Biography

David Livermore gained his BSc in 1978 and his PhD in 1983. He worked at the London Hospital Medical College from 1980 until 1997, when he joined the Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England), becoming Director of its Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory in 1998. In October 2011, he became Professor of Medical Microbiology at UEA, but with 30% of this time supplied back to Public Health England as its Lead on Antibiotic Resistance.

Prof Livermore has broad interests on the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and its relationship to antibiotic prescribing. Beta-Lactamases are a particular interest, with recent work on the proliferation of ‘CTX-M’ extended-spectrum enzymes and carbapenemases, particularly NDM-1, which received extensive media coverage in 2010.

He sits on the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy working parties on resistance surveillance, multi-resistant pathogens and susceptibility testing and its Antibiotic Action advisory board, also on the Society for General Microbiology working group on sexually transmitted infections. He is also a member of the UK Government’s Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections Advisory Committee and has contributed extensively to the Chief Medical Offer for England’s  Annual Report for 2011. He publishes and speaks widely on resistance and has edited for several journals including Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Journal of Medical Microbiology and, currently, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents.

Outside of work, he is a keen walker, has walked the perimeter of Norfolk and almost half the English Coastline.

 

Career History

9/78 to 6/80         QC Microbiology Devt., Wellcome Foundation, Dartford, Kent

 

6/80 to 8/97         Department of Medical Microbiology, London Hospital Medical College

                            6/80-11/83    Research Assistant

                            11/83-2/87    Postdoctoral Fellow (Wellcome Trust)

                            11/85-5/86    Secondment, Lecturer, University of Hong Kong

                            2/87-12/94    Lecturer in Medical Microbiology

                            12/94-8/97    Senior Lecturer in Medical Microbiology

                              9/97-9/00    Hon Senior Lecturer

 

   9/98-10/11        Public Health England (formerly HPA), Microbiology Services

                              9/97-9/98   Head, Antibiotic Reference Unit, Colindale

                              9/98-date   Director, Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring & Reference  

                                                 Laboratory, Colindale

 

    10/11-date       Professor of Medical Microbiology, University of East Anglia (primary employer, `70% time, with 30% of this subcontracted to Public Health England )

                              Lead on Antibiotic Resistance, Public Health England Microbiology Services, Colindale

                              Visiting Professor, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

                              Honorary Professor of Medical Microbiology, Queen Mary University, London

                              Consultant on Antibiotic Resistance – advisory work for numerous diagnostic and pharmaceutical companies and potential investors

 

Academic Background

1978   BSc, (1st. Class Hons) Microbiology, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.

1983   PhD, Medical Microbiology, University of London. Thesis: Resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ?-lactam antibiotics.

2003   State-Registered Clinical Scientist, Health Professions Council (CS1358).

All Publications

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Livermore, D. M., Mushtaq, S., Warner, M., Woodford, N.

(2014)

Comparative in vitro activity of sulfametrole/trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and other agents against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

69.

pp. 1050-1056

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Shibl, A. M., Memish, Z. A., Kambal, A. M., Ohaly, Y. A., Ishaq, A., Senok, A. C., Livermore, D. M.

(2014)

National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive bacteria in Saudi Arabia

in Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)

26.

pp. 13-18

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Jain, A., Hopkins, K. L., Turton, J., Doumith, M., Hill, R., Loy, R., Meunier, D., Pike, R., Livermore, D. M., Woodford, N.

(2014)

NDM carbapenemases in the United Kingdom: an analysis of the first 250 cases

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

69.

pp. 1777-1784

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Hopkins, K. L., Mushtaq, S., Richardson, J. F., Doumith, M., De Pinna, E., Cheasty, T., Wain, J., Livermore, D. M., Woodford, N.

(2014)

In vitro activity of rifaximin against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and other enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from travellers returning to the UK

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

43.

pp. 431-437

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D. M.

(2014)

Of stewardship, motherhood and apple pie

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

43.

pp. 319-322

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D. M., Warner, M., Mushtaq, S.

(2014)

Methodological agreement on the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against cefotaxime-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

43.

pp. 131-134

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Mikulska, M., Viscoli, C., Orasch, C., Livermore, D. M., Averbuch, D., Cordonnier, C., Akova, M.

(2014)

Aetiology and resistance in bacteraemias among adult and paediatric haematology and cancer patients

in The Journal of Infection

68.

pp. 321-331

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Hernandez, V., Crepin, T., Palencia, A., Cusack, S., Akama, T., Baker, S., Bu, W., Feng, L., Freund, Y., Liu, L., Meewan, M., Mohan, M., Mao, W., Rock, F., Sexton, H., Sheoran, A., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhou, Y., Nieman, J., Anugula, M., Keramane, E., Savariraj, K., Reddy, D., Sharma, R., Subedi, R., Singh, R., O'Leary, A., Simon, N., De Marsh, P., Mushtaq, S., Warner, M., Livermore, D., Alley, M., Plattner, J.

