are normally expected to have a good mathematical ability, notably in calculus and algebra before taking this module (ENV4002Y Mathematics for Scientists A or equivalent). RESIDENTIAL FIELDCOURSE: There will be a charge for attending this field course. The charge is heavily subsidised by the School, but students enrolling must understand that they will commit to paying a sum to cover attendance. As the details of many modules and field courses have changed recently. The following figures should be viewed as ballpark estimates only. If you would like firmer data please consult the module organiser closer to the field course. The cost to the student will be on the order of GBP150.

ENV5005K 
20 
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
This module considers, at a high level, various activities associated with the development of all types of computer based information systems including project management, feasibility, investigation, analysis, logical and physical design, and the links to design and implementation. Its main focus, however, is on the early stages, in particular requirements investigation and specification including the use of UML. It makes use of a number of analysis and design tools and techniques in order to produce readable system specifications. Students are introduced to a number of development methods including object orientated, soft systems, structured, participative, iterative and rapid approaches.

CMP5003A 
20 
Disclaimer
Whilst the University will make every effort to offer the modules listed, changes may sometimes be made arising from the annual monitoring, review and update of modules and regular (fiveyearly) review of course programmes. Where this activity leads to significant (but not minor) changes to programmes and their constituent modules, there will normally be prior consultation of students and others. It is also possible that the University may not be able to offer a module for reasons outside of its control, such as the illness of a member of staff or sabbatical leave. Where this is the case, the University will endeavour to inform students.Essential Information
Entry Requirements
 A Level AAA or AABB including two science subjects from list below. Science A Levels must include a Pass in the practical element.
 International Baccalaureate 34 points including two HL Science subjects at 6 from list below
 Scottish Advanced Highers AAA including two science subjects from list below
 Irish Leaving Certificate AAAAAA including two science subjects from list below
 Access Course Pass the Access to HE Diploma with Distinction in 45 credits at level 3, inc 12 level 3 credits in two science subjects from the below list
 BTEC DDD in a science related subject
 European Baccalaureate Overall 85% including 85% in two science subjects from list below
Entry Requirement
Two Alevel (or equivalent) subjects from Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics or Further Mathematics, Environmental Science or Geography or Geology, and Information and Communication Technology.
General Studies and Critical Thinking are not accepted.
You are required to have Mathematics and English Language at a minimum of Grade C or Grade 4 or above at GCSE Level.
Students for whom English is a Foreign language
We welcome applications from students from all academic backgrounds. We require evidence of proficiency in English (including writing, speaking, listening and reading). Recognised English Language qualifications include:
 IELTS : 6.5 overall (minimum 6.0 in any component)
We also accept a number of other English language tests. Please click here to see our full list.
INTO University of East Anglia
If you do not meet the academic and or English requirements for direct entry our partner, INTO University of East Anglia offers guaranteed progression on to this undergraduate degree upon successful completion of a preparation programme. Depending on your interests, and your qualifications you can take a variety of routes to this degree:
International Foundation in General Science FS1
International Foundation in Pharmacy, Biomedicine and Health FS2
International Foundation in Physical Sciences and Mathematics FS3
Interviews
Interviews are required as part of the selection process.
Gap Year
We welcome applications from students who have already taken or intend to take a gap year. We believe that a year between school and university can be of substantial benefit. You are advised to indicate your reason for wishing to defer entry and to contact admissions@uea.ac.uk directly to discuss this further.
Special Entry Requirements
Intakes
The School's annual intake is in September of each year.
Alternative Qualifications
GCSE Offer
 A Level AAA or AABB including two science subjects from list below
 International Baccalaureate 34 points including two HL 6 science subject from list below
 Scottish Highers AAAAA including two science subjects from list below
 Scottish Advanced Highers AAA including two science subjects from list below
 Irish Leaving Certificate AAAAAA including two science subjects from list below
 Access Course Pass the Access to HE Diploma with Distinction in 45 credits at level 3, inc 12 level 3 credits in two science subjects from the below list
 BTEC DDD in a science related subject
 European Baccalaureate Overall 85% including 85% in two science subjects from list below
Students for whom English is a Foreign language
We welcome applications from students from all academic backgrounds. We require evidence of proficiency in English (including writing, speaking, listening and reading). Recognised English Language qualifications include:
 IELTS (SELT) : 6.0 overall (minimum 5.5 in any component)
We also accept a number of other English language tests. Please click here to see our full list.