(2013)

Discovery of a Novel Class of Boron-Based Antibacterials with Activity Against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

57.

pp. 1394-1403

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Hope, R., Chaudhry, A., Adkin, R., Livermore, D.

(2013)

In Vitro Activity of Telavancin and Comparators Against Selected Groups of Gram-positive Cocci.

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

41.

pp. 213-217

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D. M., Mushtaq, S., Morinaka, A., Ida, T., Maebashi, K., Hope, R.

(2013)

Activity of carbapenems with ME1071 (disodium 2,3-diethylmaleate) against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. with carbapenemases, including NDM enzymes

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

68.

pp. 153-158

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Yoshizumi, A., Ishii, Y., Livermore, D. M., Woodford, N., Kimura, S., Saga, T., Harada, S., Yamaguchi, K., Tateda, K.

(2013)

Efficacies of calcium-EDTA in combination with imipenem in a murine model of sepsis caused by Escherichia coli with NDM-1 β-lactamase

in Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

19.

pp. 992-5

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D., Wain, J.

(2013)

Revolutionising Bacteriology to improve treatment outcomes and antibiotic stewardship

in Infection & Chemotherapy

45.

pp. 1-10

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Drew, R., Turton, J., Hill, R., Livermore, D., Woodford, N., Paulus, S., Cunliffe, N.

(2013)

Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a UK paediatric hospital

in Journal of Hospital Infection

84.

pp. 300-304

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Hope, R., Blackburn, R. M., Verlander, N. Q., Johnson, A. P., Kearns, A., Hill, R., Hopkins, S., Sheridan, E., Livermore, D. M., Scarborough, M., Majumdar, S., Cunniffe, J., Farrington, M., Gouliouris, T., Marodi, C., Godwin, P., Tuck, A., Warren, R., Coe, P., Hassan, I., Mannion, P., Loudon, K., Youngs, E., Johnson, A., Lee, M., Weston, V., Guleri, A., Howe, R., Matthew, D., Cotterill, S., Todd, N., Patel, B., Mlangeni, D., Stockley, J. M., Spencer, R., Gardner, J., Thwaites, G., Kirby, A., Hopkins, S., Crook, D., Llewellyn, M., Price, J., Scarborough, M., Morris Jones, S., Tilley, R.

(2013)

Vancomycin MIC as a predictor of outcome in MRSA bacteraemia in the UK context

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

68.

pp. 2641-2647

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D., Hope, R., Reynolds, R., Blackburn, R., Johnson, A. P., Woodford, N.

(2013)

Declining cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among bloodstream Enterobacteriaceae from the UK: links to prescribing change?

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

68.

pp. 2667-2674

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Ison, C. A., Town, K., Obi, C., Chisholm, S., Hughes, G., Livermore, D., Lowndes, C. M.

(2013)

Decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins among gonococci: data from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) in England and Wales, 2007–2011

in The Lancet Infectious Diseases

13.

pp. 762-768

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D., Warner, M., Mushtaq, S.

(2013)

Activity of MK-7655 combined with imipenem against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

68.

pp. 2286-2290

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Livermore, D., Mushtaq, S.

(2013)

Activity of biapenem (RPX2003) combined with the boronate  -lactamase inhibitor RPX7009 against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

68.

pp. 1825-1831

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Al-Agamy, M. H., Shibl, A. M., Elkhizzi, N. A., Meunier, D., Turton, J. F., Livermore, D. M.

(2013)

Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clones with OXA-48 or NDM carbapenemases causing bacteraemias in a Riyadh hospital

in Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

76.

pp. 214-216

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


Davies, S. C., Fowler, T., Watson, J., Livermore, D. M., Walker, D.

(2013)

Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer: infection and the rise of antimicrobial resistance

in The Lancet

381.

pp. 1606-1609

Full Text UEA Repository

(Article)


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Key Research Interests

My early research centred on ?-lactamases, and I showed how an apparently weak activity could protect a bacterium if the enzyme had high affinity and the ?-lactam permeated only slowly. This led to showing that models describing the interplay of ?-lactamase and permeability were adequate for Escherichia coli but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and I contributed to work revealing that this inadequacy was because P. aeruginosa also effluxes ?-lactams. Other early work explored the induction of AmpC ?-lactamases and the selection of AmpC-derepressed mutants from AmpC-inducible populations of Enterobacter and P. aeruginosa, showing selection to be the more important factor. I have been responsible for describing and investigating the properties of many new ?-lactamases, including those conferring resistance to carbapenems – the last reserve ?-lactams against many otherwise multiresistant bacteria.