INTO University of East Anglia
If you do not meet the academic and or English requirements for direct entry our partner, INTO University of East Anglia offers guaranteed progression on to this undergraduate degree upon successful completion of a preparation programme. Depending on your interests, and your qualifications you can take a variety of routes to this degree:
International Foundation in General Science FS1
International Foundation in Pharmacy, Biomedicine and Health FS2
International Foundation in Physical Sciences and Mathematics FS3
Interviews
Interviews are required as part of the selection process.
Gap Year
We welcome applications from students who have already taken or intend to take a gap year, believing that a year between school and university can be of substantial benefit. You are advised to indicate your reason for wishing to defer entry and may wish to contact the appropriate Admissions Office directly to discuss this further.
Special Entry Requirements
Two Alevel (or equivalent) subjects from Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics or Further Mathematics, Environmental Science or Geography or Geology, and Information and Communication Technology.
General Studies and Critical Thinking are not accepted.
Alternative Qualifications
We encourage you to apply if you have alternative qualifications equivalent to our stated entry requirement. Please contact us for further information.
GCSE Offer
Students are required to have GCSE Mathematics and GCSE English Language at Grade C or above.
Fees and Funding
Undergraduate University Fees and Financial Support: Home and EU Students
Tuition Fees
Please see our webpage for further information on the current amount of tuition fees payable for Home and EU students and for details of the support available.
Scholarships and Bursaries
We are committed to ensuring that costs do not act as a barrier to those aspiring to come to a world leading university and have developed a funding package to reward those with excellent qualifications and assist those from lower income backgrounds.
Home/EU  The University of East Anglia offers a range of Bursaries and Scholarships. To check if you are eligible please visit
______________________________________________________________________
Undergraduate University Fees and Financial Support: International Students
Tuition Fees
Please see our webpage for further information on the current amount of tuition fees payable for International Students.
Scholarships
We offer a range of Scholarships for International Students – please see our website for further information.
How to Apply
FullTime Degrees
Applications to FullTime Undergraduate degrees at the University of East Anglia must be made through UCAS by going to www.ucas.ac.uk
UCAS Apply is a secure online application system that allows you to apply for fulltime Undergraduate courses at universities and colleges in the United Kingdom. It is made up of different sections that you need to complete. Your application does not have to be completed all at once. The system allows you to leave a section partially completed so you can return to it later and add to or edit any information you have entered. Once your application is complete, it must be sent to UCAS so that they can process it and send it to your chosen universities and colleges.
PartTime Degrees
The University of East Anglia offers some of its undergraduate degrees on a parttime basis. The application form for parttime study can be found at: http://www.uea.ac.uk/courses/parttimestudy. For further information on the parttime application process, please contact the relevant Faculty Office:
Faculty of Arts and Humanities: ug.hum.admiss@uea.ac.uk
Faculty of Science: sci.admiss@uea.ac.uk
Faculty of Health: nam.admissions@uea.ac.uk
Each year we hold a series of Open Days, where potential applicants to our Undergraduate courses can come and visit the university to learn more about the courses they are interested in, meet current students and staff and tour our campus. If you decide to apply for a course and are made an offer, you will be invited to a School specific Visit Day. Applicants may be invited for interview or audition for some courses.
For enquiries about the content of the degree or your qualifications please contact Admissions at 01603 591515 or email admissions@uea.ac.uk We can then direct your enquiry to the relevant department to assist you.
If you wish to view the courses available, view our online prospectus or order a hard copy prospectus please visit www.uea.ac.uk/courses/undergraduate
Next Steps
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