My work increasingly spread from the mechanisms of resistance to its epidemiology. At the UK Health Protection Agency (Public Health England) I led groups that demonstrated the dramatic rises in MRSA in the late 1990s, ciprofloxacin-resistant gonococci around 2002-3, carbapenemase-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from around 2003 and the recent rise in carbapenemases, partly linked to the repeated import of strains with NDM-1 enzyme via patients previously hospitalised in the Indian subcontinent.

My current major areas of research interest at UEA centre on the development of methods to rapidly detect antibiotic resistant bacteria in patient specimens. Such tests would allow the swifter optimisation of a patient’s therapy, benefitting both the individual and antibiotic stewardship – thus meeting key objectives highlighted in the Chief Medical Officer’s Annual Report for 2013.   Other areas of interest are gut carriage of resistant bacteria and the relationship between in-vitro resistance and treatment outcome, Through on-going links with Public Health England I remain deeply involved in the surveillance of antibiotic resistance, the investigation of emerging resistance types and the in-vitro evaluation of new antibiotics against these organisms.

Research Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, ?-Lactamase, Carbapenem, Antibiotic development

Research Topics for PGR Supervision: Epidemiology of antibiotic resistance, Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, Detection of antibiotic resistance

Teaching Interests

In a research career of 30 years I have lecture widely and supervised or co-supervised 15 PhD student to successful completion. I currently supervise one PhD student, working on rapid microbiological investigation of urinary tract infections and co-supervise two others, one working on the strain structure of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the UK and the other on gen expression in P, aeruginosa biofilms.

External Activities and Indicators of Esteem

  • Hon. Professor, Queen Mary, University of London, 2011-date
  • Visiting Professor, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 2011-13
  • Assistant Editor, Journal Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1987-90
  • Editorial Board, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1987-91
  • Editor, Journal of Medical Microbiology, 1991-2003
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1992-95
  • Editorial Board, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1996-date
  • Editor, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2002-date
  • Editorial Board, Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 2011-date
  • British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Working Party on Surveillance, 1997 - date
  • BSAC, Working Party on Susceptibility Testing, 1997 - date
  • Advisory Board of Asia-Pacific Research Foundation on Infectious Diseases, 1999 -date
  • Organising committee of International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance (ISAAR), 1999-date
  • UK Inter-Departmental Steering Group on ‘Resistance to Antibiotics and Other Antimicrobial Agents’, 1999-2002
  • UK Government Specialist Advisory Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (SACAR), 2000-7
  • Scientific Committee of 4th European Congress of Chemotherapy (Paris, May 2002), 2001-2
  • Scientific Committee of 7th European Congress of Chemotherapy (Florence, October 2005), 2004-5
  • European Commission Working Group on Antibiotic Resistance Genes in genetically modified organisms, 2003-4
  • National Steering on Healthcare Associated Infection, 2004-7
  • Joint British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy/Hospital Infection Society working group on extended-spectrum #03b2-lactamases, 2005-6
  • Advisor to Govt’s Antibiotic Resistance & Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) committee on new resistance development / horizon scanning, 2007-13
  • Member: UK Govt’s Antimicrobial Resistance & Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Advisory Committee, 2013-date
  • European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing expert rules sub-group, 2008-10
  • British Society for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing working party on the Urgent Need for New Antibiotics, 2009-10
  • DEFRA Antibiotic Resistance Co-ordinating group (DARC), 2010-date
  • Joint BSAC / British Infection Association / Infection Prevention Society Working Party on multiresistant pathogens, 2011-date
  • Advisory Board for British Society for Chemotherapy Antibiotic Action Initiative, 2012-date
  • Society for General Microbiology Expert Panel on Sexually Transmitted Infections2012-date
  • CMO’s working group on genomics (Science Group), 2013

Professional Activities

  • Achaogen, Consultant2008-date
  • Adenium, Scientific Advisory Board, 2013-date
  • Allecra, Scientific Advisory Board, 2013-date
  • Astellas - ad hoc advisory boards2007-date
  • AstraZeneca - ad hoc advisory boards, 2009-date
  • Bioversys, Scientific Advisory Board, 2013-date
  • Curetis - ad hoc advisory boards2012-date
  • Discuva, Scientific Advisory Board2011-date
  • GlaxoSmithKline, Consultant, 2011-date
  • Meiji, Consultant, 2011-date
  • McKinsey - ad hoc advisory boards, 2010-date
  • Roche - ad hoc advisory boards, 2012-date
  • Tetraphase, Scientific Advisory Board, 2009-date
  • Wockhardt, Global Clinical Council, 2013-date